Below are some of the great thinkers whose bold ideas have brought us closer to finding answers to humanity’s greatest mysteries.

Contents

## Scientists

- Physics
- Albert Einstein – Special and General Relativity
- John Wheeler – It from bit, participatory universe

- Jacob Bekenstein – Bekenstein bound
- Stephen Hawking – Black hole radiation
- Leonard Susskind – String theory landscape, loop quantum gravity
- Markus Müller – The origin of physical law

- Quantum Physics
- Erwin Schrödinger – Schrödinger equation
- Richard Feynman – Quantum Electrodynamics
- Hugh Everett – Many-worlds
- Heinz-Dieter Zeh – Many-minds, decoherence

- David Deutsch – Designer of the quantum computer

- Astronomy
- Carl Sagan – SETI, golden records, Arecibo transmission

- Cosmology
- Martin Rees – Fine-tuned universe
- Alan Guth – Inflation
- Andrei Linde – Eternal inflation

## Mathematicians

- Pythagoras – The world is mathematical
- Euclid – Axioms of geometry
- Georg Cantor – Different classes of infinity
- Bertrand Russell – Found and fixed flaws in set theory
- David Hilbert – Initiated program to lay foundations of mathematics
- Kurt Gödel – Proved no mathematical system is complete
- Alan Turing – Universal machines, halting problem, Turing test
- Gregory Chaitin – Algorithmic information theory
- Bruno Marchal – Discovered the many-worlds of arithmetic

## Philosophers

- Metaphysics (Ontology / Existence)
- Parmenides – Eternalism
- Plato – Platonism

- Plotinus – Neoplatonism, The One
- George Berkeley – Idealism

- David Lewis – Modal Realism
- Max Tegmark – Mathematical universe hypothesis

- Ethics
- Epicurus – Epicureanism
- David Hume – Utilitarianism
- Paul Harrison – World pantheist movement
- David Pearce – Abolitionist project, transhumanism
- Peter Singer – Effective altruism

- Philosophy of Mind (Consciousness)
- René Descartes – Dualism, mechanism

- Jerry Fodor – Modularity of mind
- Daniel Dennett – Preposterousness of zombies

- David Chalmers – The hard problem, fading qualia
- Giulio Tononi – Integrated information theory

- Personal Identity
- Arnold Zuboff – Universalism
- Daniel Kolak – Open individualism

## Theologians

- Zhuang Zhou – Taoist Philosopher
- Gautama Buddha – Founder of Buddhism
- Jinasena – Jain Philosopher
- Thomas Aquinas – Christian theology
- Fakhr al-Din al-Razi – Islamic theology
- Guru Nanak – Founder of Sikhism
- Baruch Spinoza – Rationalism
- Baháʼu’lláh – Founder of Baháʼí Faith
- Aldous Huxley – The Perennial Philosophy
- Pierre Teilhard de Chardin – The Omega Point
- Alan Watts – Scholar of Eastern religions
- Frank Tipler – The anthropic cosmological principle
- Tenzin Gyatso – Spiritual leader of Tibetan Buddhism

## Engineers

- Claude Shannon – Information theory
- Heinz von Foerster – Cybernetics
- Marvin Minsky – AI, cognitive science
- Eric Drexler – Nanotechnology
- Danny Hillis – Recursive computer-driven improvement
- Hans Moravec – Simulation hypothesis, robotics
- Nick Bostrom – Simulation argument
- Ray Kurzweil – Law of accelerating returns
- Seth Lloyd – Physical limits of computation
- Jürgen Schmidhuber – AI Pioneer
- John Koza – The invention machine
- Russell Standish – Derivation of Occam’s razor
- John Smart – The transcension hypothesis

## Polymaths

- Democritus – Atomic theory, primitive evolutionary ideas
- Aristotle – Logic, materialism, ethics
- Isaac Newton – Laws of motion, gravitation, calculus
- Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz – Calculus, binary, the calculator, ontology
- John von Neumann – The computer, game theory, quantum mechanics
- Hilary Putnam – Functionalism, four-dimensionalism, MRDP-theorem
- Freeman Dyson – QED, Project Orion, Dyson Sphere
- Raymond Smullyan – Mathematician, logician, philosopher
- Roger Penrose – Math, physics, cosmology, consciousness