Why does anything exist?


Why does anything exist? Why is there something rather than nothing? Wouldn’t nothing have been so much easier?

This question has awed and mystified people throughout time.

The first question which we have a right to ask will be, “Why is there something rather than nothing?”

Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz in “The Principles of Nature and Grace, Based on Reason” (1714)

Not how the world is, is the mystical, but that it is.

Ludwig Wittgenstein in “Treatise on Logic and Philosophy” (1921)

No question is more sublime than why there is a Universe: why there is something rather than nothing.

Derek Parfit in “Why Anything? Why This?” (2008)

Martin Heidegger called this question the “fundamental question of metaphysics.” But it might as well be the fundamental question for any being — our existence poses a mystery that demands an answer.

Something, rather than nothing. Where does it all come from? Why is there anything at all?
Something, rather than nothing. Where does it all come from? Why is there anything at all?

Every society in every time has wrestled with this dilemma. It’s our most enduring question. For we all seek to know: why we are here?

Lacking an answer, we are like a ship adrift. Our ignorance on this question makes us like an amnesiac who awakens in a dark and strange place — knowing neither where we are, nor how we got here.

Some say without an answer to this question, we can’t know anything:

It is possible to think that one cannot answer any question if one cannot answer the question of why there is something rather than nothing. How can we know why something is (or should be) a certain way if we don’t know why there is anything at all? Surely this is the first philosophical question that has to be answered.

Robert Nozick in “Philosophical Explanations” (1981)

With an answer to this question we could orientate ourselves. We would know our place in reality, and understand the reason behind it all. An answer to this question would tell us not only why we exist, but also what else exists, both within the universe we see and beyond.

But can this question even be answered?

Some have suggested the answer is unknowable.

Who knows truly? Who here will declare whence it arose, whence this creation? The gods are subsequent to the creation of this. Who, then, knows whence it has come into being? Whence this creation has come into being; whether it was made or not; he in the highest heaven is its surveyor. Surely he knows, or perhaps he knows not.

The Hymn of Creation in “Rig Veda” (c. 1500 B.C.)

For most of history, the question remained beyond the possibility of being answered. But we live in a most-exciting point in time: one where this question has fallen to the progress of human knowledge.

In the past decades, results from physics, cosmology, mathematics, and computer science, have coordinated at last to solve this timeless question. We can now say, with some confidence, why we exist.

The answer we have is more than an idle philosophical speculation — it can be observationally tested and thereby be confirmed or falsified.

So far, observations are in agreement with this answer.

Let us retrace humanity’s steps in finding this answer, and see what this answer reveals about the nature of reality and our place in it.

Contents

Two Paths to Existence

One reason we find “Why does anything exist?” so difficult is that there are only two possible answers — both are repugnant to our intuition as each contradicts our commonsense understanding of the world.

Given something exists, either:

  1. Something emerged from nothing, or
  2. There are self-existent things
Did something come from nothing, or are there self-existent things?
Did something come from nothing, or are there self-existent things?

The idea that something came out of nothing is contrary to reason. How can nothingness do, nevermind create, anything?

The idea that there exist self-existent things, is contrary to experience. Everything we know appears to have a preceding cause. How could anything create itself, or exist without some creative act?

And yet, that one of these answers must be right seems inescapable. There’s no other way to reach “something exists” without either starting with something at the beginning, or starting with nothing and having something emerge from nothing.

If we seek an answer to this question we have to be willing to accept an idea contrary to our commonsense understanding of the world.

But which of these paths leads to the correct answer?

Something from Nothing?

The first of the two answers is that something emerged from nothing. But how is this possible? Does it even make sense logically?

For at least 2,500 years, humans have debated whether anything can come from nothing. The Greek philosopher Parmenides made the earliest recorded argument that “nothing comes from nothing.”

I will not permit thee to say or to think that [being] came from not-being; for it is impossible to think or to say that not-being is. What would then have stirred it into activity that [being] should arise from not-being later rather than earlier? So it is necessary that being either is absolutely or is not.

Parmenides in “The Way of the Truth” (c. 475 B.C.)

To decide whether existence emerging from nothingness is even logically possible, we need a precise definition of nothing. For instance, by ‘nothing’ do we mean no things, or do we mean absolute nothingness: no laws, structures, properties, or principles?

Defining Nothing

It might have been true that nothing ever existed: no living beings, no stars, no atoms, not even space or time. When we think about this possibility it can seem astonishing that anything exists.

Derek Parfit in “Why Anything? Why This?” (2008)

What is nothing? It seems like a straightforward question. Just keep removing things until there is nothing left.

Start with the universe as it is. Wipe away all the matter and energy. Take away all the quantum fields of the vacuum, and any virtual particles popping in and out of existence. And voilà: nothingness.

Nothingness: reality after we delete every thing out of existence.

But wait, there’s still space. It still has dimensionality, and curvature. There is still time and physical law, even if there are no particles or fields left to be governed by them. Let us delete those too.

Let’s erase the volume of space, erase time, and erase physical law.

When we say out of nothingness we do not mean out of the vacuum of physics. The vacuum of physics is loaded with geometrical structure and vacuum fluctuations and virtual pairs of particles. The Universe is already in existence when we have such a vacuum.

No, when we speak of nothingness we mean nothingness: neither structure, nor law, nor plan.

John Archibald Wheeler in “Law Without Law” (1983)

What are we left with? If we eliminate all the dimensions of space and time, we’re left with a zero-dimensional, changeless point.

But a point is still a thing. Can we delete that too?

Kinds of Nothing

So long as we operate from a theory of geometry, we can’t define nothingness as anything less than a space of zero-dimensionality.

This leaves us with a point.

If we want to eliminate the point, we need to define nothingness not as a space of zero dimensionality, but as something non-geometric. For this, we must define nothingness in terms of some other theory.

But any theory we might choose has its own notion of nothing. In other words, nothingness is theory-dependent.

TheoryNotion of Nothing
PhysicsNo energy: the vacuum
GeometryNo dimensionality: a point
Set theoryNo elements: the empty set
ArithmeticNo magnitude: zero
Information theoryNo information: zero bits

There is an unlimited number of possible theoretical systems. Does this mean there are also unlimited conceptions of nothing?

Nothing is simple. Not even Nothing.

Bruno Marchal

Might there be a true nothing — one with no laws, principles, nor any theory behind it? Or might every conception of nothing require a theory of things in order to declare that there are none of them?

Rules for Nothing

Wheeler called for absolute nothingness: “neither structure, nor law, nor plan.” But is this kind of absolute nothing achievable?

For instance, the law of identity holds that for any A, “A = A“. Without such a rule, there would be nothing to ensure that nothing stayed nothing, and didn’t later become equal to something.

For nothingness to persist, the rules of logic must apply. Further, if nothingness is the state where “zero things exist”, then the rules of arithmetic must also hold to ensure that “0 = 0” rather than “0 = 1”.

For there to remain no things requires some minimum set of laws. There might be no things as such, but the idea of no laws seems incompatible with there being and remaining no things.

In the beginning, there was only truth, logic and their relation. No possible reality can do without them.

C. W. Rietdijk in “Four-dimensional reality continued” (2018)

If there were no logic, what logic or reason ensures that nothing comes from nothing? If there were no laws, what law or principle would prohibit the spontaneous emergence of a universe?

The Trouble with Nothing

Can we define nothing in a way that suppresses all forms of existence?

That is, to not only have no things, but an absolute nothingness — a nothingness of no objects, neither abstract nor concrete, no properties, no laws, no principles, and no information content?

Or is this a fool’s errand? One that leads to a logical inconsistency and thus an impossibility? Might nothingness be, in some sense, unstable?

Perhaps nothingness, by its own nature, is am untenable situation. Image Credit: Wikimedia
Perhaps nothingness, by its own nature, is untenable. Image Credit: Wikimedia

If absolute nothingness can be shown to be an impossible dream, it will advance us on our path to discover the reason for existence. It might even reveal some self-existent or necessarily-existent thing.

Properties of Nothing

Any time we delete something from reality, we leave something else in its place. When we deleted matter, we created a vacuum. When we eliminated light, we created darkness. When we removed heat we created cold. When we deleted space, we created a point.

The idea of nothingness has not one jot more meaning than a square circle. The absence of one thing always being the presence of another — which we prefer to leave aside because it is not the thing that interests us or the thing we were expecting — suppression is never anything more than substitution, a two-sided operation which we agree to look at from one side only: so that the idea of the absolution of everything is self-destructive, inconceivable; it is a pseudo-idea, a mirage conjured by our own imagination.

Henri Bergson in “The Two Sources of Morality and Religion” (1935)

If every deletion is a substitution for something else, then a pure nothing, devoid of any properties whatever, is impossible.

Whac-A-Mole CHAMP!!!
Eliminating every thing and property from reality might be like a game of Whac-A-Mole — where each time we remove one property or thing, another pops up in its place.

So while we might succeed in removing all material things from reality, we could not remove all properties from reality.

The existence of properties appears inescapable.

Nothingness, of any kind will always have some description and properties, even when it’s just a cold, dark, empty, vacuum.

But how far can we go in eliminating properties?

For instance, if we define nothingness as the empty set from set theory, what properties would remain? Temperature has no meaning for a set.

Would any properties remain for such a nothing?

Properties of Zero

Every conception and definition of nothing contains at its heart: zero. For any conception of a thing, nothing will always be zero of them.

The vacuum: zero energy. Geometry: zero dimensionality. The empty set: zero elements. Arithmetic: zero magnitude. Information theory: zero bits.

If zero is a universal property of nothing, we must ask: what are the properties of zero? What does zero bring to the table of reality?

Zero has many properties. It’s even, it’s the additive identity, it’s the only number that’s neither positive nor negative. It’s the number of elements in the empty set and the number of even primes greater than two.

In fact, zero has more properties than we could list if we recruited all the atoms in the observable universe to serve as paper and ink. This effort is doomed because zero’s properties are infinite in number.

The universe is a very big place – these are galaxies billions of light years away.
A small patch of the observable universe. There are more properties of zero than there are atoms within all the galaxies visible in this picture (around 7.74 \times 10^{72} atoms.)

Zero’s factors couldn’t be listed, as zero has infinitely many of them. Every number evenly divides zero and hence is one of zero’s factors.

Aside from zero’s factors, we could list infinite trivial properties of zero: zero is “the difference between 1 and 1” and it’s “the difference between 2 and 2” and it’s “the difference between 3 and 3” and so on.

But there are also an infinite number of non-trivial properties of zero. Some are even beyond the understanding of today’s mathematicians. As an example, mathematicians have for centuries wondered:

are there even numbers >2 that aren’t the sum of two primes?

This question is known as Goldbach’s conjecture after Christian Goldbach who posed it in 1742. Nearly three centuries later, it remains unsolved.

Between 2000 and 2002, a $1,000,000 prize was offered to anyone who could answer this question. All this money to settle a question about a property of zero. To decide: is zero the number of exceptions to Goldbach’s rule?

We now see why “Nothing is simple. Not even nothing.” All definitions of nothing include the concept of zero. Far from being simple, zero is an object of unlimited complexity.

An Explosion of Entities

Can zero exist in isolation — completely alone from other numbers? Or do relationships between numbers make them inseparable?

Zero’s properties reference other numbers. And each of these numbers carries its own set of properties and relations to the other numbers.

Are the properties of one any less real than the properties of zero? Perhaps in a reality having no things, ‘one’ is meaningless.

In a reality containing nothing, there are no things as such — at least no material things. But in such a nothing, there is an abstract thing: zero.

Zero reflects the number of material things to count. But how many abstract things are there to count? There is at least one. The one number that exists to define the number of material things is zero.

But if we have one number and it is one thing to count, now another number exists: one. We then have zero and one together as the only numbers. But now we have two numbers. Now two exists…

This is how numbers are defined in set theory. Within set theory, each number is formed as the set of all previous sets. The process starts with the empty set (represented by { } or ∅) which contains zero things.

  • 0 = { } = ∅
  • 1 = { 0 } = {∅}
  • 2 = { 0, 1 } = { ∅, {∅} }
  • 3 = { 0, 1, 2 } = { ∅, {∅} , {∅, {∅}} }
  • 4 = { 0, 1, 2, 3 } = { ∅, {∅}, {∅, {∅}}, {∅, {∅}, {∅, {∅}}} }

It seems once a single abstract number is admitted, each next number comes to life as the count of the abstract numbers that preceded it. Is there any way to stop the proliferation of infinite abstract entities?

Once the number zero exists, the rest follow.
Once the abstract entity zero exists, do all the other numbers inevitably follow?

If zero exists by virtue of there being zero things to count, then on that basis, shouldn’t every number have the same right to exist by virtue of being the number of preceding numbers there are to count?

The existence of any number, in virtue of its properties, entails the existence of all the others i.e. a system of mathematics couldn’t exist bereft only of the number, say, 42; and the existence of any number, in virtue of the full set of its properties/structural relationships, entails the existence of every other number.

David Pearce in “Why Does Anything Exist?” (1995)

Set theory and building up numbers from the empty set are modern ideas — they appeared around the turn of the 20th century. Yet the idea of numbers giving rise to themselves goes back much farther.

The Tao gives birth to One.
One gives birth to Two.
Two gives birth to Three.
Three gives birth to all things.

Laozi in chapter 42 of “Tao Te Ching” (c. 600 B.C.)

A True Nothing

Whenever we specify or define nothing, we invoke theories and concepts which, in turn, lead to properties and abstract entities.

But what if we forgo even specifying nothing? Might this be a path to achieve absolute nothingness? A true nothing, having:

  • No things, no objects
  • No definitions, no properties
  • No abstract entities, no concepts
  • No sets, no numbers
  • No set theory, no mathematics
  • No specifications, No information

Avoiding all this we have no theories of any kind. We are left with a plain and simple, pure, unadulterated nothing at all.

But again this leads to trouble. There’s a problem with this kind of nothing — a nothing of no information is identical to everything.

We note that the collection of all possible descriptions has zero complexity, or information content. This is a consequence of algorithmic information theory, the fundamental theory of computer science. There is a mathematical equivalence between the Everything, as represented by this collection of all possible descriptions and Nothing, a state of no information.

Russell Standish in “Theory of Nothing” (2006)

At first this sounds counter-intuitive, if not outright wrong. Yet this consequence is something we intuitively understand in other contexts.

Let’s review three such cases: Unsculpted Marble, an Unsent E-mail, and the Library of Babel. Each demonstrates an equivalence between the nothing of no specification, and the everything of all possibilities.

Unsculpted Marble

Before marked by a sculptor’s chisel, a block of marble contains every figure — or at least every figure fitting the dimensions of the block.

On the left: blocks of Marble from a quarry in Carrara. On the right: Michelangelo’s Pietà

Michelangelo’s Pietà was in the block before he uncovered it. It was there with all the other figures. To bring forth the Pietà alone, required the addition of information. Michelangelo had to uniquely specify the Pietà from among the set of all possibilities.

There is a beautiful angel in that block of marble, and I am going to find it? All I have to do is to knock off the outside pieces of marble, and be very careful not to cut into the angel with my chisel. In a month or so you will see how beautiful it is.

George F. Pentecost in “The Angel in the Marble” (1883)

This specification requires adding information to the block, by way of chisel marks. It is only in the absence of this information — in the absence of any chisel marks — that all possible figures remain.

In this sense, information is subtractive rather than additive. When information specifies, it eliminates from the preexisting infinite set of possibilities. Absent such information, all possibilities remain.

An Unsent E-mail

You are at your desk, awaiting an important e-mail from your boss.

Before this message arrives you know nothing about the contents of this e-mail — you are in a state of having no information.

But there is one thing you know before the e-mail arrives: the e-mail will be one message from among the infinite set of possible e-mails.

Only after the e-mail arrives in your inbox do you learn which from among the infinite set of messages the boss chose to send you.

But consider the case where instead of sending a single e-mail, the boss sent you every possible e-mail. Would you be able to learn anything from these infinite messages about what your boss wants?

The lack of specification in the infinite set of messages is equal to the lack of specification that existed prior to receiving anything. Both states are equivalently unspecified. Therefore, both represent states of complete ignorance and a state of having zero information.

Having every message is as informative as having no message.

The Library of Babel

One of the best illustrations of the uselessness of all information comes from Jorge Luis Borges’s concept of a ‘Total Library’, described in his short story The Library of Babel.

This library is described as follows:

The universe (which others call the Library) is composed of an indefinite and perhaps infinite number of hexagonal galleries, with vast air shafts between, surrounded by very low railings. From any of the hexagons one can see, interminably, the upper and lower floors. […]

There are five shelves for each of the hexagon’s walls; each shelf contains thirty-five books of uniform format; each book is of four hundred and ten pages; each page, of forty lines, each line, of some eighty letters which are black in color. […]

This thinker observed that all the books, no matter how diverse they might be, are made up of the same elements: the space, the period, the comma, the twenty-two letters of the alphabet. He also alleged a fact which travelers have confirmed: In the vast Library there are no two identical books. From these two incontrovertible premises he deduced that the Library is total and that its shelves register all the possible combinations of the twenty-odd orthographical symbols.

Jorge Luis Borges in “The Library of Babel” (1941)

From the provided information, we can calculate the number of books in this library. This total library contains every possible 410-page book, representing every possible arrangement of 25 characters.

Each page, with 40 lines and 80 characters, contains 3,200 characters. Each book, with 410 pages, contains 410 \times \text{3,200} = \text{1,312,000} characters. With an alphabet of 25 characters, this gives 25^{\text{1,312,000}} possible books.

This number is 25 multiplied by itself over a million times. To put its magnitude in context, the number of atoms in the observable universe is only 25^{57} or 25 multiplied by itself 57 times.

The Library of Babel, containing every 410-page book, seems to go on forever.
Image Source: The Long Room pf The Old Library at Trinity College
The Library of Babel, containing every 410-page book, seems to go on forever.
Image Source: The Long Room in The Old Library at Trinity College

This library is a great treasure. For in this library we can find every book, article, poem, and novel ever written, or that could be written.

We’ll find descriptions of every scientific theory: from Newton’s Principia, to Einstein’s Relativity, to the presently unknown theory of quantum gravity. We’ll find blueprints to world-changing technologies not yet invented based on principles not yet discovered.

This library possesses the greatest works of literature: the complete works of Shakespeare, Dickens, and Tolstoy. It also has every work yet to be written: the completed Game of Thrones series, as well as the unfinished works of Tolkien, Hemingway, and Twain.

The library has the untold histories of every civilization, including civilizations now lost to time. It has the contents of every scroll burned in the fire of Alexandria. The library has biographies of every person who’s ever lived — and even biographies of those yet to be born.

What could be more valuable than this boundless trove of information, with its complete knowledge, its answers to every mystery, and its articulated solutions to every problem?

This is where the equivalence between all information and no information rears its ugly head. It renders the library worthless.

There are issues with this library. To start, for every valid theory, technology, history, and biography in the library, there are countless others that are subtly wrong, inaccurate, or utterly bogus.

Worse, finding any book with more than a few grammatically sensible words is next to impossible. Most books are pure gibberish (or babble) — indistinguishable from random sequences of characters.

A typical page from a book in the Library of Babel is pure gibberish. Here, English-sounding words are highlighted, but are no more frequent than random chance predicts.
A typical page from a book in the Library of Babel. Here, English-sounding words are highlighted, but these are no more frequent than random chance predicts.

Perhaps all hope is not lost. Since this library contains every possible book, surely this library contains books that serve as indexes to find all the other meaningful and sensible books in the library.

But this dream is also impossible.

Given the number of books, it’s impossible to uniquely reference any other book with a descriptor shorter than the length of the book. Thus it takes all 410 pages to reference a specific book in this library.

Due to its completeness, the library itself is the most compact catalog of all the books in the library. In other words, a card-catalog of the library would be the library itself.
Due to its completeness, the library itself is the most compact catalog of all the books in the library. In other words, a card-catalog of the library would be the library itself.

What if we organize the books somehow, such as by sorting them in alphabetical order? Then finding any particular book would be easy.

This too suffers from a pathological breakdown.

While this makes it easy to find any particular book, the difficulty shifts from finding the book to deciding which book we want to find.

This is a consequence of the library having every possible book. As one seeks a book of interest, one is faced with 25 choices: to choose which of the 25 characters is next in the content of the book we seek.

During the search, the seeker must choose each next letter, and must do this for all 1,312,000 characters in the book. Thus, finding a book in this library is as difficult as writing the book in the first place!

In a way, we already have access to this library — as we are already free to put down any sequence of characters we want, and thus “find” a book that is already present somewhere in this total library.

Thus, this library provides no new knowledge or information. Its set of all books is as helpful to us as if it had no books. And so a total library offers nothing. It’s equivalent to having no information at all.

You can explore this frustrating enigma of the Library of Babel. Jonathan Basile created an online version at libraryofbabel.info.

Everything From Nothing?

Information theory reveals the equivalence between the totality of all information and the nothingness of zero information. Both lack any specification. Both are completely uninformative. Both contain within them the complete and infinite set of every possibility.

We’ve seen this equivalence first-hand. We saw it in the unsculpted block of marble, in the unsent e-mail, and in the Library of Babel.

So is a nothing of no specification, a nothing or an everything?

Less Information, More Reality

How much information is in the Library of Babel?

To determine this, we need only consider what is the shortest description that can generate the content of the library.

For instance:

A library containing one of each possible 410-page book with 3,200 characters per page and a fixed alphabet of 25 characters.

The preceding description for the library is 125 characters long. There could be shorter descriptions, but this sets an upper-bound for the information content of the Library of Babel.

It takes next to no information to describe the vast Library of Babel. Paradoxically, there’s more information in a single page from a single book in the Library, than in the entire library itself!

How could this be? How can there be less information in the library as a whole than there is in a single book or page from the library?

This is a consequence of algorithmic information theory, which includes the science of data compression. It reveals that it is simpler (in terms of needing a shorter description) to generate every book in the library than it is to generate only a single book, or a single page of a book in the library.

A shorter, less specific, and more general description casts a wider net:

Thing SpecifiedRequired Information
A single book1,312,000 characters
The Library of Babel125 characters
“All possible books”18 characters

The description “All possible books” needs fewer characters than the description of the Library of Babel, but it defines a much larger set of books, in fact, it defines an infinite set of books, of all possible lengths and character sets. The Library of Babel, though vast, was still finite.

Might the same apply to our universe and reality?

To describe one universe like ours requires a vast amount of information. It requires specifying not only the physical laws, but also the position, direction, and speed of every particle in the universe.

This is estimated to require on the order of 10^{90} bits.

Yet to specify every possible universe of our kind — a multiverse of every possible arrangement of particles ruled by our laws of physics — needs much less information.

Such a multiverse requires only the information to define the physical laws, particle types, fundamental forces and constants of nature.

This can be done in just a few pages of equations.

The great equations of physics which define the rules of our universe fit on a few pages.
Image Credit: Max Tegmark

Describing our specific universe is like describing a specific book from the Library of Babel. It needs more information than the library itself.

In theories such as the string theory landscape, the constants of nature are not specified by the theory, leading to an even greater multiverse consisting of every possible universe having every set of possible values for the constants of nature (e.g. different values for things like the electron mass and the strength of electromagnetism).

There are reasons to suspect this, or something like it is true. For one, it explains why laws of physics and constants of nature appear fine-tuned for the emergence of life. (See: “Was the universe made for life?“)

This description of a “string theory landscape” needs less information. It might save a page by not having to include the 30 some odd constants of nature. And yet, it describes a vastly larger multiverse.

Thing SpecifiedRequired Information
Observable Universe
Particle velocities
Physical constants
Physical equations
10^{90} bits
~10^{85} pages
Quantum Multiverse
Physical constants
Physical equations
\approx \text{144,000} bits
~6 pages
String Theory Landscape
Physical equations
\approx \text{120,000} bits
~5 pages
All physical possibility?0 bits

What happens when the length of reality’s description goes to zero?

This would leave the equations themselves unspecified — implying an even greater multiverse. This multiverse includes universes not just of every arrangement of matter, nor universes of every set of constants, but universes ruled by every kind of physical equations.

If all possible string vacua, space-time geometries, masses of elementary particles and interaction strengths, and (by)laws of physics are realized, then all possible descriptions are satisfied. This is equivalent to zero information.

David Pearce in “Why Does Anything Exist?” (1995)

Thus, to specify all possible physical laws, all possible physical constants, for all possible universes, needs no information at all.

Might we inhabit such a nothing?

This is the thesis of Russell Standish’s 2006 book Theory of Nothing.

Standish believes our universe, with its seemingly vast quantity of information, is something like a book in the Library of Babel. We would then be denizens of nothing, occupying a place within a total reality which altogether amounts to zero information.

Such a reality — one of zero information — is the simplest state of existence. It’s simpler than an empty vacuum or a geometrical point, as these both need a non-zero amount of information to describe.

Necessary Existence

We’ve attempted but frustratingly failed to define a true nothing.

When we tried to specify a nothing, whether as a vacuum, a point, or an empty set, we inevitably invoke properties, abstract entities, the number zero and the infinitude of numbers and their relationships.

Furthermore, this specification is not an absolute nothing as it requires reality to have a nonzero amount of information to specify it.

Alternatively, if we attempt a nothing of zero information and zero specification we get a total reality containing all possibility. Neither approach succeeds in bringing about absolute nothingness.

Moreover, these approaches rely upon and assume the validity of logical principles and consistency. No reality, not even a nothing, appears possible without laws and principles of logic.

And so the goal of the philosopher’s nothing, the “neither structure, nor law, nor plan” kind of true nothing at all, seems an impossible dream.

The nothings we attempt break down and lead to somethings.

  • With no structure, there are zero structures, this introduces zero and with it the structure of all numbers and their interrelations.
  • With no law, there are no restrictions on what can or cannot exist nor any law to prevent things spontaneously popping into existence.
  • With no plan, there is no information, which is equivalent to a totality.
Inspired by his discovery of binary numbers, Leibniz wrote to the Duke of Brunswick in 1679 suggesting a design for a coin. He titled it “Imago Creationis” (The Image of Creation).

The motto reads:

“Omnibus ex nihil ducendis sufficit unum”
For producing everything out of nothing, one principal is enough.

Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz in “letter to Duke” (1679)

If a true and absolute nothing is impossible or unstable, does this mean there must be self-creating or self-existent things? Can a thing exist out of logical necessity, because its absence is impossible?

What might the nature of such things be?

A Self-Existent Thing?

If something did not emerge out of nothing, then there’s only one other possibility: that there is something that has always existed.

In other words, nothingness is not the default state of reality.

It is extraordinary that there should exist anything at all. Surely the most natural state of affairs is simply nothing: no universe, no God, nothing. But there is something.

Richard Swinburne in “Is There a God?” (1996)

Given that something exists, it either came from nothing or else something has existed from the beginning. The existence of this thing is somehow necessary. It existed without any preceding cause.

This, we also find contrary to intuition. It’s strange because everything we are familiar with can trace its existence to some earlier cause:

Manufactured things are made by people, or by machines that were made by people. Life comes from other life. Things not created by humans or other life, like rivers and mountains are created by natural forces acting on matter. It seems to defy reason for a thing to exist without a cause. And yet, we know the universe exists.

The universe either came from some preceding cause, or else the universe has always existed, is self-existent, or self-creating.

There is no third option. If the universe is not the end of this causal chain, then something else is. Therefore we must accept some things are self-creating (come out of nothing) or are self-existent.

Let’s call such a thing causeless.

Existing without Cause

Take anything that exists: the chair you’re sitting in, your conscious thoughts, the Eiffel tower. For the purposes of the reasoning, it doesn’t matter what thing we start with.

Given that this thing exists, there are two possibilities: either that thing was caused or it was not caused. If a thing has no cause, then it is causeless. Otherwise, the thing has a cause and its existence is owed to some other thing. If we follow the chain of causality back towards an ultimate root cause, there are three possibilities:

  1. First Cause: The chain of causality comes to an end in a ‘first cause
  2. Infinite Regression: The chain of causality continues forever
  3. Causal Loop: The chain of causality forms a closed cycle, or a loop

These represent all possibilities. The trace either ends (a first cause) or it continues forever. If it continues forever it forms an infinite chain that’s either open (an infinite regression) or closed (a causal loop).

In all three cases we find something that has always existed: either the first cause, the infinite chain itself, or the causal loop itself. This thing, which has always existed, we can describe as causeless.

First Cause

If when tracing back through the series of causes we happen upon something causeless, then our existence results from a first cause.

According to some models, the Big Bang may represent a first cause.

Leading cosmological theories, such as the big bang and cosmic inflation posit that the universe is not infinitely old, but rather underwent an abrupt event where it came into existence.

That our universe has a point that may be marked as a beginning leaves open the possibility that there is a preceding cause for our universe. Another possibility is that the universe is its own cause, emerging as a random quantum fluctuation allowed by laws of physics.

 Michelangelo’sThe Creation of Adam” (1512)

Many religions speak of the first cause as a divine act of creation. In such a case God would be the first cause. Yet some other non-theistic object could as well be responsible for our existence.

If the universe is not eternal, we should look for some reason for the sudden appearance of the universe: to explain how it could arise by itself, be self-existent, or be the product of some prior cause.

Infinite Regression

If our universe has an eternal history, or if it belongs to a reality having an eternal history, then we exist due to an infinite regression.

Before the Big Bang 7: An Eternal Cyclic Universe, CCC revisited & Twistor Theory
According to conformal cyclic cosmology, the big bang is one among an infinite succession.

A number of scientific theories propose that our universe is eternal.

Prior to wide acceptance of the big bang, the steady-state model was popular. It proposed that the universe is eternally expanding with new matter perpetually created to fill the void in the newly made space.

Since the acceptance of the big bang, various new models suppose that the big bang is itself part of an eternal succession of big bangs.

Roger Penrose’s conformal cyclic cosmology supposes that the heat death of our universe could appear as a new big bang in the next ‘aeon’.

Lee Smolin proposed cosmological natural selection wherein a new universe spawns every time a black hole forms. Accordingly, if the laws mutate, he suggests that universes might even ‘evolve’ towards having laws that maximize the production of black holes.

Sean Carroll notes that the equations of quantum mechanics, unlike those of general relativity, permit physicists to calculate eternally into the past or future. With a theory of quantum gravity, we could in principle predict backwards to times preceding the big bang.

The Schrödinger equation has an immediate, profound consequence: almost all quantum states evolve eternally toward both the past and the future. Unlike classical models such as spacetime in general relativity, which can hit singularities beyond which evolution cannot be extended, quantum evolution is very simple. […] If this setup describes the real world, there is no beginning nor end to time.

Sean Carroll in “Why Is There Something, Rather Than Nothing?” (2018)
According to ancient legends, the world rests on the back of a Cosmic Turtle. When asked what the Cosmic Turtle rests on, a common response is, “It is turtles all the way down” — an infinite regression.

If an infinite regression is true, there is no ultimate cause. However, we might still look for an ultimate explanation for the chain of causes.

Causal Loop

It might be that our existence is part of an infinite series, but one that repeats forever. If true, we are stuck in a never ending causal loop.

The hypothesized Big Bounce is an example of a cyclic cosmology.

In 1922, Alexander Friedmann applied Einstein’s equations of general relativity to the universe as a whole. He found that for certain values of the density of the universe and the cosmological constant, the universe will expand for a period of time, slow down, and eventually recollapse.

In his 1923 book, The World as Space and Time, Friedmann speculates that the collapse (or Big Crunch) could rebound (in a Big Bounce), causing a new Big Bang. The process could repeat forever.

The idea of a cyclic cosmology has appealed to many scientists, including Georges Lemaître, Richard Tolman, George Gamow, William Bonnor, Herman Zanstra and Robert Dicke, among others.

We can now ask ourselves two important questions: why was our universe in such a highly compressed state, and why did it start expanding? The simplest and mathematically most consistent, way of answering these questions would be to say that the Big Squeeze which took place in the early history of our universe was the result of a collapse which took place at a still earlier era, and that the present expansion is simply an “elastic” rebound which started as soon as the maximum permissible squeezing density was reached.

George Gamow in “The Creation of the Universe” (1952)

Cyclical cosmologies can be found in many religions. For example, there is the concept of the Wheel of Time in the Dharmic religions.

The Nataraja depicts cycles of creation and destruction. Image Credit: Wikipedia

The most elegant and sublime of these is a representation of the creation of the universe at the beginning of each cosmic cycle, a motif known as the cosmic dance of Shiva.

The god, called in this manifestation Nataraja, the Dance King, has four hands. In the upper right hand is a drum whose sound is the sound of creation. In the upper left hand is a tongue of flame, a reminder that the universe, now newly created, will billions of years from now be utterly destroyed.

Carl Sagan in “Cosmos” (1980)

But cyclic models, lacking observational evidence and theoretical support, remained on the periphery of cosmology.

In 1998, observations revealed the expansion of the universe was not slowing, but accelerating. This seems to rule out a future collapse.

The driver of this acceleration, dark energy, remains little understood. If it is constant, the expansion will continue forever. But in some theories, it varies with time and so a later collapse may be possible.

Cyclic models have seen a revival. In 2001, Justin Khoury, Burt Ovrut, Paul Steinhard and Neil Turok proposed the ekpyrotic universe.

This idea marries string theory and cosmology to give a model where periodic brane collisions trigger cycles of Big Bangs and Big Crunches.

If our universe is part of a causal loop, no beginning or end is identifiable. But what got it started? Did one of the succession of states spring forth out of nothing, or might the loop have always existed?

The Nature of Uncaused Things

Given that reality exists, we know there must be an entity that is causeless. What is it about causeless entities that makes them existent?

If a first cause, how did it bring itself into existence? If an infinite regression or causal loop, how did it come into being?

Might it exist out of logical necessity? Or is it a result of chance? Or might it exist simply because it can exist, and nothing forbids it?

Tracing causes backwards can tell us where the previous state came from, but it won’t answer where the chain or loop itself came from.

Some believe that, if all events were caused by earlier events, everything would be explained. That, however, is not so. Even an infinite series of events cannot explain itself. We could ask why this series occurred, rather than some other series, or no series.

Derek Parfit in “Why Anything? Why This?” (2008)

What we are looking for is not a cause, but a reason — an explanation.

For in the cases of the loops or infinite regression, we can always find an earlier cause, but may never reach a satisfactory reason.

For the question to be properly, fully answered, we need a sufficient reason that has no need of any further reason—a ‘Because’ that doesn’t throw up a further ‘Why?’—and this must lie outside the series of contingent things, and must be found in a substance which is the cause of the entire series. It must be something that exists necessarily, carrying the reason for its existence within itself; only that can give us a sufficient reason at which we can stop, having no further Why?-question taking us from this being to something else.

Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz in “The Principles of Nature and Grace, Based on Reason” (1714)

If we seek a final ‘Because’ that puts an end to any further ‘Whys’, we must find something that we can show must exist. Not only must this thing exist, but we must also show how this thing can account for the reality we experience — only then will we have succeeded in our quest.

Candidates for Self-Existence

Throughout history, philosophers, scientists and religions have suggested candidates for self-existence.

These causeless entities generally fall into one of seven categories:

  1. Logic
  2. Truth
  3. Numbers
  4. Possibility
  5. The Universe
  6. A Higher Plane
  7. Consciousness

Let’s review each candidate and its merits for self-existence. Afterwards, we will consider whether that entity could further serve as an ultimate explanation: a self-existent starting point from which the rest of reality emerges as a direct consequence of that thing.

Logic

Is logic self-existent? Can logic explain why does anything exist?

Some suppose rational principles, like the laws of logic, are self-existent. Unlike physical laws, logical laws have an air of inevitability to them.

These are laws such as:

These are laws that seem inevitable, and necessary in any reality, as it’s hard to imagine any reality where logical laws would not hold.

If logical laws apply in all universes and all possible realities, they represent universal laws, applying everywhere and to everything.

If we can say laws of physics exist because all matter in our universe adheres to physical laws, then could we say laws of logic exist, because all things in all possible realities adhere to these logical laws?

If so, then laws of logic are self-existent. They are necessary even in a reality of no things, as logical laws ensure “nothing = nothing”.

If I ask myself why bodies or minds exist rather than nothing, I find no answer; but that a logical principle, such as A = A, should have the power of creating itself, triumphing over the nought throughout eternity, seems to be natural.

Henri Bergson in “Creative Evolution” (1907)

This idea, that logical law and rational principles have eternally existed predates modern philosophers. It’s a cornerstone belief in Taoism.

There was something formless and perfect before the universe was born. It is serene. Empty. Solitary. Unchanging. Infinite. Eternally present. It is the mother of the universe.

For lack of a better name, I call it the Tao.

Laozi in chapter 25 of “Tao Te Ching” (c. 600 B.C.)

Tao translates as “the way”, “principles”, and “natural order”. A similar sentiment is expressed in Christianity. The Gospel of John begins:

In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God.

Gospel of Johnchapter 1 verse 1 (100 A.D.)

The term Word is a translation of verbum in Latin, which is a translation of logos (λόγος) in Greek. Logos has a deep and rich meaning. Aside from “word” logos also means, “reason”, “principles”, and “rational law”.

Logos is the root from which we get the word logic. It is also the origin of the suffix -logy (as in biology, geology and psychology). Where it means the principles, explanation, and story thereof.

If however he be admitted to exist apart from Matter in virtue of his character as a principle and a rational law [logos], God will be bodiless, the Creative Power bodiless.

Plotinus in “The Enneads VI.1.26” (270 A.D.)

In Chinese bibles, Logos has been translated as Tao. In this way, Both Taoist and Christian ideas suppose that the Tao/Logos (order, reason, principles, logic, rational law) exists prior to the material universe.

Truth

Is truth self-existent? Can truth explain why does anything exist?

Some believe that truth is causeless.

There seems to be some essential difference between “zero is even” and “zero is odd” — only one of them is true. Did anything make it so?

When did this statement become true? Did it require a human mind to conceive of it as being true, or has it always been true? Might this property of truth have an independent and necessary existence?

If logical laws apply universally, then any well-formed statement is either true or false. The law of noncontradiction says a statement can’t be both true and false. The law of excluded middle says a statement must be either true or false — there is no middle ground.

Thus, if logical laws apply to everything, they apply to all statements, forcing on them the objective property of being either ‘true’ or ‘false’. As Derek Parfit said, “Some truth is logically necessary when its denial leads to a contradiction.”

Accordingly, the truth that “zero is even” would exist before humans proved it. It would be true before it was first spoken. Presumably, it would be true absent a universe of things, for even in the case zero things exist, it remains true that “an even number of things exist.”

When we imagine how things would have been if nothing had ever existed, what we should imagine away are such things as living beings, stars and atoms. There would still have been various truths, such as the truth that there were no stars or atoms, or that 9 is divisible by 3. We can ask why these things would have been true. And such questions may have answers. Thus we can explain why, even if nothing had ever existed, 9 would still have been divisible by 3. There is no conceivable alternative.

Derek Parfit in “Why Anything? Why This?” (2008)

Ultimately, nothing is responsible for creating this truth. Truth exists out of its own necessity. It has always existed and could never not exist.

The idea of the primacy of truth is very old. It can be found in many religions, some of which draw an equivalence between God and Truth.

In the 3,000 year old religion of Zoroastrianism, it is said that Asha (meaning truth and order) is the divine law behind all things.

Iran, as India, presents us with a term which has had to signify first of all ‘true statement’; that this statement, because it was true, had to correspond to an objective, material reality; and that, as the discourse did, this reality must embrace all things; and, finally that one recognized in it a great cosmic principle since all things happen according to it.

Jacques Duchesne-Guillemin in “Heraclitus and Iran” (1963)

In the book of Psalms 31:5, God is called the “God of truth.” In the Qur’an, Al-Ḥaqq (meaning The Truth), is one of the 99 Names of God.

Similar ideas are found in Dharmic religions.

The Mūl Mantar (or root mantra), is the most important verse of the Sikh religion. It begins: “There is one creator, whose name is truth” and is described as timeless, beyond birth or death, and self-existent.

In the Brahma Saṁhitā, a Hindu prayer book, the primeval Lord Govinda is described as the “indivisible, infinite, limitless, truth.”

If it is possible for the human tongue to give the fullest description of God, I have come to the conclusion that God is Truth.

Mahatma Gandhi in “All Men Are Brothers” (1953)

Numbers

Are numbers self-existent? Can numbers explain why does anything exist?

Some speculate that numbers, or their relationships, are self-existent.

If truth has an independent existence, this truth includes the infinite truths describing all true relationships between the numbers.

These include arithmetical statements, such as:

  • 2 is even
  • 7 is prime
  • 1 is greater than 0
  • 2 + 2 = 4
  • n × 0 = 0
  • the square root of 9 = 3

Truths concerning the numbers are boundless.

Might this infinite truth, provide a scaffolding and structure to all the numbers? And if there is nothing more to numbers than their properties and relations, then might numbers — in some sense — really exist?

It’s been said, “math is the science we could still do if we woke up tomorrow and there was no universe.” The idea that math holds some claim to reality is known as mathematical realism, or Platonism. It’s believed by many, if not most, mathematicians.

It is an idea that many mathematicians are comfortable with. In this scheme, the truths that mathematicians seek are, in a clear sense, already “there”, and mathematical research can be compared with archaeology; the mathematicians’ job is to seek out these truths as a task of discovery rather than one of invention.

Roger Penrose in “The Big Questions: What is reality?” (2006)

But can number relations have any reality in the absence of things?

If zero things exist, it would have to be true that “0 not equal 1”, and also that “0 not equal 2”, and true that zero not equal any other number.

So even with no things, an infinite number of arithmetical relations are needed to avoid contradiction and preserve a nothing of zero things.

If all things were absent, would Two And Two Make Four be a non-reality, remaining like that until at least four things had come to exist? Presumably the answer must be No.

John A. Leslie and Robert Lawrence Kuhn in “The Mystery of Existence” (2013)

This idea that numbers have an independent existence is ancient. It can be traced to some of the earliest records of human thought. It was taught by ancient philosophers and is found in the oldest religious texts.

Taoism, for instance, sets the existence of numbers as prior to things.

The Tao gives birth to One.
One gives birth to Two.
Two gives birth to Three.
Three gives birth to all things.

Laozi in chapter 42 of “Tao Te Ching” (c. 600 B.C.)

The Greek mathematician Pythagoras taught “All things are number.

Pythagoreans applied themselves to mathematics, and were the first to develop this science; and through studying it they came to believe that its principles are the principles of everything.

Aristotle in “Metaphysics 1.985b” (c. 350 BC)

Pythagoras was the first to propose that the motions of the planets are governed by mathematical equations, which he called the harmony of the spheres. When Newton discovered his law of universal gravitation some 2,000 years later, he credited Pythagoras for the discovery.

Across times, mathematicians have described a seemingly divine connection between mathematics and reality:

Geometry, which before the origin of things was coeternal with the divine mind and is God himself (for what could there be in God which would not be God himself?), supplied God with patterns for the creation of the world, and passed over to Man along with the image of God.

Johannes Kepler in “The Harmony of the World” (1619)

From these considerations it is now wonderfully evident how a certain divine mathematics or metaphysical mechanics is employed in the very origination of things.

Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz in “On the Ultimate Origination of Things” (1697)

To all of us who hold the Christian belief that God is truth, anything that is true is a fact about God, and mathematics is a branch of theology. […]

An old Greek, a French child, and a self-taught Indian, each finds for himself the same theory of geometrical conics. The simplest and therefore the most scientific way of describing this, is that they have discovered, not created, a geometry that exists by itself eternally, the same for all, the same for teacher as for taught, the same for man as for God. The truth that is the same for man as for God is pure mathematics.

Hilda P. Hudson in “Mathematics and Eternity” (1925)

Possibility

Are possible objects self-existent? Can possible objects explain why does anything exist?

Some speculate that simply not being impossible, is sufficient for being actual. If true, then every possible object, structure, and entity exists.

What then is impossible?

At a minimum, we can say self-contradictory things. For example: square circles, married bachelors, triangles with five sides, and so on. We might also include things proven to not exist: odd numbers evenly divisible by two, a largest prime number, a sixth platonic solid.

If consistency and provability are the requirements for possibility, then possible existence is mathematical existence. As David Hilbert said, “Mathematical existence is merely freedom from contradiction.”

The idea that all possible things exist has enjoyed many names:

In 1936, Arthur Lovejoy dubbed it the principle of plenitude. In 1981, Robert Nozick named it the principle of fecundity. David Lewis, in 1986, developed it as a theory he called modal realism. In Max Tegmark’s 1998 model of multiverses, he called it the mathematical universe hypothesis. Most recently, in 2008, Derek Parfit coined the all worlds hypothesis.

If all possible objects are actual, then our universe is just one such possible structure among an infinite, and total, set of all possible structures. Anything that could happen, happens somewhere.

There are so many other worlds, in fact, that absolutely every way that a world could possibly be is a way that some world is. And as with worlds, so it is with parts of worlds. There are ever so many ways that a part of a world could be; and so many and so varied are the other worlds that absolutely every way that a part of a world could possibly be is a way that some part of some world is.

David Lewis in “On the Plurality of Worlds” (1986)

If the universe is inherently mathematical, then why was only one of the many mathematical structures singled out to describe a universe? A fundamental asymmetry appears to be built into the heart of reality.

As a way out of this conundrum, I have suggested that complete mathematical symmetry holds: that all mathematical structures exist physically as well. Every mathematical structure corresponds to a parallel universe.

Max Tegmark in “Parallel Universes” (2003)

The idea that possibility is sufficient for actuality is not new.

Arthur Lovejoy, who wrote about the history of this idea, traced it to 360 B.C. beginning with Plato’s theory of forms. Plato hypothesized a realm containing all possible forms (eternal, perfect, idealizations).

We find this idea expressed in a variety of ways throughout history.

The One is all things and not a single one of them. […] It is because there is nothing in it that all things come from it: in order that being may exist, the One is not being, but the generator of being.

Plotinus in “The Enneads V.2.1” (270 A.D.)

But to explain more distinctly how from eternal or essential metaphysical truths there arise temporal, contingent or physical truths, we must first observe that, from the very fact that there exists something rather than nothing, it follows that in possible things, or in possibility or essence itself, there is a certain need of existence, or so to speak, a claim to exist, in a word, that essence of itself tends to existence.

Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz in “On the Ultimate Origination of Things” (1697)

Others have linked God’s infinite nature to an infinite creation.

From God’s supreme power, or infinite nature, an infinite number of things—that is, all things have necessarily flowed forth in an infinite number of ways, or always flow from the same necessity; in the same way as from the nature of a triangle it follows from eternity and for eternity, that its three interior angles are equal to two right angles.

Baruch Spinoza in “Ethics” (1677)

Know thou of a truth that the worlds of God are countless in their number, and infinite in their range. None can reckon or comprehend them except God, the All-Knowing, the All-Wise.

Baháʼu’lláh in “Tablet to Vafá” (circa 1885)

It makes sense that an infinitely creative deity would create other universes, not just our own. […] For the theist, the existence of multiple universes would simply support the view that creation reflects the infinite creativity of the creator.

Robin A. Collins in “Spiritual Information” (2005)

The Universe

Is the universe self-existent? Can we explain why the universe exists?

Some say that the universe, or the physical law that enabled it to come into existence, has always existed and so is self-existent.

The reasoning is simple. If we know at least one thing is causeless, why not just presume this causeless thing is the universe itself?

I should say that the universe is just there, and that’s all.

Bertrand Russell in “Russell-Copleston debate” (1948)

Perhaps there is no reason. It simply is, and has no explanation.

Given the universe exists, we know the universe is possible. Perhaps it exists because it is possible, and nothing forbade it from existing.

But there are other tracks to follow. Perhaps we can demonstrate that the universe is self-creating. Or that it exists due to some higher law.

Modern cosmology made progress along these directions.

The theory of cosmic inflation uses general relativity to explain how a tiny quantum fluctuation can inflate into the huge universe we now see.

Inflation is radically at odds with the old dictum of Democritus and Lucretius, “Nothing can be created from nothing.” If inflation is right, everything can be created from nothing, or at least from very little. If inflation is right, the universe can properly be called the ultimate free lunch.

Alan Guth in “Inflation and the New Era of High-Precision Cosmology” (2002)

According to the laws of quantum mechanics, the quantum fluctuation that seeded our universe appeared because it was possible, emerging out of nothing but the physical laws themselves.

Is there any bound to how small the initial universe could be? […] To my surprise, I found that the tunneling probability did not vanish as the initial size approached zero. I also noticed that my calculations were greatly simplified when I allowed the initial radius of the universe to vanish. This was really crazy: what I had was a mathematical description of a universe tunneling from a zero size — from nothing! […]

And yet, the state of “nothing” cannot be identified with absolute nothingness. The tunneling is described by the laws of quantum mechanics, and thus “nothing” should be subjected to these laws. The laws of physics must have existed, even though there was no universe.

Alexander Vilenkin in “Many Worlds in One” (2006)

General relativity and quantum mechanics are the two cornerstone theories of modern physics. From them alone we can explain a self-emerging universe. Quantum mechanics shows how possible fluctuations spontaneously pop into existence. General relativity explains how such a fluctuation could expand exponentially to reach an unfathomable size. (See: “What caused the big bang?”)

But we must wonder, why these laws? What, if anything, is special about them? Who or what anointed these equations with existence?

What is it that breathes fire into the equations and makes a universe for them to describe? The usual approach of science of constructing a mathematical model cannot answer the questions of why there should be a universe for the model to describe. Why does the universe go to all the bother of existing?

Stephen Hawking in “A Brief History of Time” (1988)

The idea that the universe is uncreated, or exists due to some laws, predates the successes of modern physics and cosmology.

The ancient Greeks and Romans believed that the material of the universe has always existed, since nothing comes from nothing.

The first principle is that nothing can be created from the non-existent: for otherwise anything would be formed from anything without the need of seed.

Epicurus in “Letter to Herodotus” (c. 300 B.C.)

This matter was originally in a state of disorder (or kháos).

Before the ocean and the earth appeared — before the skies had overspread them all — the face of Nature in a vast expanse was naught but Chaos uniformly waste.

Ovid in “Metamorphoses” (8 A.D.)

It was not until a divine craftsman imposed mathematical order on this chaos that the ordered universe — the kosmos — appeared.

In religions with past-eternal cosmologies, the universe is believed to be causeless. Jainism explicitly says the universe was not created.

The doctrine that the world was created is ill advised and should be rejected. If God created the world, where was he before the creation? If you say he was transcendent then and needed no support, where is he now? How could God have made this world without any raw material? If you say that he made this first, and then the world, you are faced with an endless regression. If you declare that this raw material arose naturally you fall into another fallacy, For the whole universe might thus have been its own creator, and have arisen quite naturally.

Jinasena in “Mahapurana” (898 A.D.)

A Higher Plane

Is a higher plane self-existent? Can a higher plane explain why anything exists?

Some suppose our universe exists on account of a higher plane and that this higher plane, rather than the universe, is self-existent.

There are many conceptions of what this higher plane of reality is.

Some describe this plane as a cause of being, be it God, a creator, divine will, a first cause, or an unmoved mover. Others describe it as a source of being, the Mind of God, The One, or the Tao. Still others describe it as a ground of being, The Absolute, The All, or what Hindus call Brahman.

Not all theories of higher planes of existence need be supernatural. There are also naturalistic descriptions of higher realities.

In multiverse theories, a higher reality contains our universe among others. In brane cosmology, our universe is caused by collisions in a literal ‘higher dimension’. In the simulation hypothesis, our universe is the result of computations occurring in a more fundamental reality. (See: “Are we living in a computer simulation?”)

Though these theories deal with phenomena that are beyond the nature of our universe, and hence supernatural, evidence is accumulating for some of these higher realms.

Every experiment that brings better credence to inflationary theory brings us much closer to hints that the multiverse is real.

Andrei Linde in interview (2014)

Various theories imply that various types of parallel universes exist, so that by modus ponens, if we take any of these theories seriously, we’re forced to take seriously also some parallel universes. […] Parallel universes aren’t a theory, but predictions of certain theories.

Max Tegmark in “Are Parallel Universes Unscientific Nonsense?” (2014)

The idea of a preexistent cause, source, or ground of being, one that’s external to and beyond our universe, is as old as religion itself.

By means of the Higher Knowledge the wise behold everywhere Brahman, which otherwise cannot be seen or seized, which has no root or attributes, no eyes or ears, no hands or feet; which is eternal and omnipresent, all-pervading and extremely subtle; which is imperishable and the source of all beings.

Mundaka Upanishad I.6 (c. 800 B.C.)

In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth.

Genesis 1:1 (c. 600 B.C.)

Consciousness

Is consciousness self-existent? Can consciousness explain why does anything exist?

Some posit that consciousness is self-existent. If true, consciousness could be the cause of a universe that exists only in appearance.

The idea seems strange, but we must admit all knowledge of existence comes to us through experiences that exist in our conscious minds.

This fact hasn’t escaped the attention of scientists.

It is difficult for the matter-of-fact physicist to accept the view that the substratum of everything is of mental character. But no one can deny that mind is the first and most direct thing in our experience, and all else is remote inference.

Arthur Eddington in “The Nature of the Physical World” (1927)

I regard consciousness as fundamental. I regard matter as derivative from consciousness. We cannot get behind consciousness. Everything that we talk about, everything that we regard as existing, postulates consciousness.

Max Planck in “Interviews with Great Scientists” (1931)

The relation between mind and matter perplexes scientists to this day.

It leads to philosophical conundrums like brains in a vat, Boltzmann brains, and the simulation argument. All of which suppose that perceived reality is an illusion — a byproduct of a deluded mind.

It’s also led physicists to propose theories where conscious minds play a fundamental role in shaping reality as we see it. Physics, after all, is fundamentally about experiences. Physics is the science of predicting future observations from prior observations.

In 1970, Heinz-Dieter Zeh proposed the many-minds interpretation of quantum mechanics, which proposes that differentiation of an infinity of observer mind states explains quantum phenomena.

A many minds theory, like a many worlds theory, supposes that, associated with a sentient being at any given time, there is a multiplicity of distinct conscious points of view. But a many minds theory holds that it is these conscious points of view or ‘minds,’ rather than ‘worlds’, that are to be conceived as literally dividing or differentiating over time.

Michael Lockwood in “‘Many Minds’. Interpretations of Quantum Mechanics” (1995)

The mysterious link between consciousness and reality inspired John Wheeler’s idea of a participatory universe. As Martin Redfern described, “Many don’t agree with John Wheeler, but if he’s right then we and presumably other conscious observers throughout the universe, are the creators — or at least the minds that make the universe manifest.”

The idea that consciousness precedes the material world has a rich history. It is found across philosophies and religious traditions. Where physical reality is seen as a dream or construct of a mind or soul.

For it is the same thing that can be thought and that can be.

Parmenides in “fragment 3” (c. 475 B.C.)

A few millennia later, the philosopher George Berkeley echoed Parmenides, concluding that “to be is to be perceived.”

It is indeed widely believed that all perceptible objects — houses, mountains, rivers, and so on — really exist independently of being perceived by the understanding. But however widely and confidently this belief may be held, anyone who has the courage to challenge it will — if I’m not mistaken — see that it involves an obvious contradiction. For what are houses, mountains, rivers etc. but things we perceive by sense?

George Berkeley in “The Principles of Human Knowledge” (1710)

Hindus believe the universal mind, or world soul Atman, became the universe. Accordingly, the universe is not real, but the dream of a God under the spell of māyā — a temporary ignorance of the true reality.

Buddhists believe that the mind underlies and forms everything.

All the phenomena of existence have mind as their precursor, mind as their supreme leader, and of mind are they made.

Gautama Buddha in “The Dhammapada” (c. 500 B.C.)

The Taoist philosopher Zhuang Zhou said the world is a dream.

While he is dreaming he does not know it is a dream, and in his dream he may even try to interpret a dream. Only after he wakes does he know it was a dream. And someday there will be a great awakening when we know that this is all a great dream.

Zhuang Zhou in “Zhuangzi” (c. 300 B.C.)

Reviewing Answers

We’ve considered seven proposals for self-existent things:

  1. Logic
  2. Truth
  3. Numbers
  4. Possibility
  5. The Universe
  6. A Higher Plane
  7. Consciousness

Yet so far, none of these is satisfactory as an ultimate explanation. None stands out as a final Because that doesn’t throw up a further Why.

Abstract Entities: Logic, Truth, Numbers

First, we have abstract entities: logic, truth, and numbers. But though these things are plausibly causeless, how could they cause anything?

These things are eternal and unchanging, not to mention abstract. How can they cause anything like the huge dynamic universe we see?

So the cause of the universe must (at least causally prior to the universe’s existence) transcend space and time and therefore cannot be physical or material. But there are only two kinds of things that could fall under such a description: either an abstract object (like a number) or else a mind (a soul, a self). But abstract objects don’t stand in causal relations. This is part of what it means to be abstract. The number 7, for example, doesn’t cause anything.

William Lane Craig in “Reasonable Faith” (1994)

Possibility: Mathematical Consistency

What about all possibility? If all possible things exist, then our universe would be counted among those possible things.

But why should possible things be actual? As J. J. C. Smart remarked, “That anything should exist at all does seem to me a matter for the deepest awe.” Existence is what we seek to explain.

And there is another issue: why is our universe so simple and ordered compared to all else that exists in the space of all possibility?

Tegmark’s proposal, however, faces a formidable problem. The number of mathematical structures increases with increasing complexity, suggesting that “typical” structures should be horrendously large and cumbersome. This seems to be in conflict with the simplicity and beauty of the theories describing our world.

Alexander Vilenkin in “Many Worlds in One” (2006)

The Physical: The Universe, Physical Law

If the universe alone exists, it explains exactly what we see.

But there would be lingering questions. Why does consciousness exist? Are abstract entities real? And perhaps the biggest mystery of all: “Why should this universe, or its laws, be the only real ones?

As Lee Smolin asked, “Why do these laws, and not others, hold in our universe?” Does the existence of laws require some higher principle?

Although science may solve the problem of how the universe began, it can not answer the question: Why does the universe bother to exist? Maybe only God can answer that.

Stephen Hawking in interview (1988)

Higher Planes: God, Multiverse, Simulation

We might appeal to a higher cause to explain the universe we see.

But as J. J. C. Smart reminds us, “If we postulate God in addition to the created universe we increase the complexity of our hypothesis. We have all the complexity of the universe itself, and we have in addition the at least equal complexity of God.”

This seems true for any higher principle.

For example, if we presume our universe is the result of a simulation in a higher reality, what’s responsible for that higher reality?

Whatever our final theory of physics, we will be left facing an irreducible mystery. For perhaps there could have been nothing at all. Not even empty space, but just absolutely nothing […] If you believe God is the creator, well, why is God that way? The religious person is left with a mystery which is no less than the mystery with which science leaves us.

Steven Weinberg in “Closer to Truth: Cosmos, Consciousness, God” (2008, 2009)

The Mental: Mind, Soul, Consciousness

If consciousness is causeless, it could explain why perceptions exist.

But if reality is only a dream or illusion, why do our perceptions appear to follow along with a universe adhering to physical laws?

If it’s all an illusion, what’s the source of this illusion?

Even if everything in this universe were an illusion, there would still have to be something outside this universe that generates the illusion.

John A. Leslie and Robert Lawrence Kuhn in “The Mystery of Existence” (2013)

A Causeless Cause

What we seek, and have so far have failed to identify, is a causeless cause.

This is, something that not only has a plausibly self-existent and causeless nature, but also plausibly accounts for the reality we see.

We’ve found things that appear to be causeless: logic, truth, and numbers — but these things also appear incapable of being a cause.

Conversely, we’ve found things that could be a cause: the universe, a higher plane, and consciousness — but they don’t seem causeless.

Then there is possibility, for which we have reason to question whether it is causeless and whether it causes what we see.

CauselessCause
LogicPlausibleDoubtful
TruthPlausibleDoubtful
NumbersPlausibleDoubtful
PossibilityQuestionableQuestionable
The UniverseDoubtfulPlausible
A Higher PlaneDoubtfulPlausible
ConsciousnessDoubtfulPlausible

We find an almost inverse relation: The more plausibly something is causeless, the less plausible it seems to be the cause for what we see.

A causeless cause would provide us with a complete explanation.

It would explain both itself and the properties of observed reality. It would describe the relation between the mental and material. It would tell us why the universe exists and why it has simple, ordered laws.

To progress we need to find the connecting glue — the missing piece of the puzzle that shows either how a causeless thing accounts for the reality we see, or alternatively, why the reality we see is causeless.

Three Modes of Existence

In reviewing the seven categories of possibly causeless things, we encountered three modes of existence. Loosely speaking they are:

  • Mathematical Existence
  • Material Existence
  • Mental Existence

Mathematical existence includes: abstract entities, logic, truth, numbers, math, properties, forms, equations, relations, possibility, structures, laws, and principles. This mode might include religious concepts of divine law/will/order (Tao/Logos), the infinite indivisible truth (Asha/Govinda), and divine mathematics.

Material existence includes: matter, energy, the vacuum, spacetime, physical law, the universe, the multiverse, particles, forces, fields, and physical systems. This mode might include what religions refer to as creation, kosmos, the material plane, and māyā/illusion.

Mental existence includes: mind, consciousness, observations, perceptions, ideas, and dreams. This mode might include religious concepts of the mind of god, world soul, Atman, and souls or spirits.

What exists most fundamentally? Math, Matter, or Mind?
What is the relation between the three modes of existence: math, matter, and mind?

My viewpoint allows for three different kinds of reality: the physical, the mental and the Platonic-mathematical, with something (as yet) profoundly mysterious in the relations between the three.

Roger Penrose in “The Big Questions: What is reality?” (2006)

Math, Matter, Mind

Of the three modes of existence, does any stand out as being more fundamental than any of the others? What is their relation?

If one of these modes of existence can be shown as primary, while the others are derivative, then we might close in on a causeless cause.

A common view of physicists is that matter produces mind, and mind produces math. But even among physicists, this view isn’t universal.

The triangle suggests the circularity of the widespread view that math arises from the mind, the mind arises out of matter, and that matter can be explained in terms of math. Non-physicists should be wary of any claim that modern physics leads us to any particular resolution of this circularity, since even the sample of three theoretical physicists writing this paper hold three divergent views.

Piet Hut, Mark Alford, and Max Tegmark in “On Math, Matter, and Mind” (2006)

What is the reality of these modes of existence? Are all on equal footing? Or is one more fundamental while the others are derivative?

Materialism: Matter is Primary

Materialism is the view that matter is fundamental.

It assumes mental states are the byproduct of particular material arrangements (e.g. brains) and that mathematical objects, if they exist at all outside of minds, have no bearing on the material world.

Materialism is a popular, if not conventional, view among physicists.

Materialism can explain why our perceptions follow the patterns of physical law, but it has difficulty explaining why matter gives rise to mental states — this is the so-called hard-problem of consciousness.

Materialism also hits an explanatory dead-end trying to answer why matter exists and why it follows simple physical laws.

If eager to know the world’s structure, ask the scientists. Science, however, seems unable to answer some key questions concerning the structure. For start, why is the structure an orderly one? Why do events so often develop in fairly simple and familiar ways, leading us to talk of causal laws? […]

Then there is what can seem the biggest question of all. Science investigates the world’s structure, but why is there anything at all to be structured? Why is there a cosmos, not a blank? Why is there something rather than nothing? Science cannot answer this.

John Leslie in “A Cosmos Existing through Ethical Necessity” (2009)

Idealism: Mind is Primary

Idealism is the view that mind is fundamental.

It assumes mental states are the basis of reality, and that the matter that seems to exist, exists only as thoughts and perceptions in minds.

Idealism is expressed by Eastern religions, theologians, and mystics. But increasingly, physicists recognize they can’t so easily do away with the observer. It seems the observer plays a necessary, if not fundamental, role in any description of reality.

Consciousness cannot be accounted for in physical terms. For consciousness is absolutely fundamental. It cannot be accounted for in terms of anything else.

Erwin Schrödinger in interview (1931)

But idealism doesn’t answer everything. It doesn’t explain why minds are bound up with the patterns of matter in a material world.

We find that our perceptions obey some laws, which can be most conveniently formulated if we assume that there is some underlying reality beyond our perceptions. This model of a material world obeying laws of physics is so successful that soon we forget about our starting point and say that matter is the only reality, and perceptions are nothing but a useful tool for the description of matter. This assumption is almost as natural (and maybe as false) as our previous assumption that space is only a mathematical tool for the description of matter. We are substituting reality of our feelings by the successfully working theory of an independently existing material world. And the theory is so successful that we almost never think about its possible limitations.

Andrei Linde in “Inflation, Quantum Cosmology, and the Anthropic Principle” (2002)

Platonism: Math is Primary

Platonism is the idea that math is fundamental.

It assumes abstract objects are the most real, and that everything we see and perceive is somehow derivative from this higher existence.

Platonism is popular among philosophers and mathematicians, whose job is to study the objective properties of abstract things.

If mathematical objects form the basis of reality, it might explain why the material world is so mathematical in its form.

In a famous 1959 lecture, physicist Eugine P. Wigner argued that “the enormous usefulness of mathematics in the natural sciences is something bordering on the mysterious.” Conversely, mathematical structures have an eerily real feel to them. They satisfy a central criterion of objective existence: they are the same no matter who studies them. A theorem is true regardless of whether it is proved by a human, a computer or an intelligent dolphin. Contemplative alien civilizations would find the same mathematical structures as we have. Accordingly mathematicians commonly say that they discover mathematical structures rather than create them.

Max Tegmark in “Parallel Universes” (2003)

Where Platonism falls short is in explaining how abstract objects lead to material or mental existence. According to Leibniz, the difficulty is explaining, “how from eternal or essential metaphysical truths there arise temporal, contingent or physical truths.”

What Came First?

For each of the three modes of existence, there is an ancient school of thought holding that mode of existence as most fundamental.

The Mathematical: Plato believed that abstract entities were the most real and that the material world was derivative.

The Material: Plato’s foremost student Aristotle, disagreed, saying material substances were more real than abstract forms.

The Mental: Several centuries later, Plotinus argued that mind was more real than the material reality it perceives.

Today’s scientists, mathematicians, and philosophers seem no closer to an answer on whether math, matter, or mind came first.

  • Does mind give rise to math, or does math give rise to mind?
  • Does matter give rise to mind, or does mind give rise to matter?
  • Does math give rise to matter, or does matter give rise to math?

To unravel the mystery of existence requires that we understand the relationship between these modes of existence. Only then do we have any hope of identifying an ultimate explanation: a causeless cause.

To address the nature of reality we need to understand its connection to consciousness and mathematics.

Roger Penrose in “The Big Questions: What is reality?” (2006)

Are They One?

Various thinkers have suspected the three modes of existence to be connected and perhaps are all aspects of one ultimate reality.

Mind and Matter as One?

Modern physical experiments have revealed something inseparable between the mind and the observed physical reality.

As we penetrate into matter, nature does not show us any isolated ‘basic building blocks’, but rather appears as a complicated web of relations between the various parts of the whole. These relations always include the observer in an essential way. The human observer constitutes the final link in the chain of observational processes, and the properties of any atomic object can only be understood in terms of interaction with the observer. This means that the classical ideal of an objective description of nature is no longer valid. The Cartesian partition between the I and the world, between the observer and the observed, cannot be made when dealing with atomic matter. In atomic physics, we can never speak about nature without, at the same time, speaking about ourselves.

Fritjof Capra in “The Tao of Physics” (1975)

Aren’t we mistaken in making this separation between ‘the universe’ and ‘life and mind’? Shouldn’t we seek ways to think of them as one?

John Archibald Wheeler quoted in “Trespassing on Einstein’s Lawn” (2014)

Math and Matter as One?

Likewise, mathematicians and scientists cannot help but notice a mysterious link connecting mathematics and the physical world.

There exists, unless I am mistaken, an entire world consisting of the totality of mathematical truths, which is accessible to us only through our intelligence, just as there exists the world of physical realities; each one is independent of us, both of them divinely created and appear different only because of the weakness of our mind; but, for a more powerful intelligence, they are one and the same thing, whose synthesis is partially revealed in that marvelous correspondence between abstract mathematics on the one hand and astronomy and all branches of physics on the other.

Charles Hermite in “Eloges Académiques et Discours” (translation p. 323) (1912)

Maybe the relationships are all that exist. Maybe the world is made of math. At first that sounded nuts, but when I thought about it I had to wonder, what exactly is the other option? That the world is made of “things”? What the hell is a “thing”? It was one of those concepts that fold under the slightest interrogation. Look closely at any object and you find it’s an amalgamation of particles. But look closely at the particles and you find that they are irreducible representations of the Poincaré symmetry group―whatever that meant. The point is, particles, at bottom, look a lot like math.

Amanda Gefter in “Trespassing on Einstein’s Lawn” (2014)

All as One?

If matter and mind are two aspects of one reality, and if math and matter are likewise two aspects of one reality, then all three must be connected — all would be reflections of one underlying reality.

So how do the elements of the trinity fit together: the “phenomenological” world, the “physical” world, and the “mathematical” world? On the unargued assumption that the principle underlying ultimate reality is radically simple, it will here be conjectured that these three realms are one-and-the-same under different descriptions.

David Pearce in “Why Does Anything Exist?” (1995)

A Path to Reality

For millennia, philosophers have debated the relation between math, matter, and mind. For millennia, they’ve sought a causeless cause.

Raphael's masterpiece The School of Athens depicts philosophers at Plato's Academy (1511)
 Raphael’s masterpiece The School of Athens depicts philosophers at Plato’s Academy (1511)

Despite this, philosophy has not yielded any definitive answers.

Perhaps science can shed new light on this question. Science allows us to test and decide among competing theories. Science provides opportunities to discover the missing piece of the puzzle and explain how and why a causeless thing gives rise to the reality we see.

As it happens, discoveries in the field of mathematics in the 20th century found this missing puzzle piece. We now know a viable link between “eternal or essential metaphysical truths” and “temporal, contingent or physical truths.” We can explain how reality can emerge from self-existent, causeless truth concerning numbers and their relations.

But without hard science and observational evidence to back it up, how can we ever know if this explanation is right? How can we ever escape from the morass of inconclusive philosophy?

Fortunately, discoveries in the fields of physics and cosmology — also occurring in the 20th century — provide exactly this support. We not only have found a plausible path to reality, we have evidence for it.

20th Century Mathematics

Many consider the field of mathematics to be mostly uneventful — unchanged since Euclid defined the laws of geometry 2,300 years ago.

But at the turn of the 20th century, the field of mathematics was in a state of crisis. The field was shaken to its foundation. Math was broken, and it had to be rebuilt from scratch. During this reformation, monumental discoveries shocked and dismayed mathematicians.

In the first half of the 20th century, logicians and mathematicians discovered a provably self-existent thing. In the second half of the 20th century, they showed how — under certain assumptions — this self-existent thing could account for the reality we see.

Might this thing be our causeless cause?

Let’s see what mathematicians found, and how they came to find it.

The Foundational Crisis

At the turn of the 20th century, math was in trouble. It was undergoing what came to be called the foundational crisis of mathematics.

At the time, set theory had come to serve as the foundation of mathematics. All mathematical proofs ultimately relied on it.

But in 1899, Ernst Zermelo noticed this set theory had a fatal flaw. Zermelo told other math professors at the University of Göttingen about it, including David Hilbert, but Zermelo didn’t publish it.

In 1901, Bertrand Russell also noticed this flaw. But Russell didn’t stay quiet. He wrote a letter in 1902 to Gottlob Frege, just as his second volume on set theory was going off to the publisher.

Frege had spent decades laying the foundation of set theory. It was his life’s work. But one letter, showing one flaw, brought it all down.

Russell showed Frege’s set theory allows two contradictory statements to both be proved. This flaw is known as Russell’s paradox.

One flaw might not sound so bad, but in math it is fatal. For if in math, just one falsehood can be proved, then any falsehood can be proved.

This is known as the principle of explosion.

For example, assume mathematics had a flaw that allowed you to prove that “2 + 2 = 5”. You could use this false proof to prove anything. You could prove that the $1 in your bank account equals $1,000,000.

\def\arraystretch{1.5}
   \begin{array}{l:l}
   2 + 2 = 5                      & \text{(given)} \\ \hline
   0 = 1                            & \text{(subtract 4 from both sides)} \\ \hline
   0 = \text{999,999}     & \text{(multiply both sides by 999,999)} \\ \hline
   1 = \text{1,000,000}  & \text{(add 1 to both sides)} \\ 
\end{array}

If math allowed proofs of false statements, then contracts, commerce — even society as we know it — couldn’t function. This was the state of mathematics in 1900 — it’s no wonder it was considered a crisis.

Math was broken. It had to be fixed. It needed a rallying cry.

A Call to Action

In 1900, mathematicians from around the world gathered in Paris for the International Congress of Mathematicians.

Mathematicians from around the globe gathered in Paris in 1900.
Mathematicians from around the globe gathered in Paris in 1900.

David Hilbert, considered the greatest mathematician of his time, was invited to speak. He used the opportunity to present what he considered to be the 23 most significant open problems in mathematics.

The second of Hilbert’s problems called for a proof that the foundational rules of mathematics were free of contradictions.

This would, once and for all, put math on a solid foundation. Never again would mathematicians need worry that a new contradiction might one day surface and torpedo the whole of mathematics.

New Foundations

The collapse of Frege’s set theory and Hilbert’s call for a provably solid foundation for math served as an inspiration.

Under Hilbert’s direction, Zermelo, began work on fixing set theory.

Similarly, Bertrand Russell began work with his supervisor, Alfred North Whitehead, on a solution. Their aim was to lay a new foundation for mathematics based on a precise logic, and produce a set theory rid of paradoxes and contradictions.

It was a massive undertaking that took over a decade. It culminated in the three volume tome Principia Mathematica, published in 1910, 1912, and 1913. It was so detailed, that it famously required several hundred pages to work up to the point where it proved ‘1 + 1 = 2’.

The three volume set of Principia Mathematica, (The Principles of Mathematics), took Russell and Whitehead over a decade to write. Image Credit: Lars Tyge Nielsen
The three volume set of Principia Mathematica, (The Principles of Mathematics), took Russell and Whitehead over a decade to write. Image Credit: Lars Tyge Nielsen

Owing to its complexity and unique notation, Principia Mathematica never gained much popularity with mathematicians.

It also had a competitor.

By 1908, Zermelo developed a new set theory, consisting of just eight rules. And in 1921, it was further improved by Abraham Fraenkel. Their combined result is called Zermelo-Fraenkel set theory. It became the default foundation of mathematics, and remains so to this day.

Hilbert’s Program

Although no one had discovered contradictions in either Russell’s or Zermelo’s new foundational systems, no one had been able to prove they were free of contradictions either.

Mathematics still rested on a foundation of uncertain stability.

This led Hilbert, in 1921, to push for finding a mathematical theory that was provably consistent. And not only did he want this theory to be provably consistent, he wanted it to be provably complete.

A complete system of mathematics means any true statement can be proven within that theory. There would never be a need to add to this complete theory, as it would cover everything that mathematicians might think up in the future. It would be a final theory and the last theory any mathematician would ever need.

It was the mathematician’s equivalent of a theory of everything — where all of mathematics is derivable from one rock-solid foundation.

The effort to find this theory became known as Hilbert’s Program.

It was a noble goal. But less than a decade after launching his program, Hilbert’s dream of a final theory was shattered.

In 1930, at a conference in Königsberg, Hilbert remained confident in the eventual success of his program, proclaiming: “Wir müssen wissen. Wir werden wissen.” — “We must know. We will know.”

David Hilbert's tombstone in Göttingen. The inscription reads: "Wir mussen wissen. Wir werden wissen." Meaning "We must know. We will know." Image Credit: Wikimedia
The phrase would later be Hilbert’s epitaph. His tombstone in Göttingen is inscribed: “Wir müssen wissen. Wir werden wissen.” Image Credit: Wikimedia

Gödel’s Incompleteness Theorems

Unknown to Hilbert, his dream had already been crushed. The day before, at the very same conference, the 24-year-old Kurt Gödel presented his PhD thesis. It proved Hilbert’s dream is impossible.

At the conference Gödel presented his First Incompleteness Theorem. It showed that in any finite mathematical foundation, there will be true statements that can’t be proved in that theory.

Thus Hilbert’s dream of completeness is impossible.

The most comprehensive current formal systems are the system of Principia Mathematica (PM) on the one hand, the Zermelo-Fraenkelian axiom-system of set theory on the other hand. These two systems are so far developed that you can formalize in them all proof methods that are currently in use in mathematics, i.e. you can reduce these proof methods to a few axioms and deduction rules. Therefore, the conclusion seems plausible that these deduction rules are sufficient to decide all mathematical questions expressible in those systems. We will show that this is not true.

Kurt Gödel in “On formally undecidable propositions of Principia Mathematica and related systems I” (1931)

Gödel’s first incompleteness theorem showed there could never be a final theory that would serve mathematicians for all time.

Gödel wasn’t finished.

Shortly thereafter, he published his Second Incompleteness Theorem. This proved that no consistent theory of mathematics can ever prove itself to be consistent. The 2nd of Hilbert’s 23 problems was impossible.

This explained the failure of Zermelo in proving the consistency of his set theory. It was actually a good sign that he was unable to — had he been able to prove it consistent, it would imply that it was not.

So now, not only was completeness impossible, but it was also impossible for a theory to prove its own consistency.

This was a double whammy to Hilbert. Hilbert lived another 12 years but he never publicly acknowledged Gödel’s result. Privately, he was crushed — he didn’t want mathematics to be this way.

But others greatly admired Gödel and his achievement.

When Harvard gave Gödel an honorary degree, he was introduced as “The discoverer of the most significant mathematical truth in the century.” Some called Gödel “the greatest logician since Aristotle.” Edward Nelson called Aristotle “the greatest logician before Gödel.”

John von Neumann said, “Gödel is absolutely irreplaceable; he is the only mathematician alive about whom I would dare make this statement.”

Einstein and Gödel both worked at the Institute for Advanced Study. Near the end of his life, Einstein confided to Oskar Morgenstern that his "own work no longer meant much, that he came to the Institute merely to have the privilege of walking home with Gödel."
Einstein and Gödel both worked at the Institute for Advanced Study. Near the end of his life, Einstein confided to Oskar Morgenstern that his “own work no longer meant much, that he came to the Institute merely to have the privilege of walking home with Gödel.”

Undecidability

In 1673, Leibniz invented and later built the first digital calculator. He declared, “It is beneath the dignity of excellent men to waste their time in calculation when any peasant could do the work just as accurately with the aid of a machine.”

After he built the device, Leibniz began to wonder about the limits of what machines can calculate: was it possible to build a machine that could answer any mathematical question?

Several centuries later, David Hilbert together with Wilhelm Ackermann refined Leibniz’s question. At a conference in Berlin in 1928, they defined the Entscheidungsproblem (or decision problem).

The decision problem asks: is it possible to build a machine that can decide whether or not any mathematical question can be proved in some mathematical system?

Gödel showed that not every true statement was provable, but was there a way to decide whether or not a statement was provable?

It was an important question.

Such a method would be most useful to mathematicians. It would tell them when they ought to give up, and thereby save them from wasting their lives searching for proofs that don’t exist.

Alonzo Church got the first result on the Entscheidungsproblem. He defined a programming language, and proved certain questions about it are undecidable.

It follows that the Entscheidungsproblem is unsolvable in the case of any system of symbolic logic which is [consistent] in the sense of Gödel.

Alonzo Church in “An Unsolvable Problem of Elementary Number Theory” (1935)

The next year, Church’s student, Alan Turing, published another example of an undecidable problem — the halting problem.

Gödel has shown that there are propositions U such that neither U nor [not U] is provable. […] On the other hand, I shall show that there is no general method which tells whether a given formula U is provable.

Alan Turing in “On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem” (1936)

It was in this paper that Turing introduced the concept of a general purpose programmable computer, birthing the digital age.

The code breaking Bombe computer was devised by Alan Turing to break German codes.
The code breaking Bombe computer was devised by Alan Turing to break German codes.

Hilbert never got the answers he hoped for. We can’t prove the consistency of a mathematical foundation. We can’t prove everything that is true, and given undecidability, we can’t even be sure whether a statement has a proof or not.

And yet, despite not getting the answers he hoped for, Hilbert knew the right questions to ask. The answers produced great discoveries.

I’d like to make the outrageous claim, that has a little bit of truth, that actually all of this that’s happening now with the computer taking over the world, the digitalization of our society, of information in human society, you could say in a way is the result of a philosophical question that was raised by David Hilbert at the beginning of the century.

Gregory Chaitin in “A Century of Controversy Over the Foundations of Mathematics” (2000)

Hilbert’s 10th Problem

Of Hilbert’s 23 problems, his 10th problem asked for a general method to solve Diophantine equations. These are equations that allow only whole numbers, (no decimals or fractions), which are named after Diophantus who studied them in the 3rd century.

Given a Diophantine equation with any number of unknown quantities and with rational integral numerical coefficients: To devise a process according to which it can be determined in a finite number of operations whether the equation is solvable in rational integers.

David Hilbert in “Mathematical problems” (1902)

Deceptively simple Diophantine equations were often notoriously difficult. A famous example is the Diophantine equation:

a^n = b^n + c^n

This equation is easy when n = 1, or when n = 2. Millennia ago Pythagoras proved there were infinite solutions when n = 2.

And yet, no one had found even one solution for n \ge 3. No one knew of a cube number (a^{3}) that was the sum of two other cube numbers.

In 1673, Pierre de Fermat wrote in his notes that he had a proof that there were no solutions when n \ge 3. But no one had ever found it, nor was anyone able to rediscover a proof.

The missing proof became known as Fermat’s last theorem.

The problem went unsolved for 321 years. Until in 1994, after seven years of work, Andrew Wiles completed a 129-page proof that no whole number solutions exist when n \ge 3.

If mathematicians had a procedure to solve Diophantine equations, Andrew Wiles wouldn’t have had to spend seven years working on this problem. Instead, he could program a computer to follow the procedure and the computer would crank out a solution.

In 1970, Hilbert’s 10th problem was solved.

Solving it required 21 years of work by four mathematicians: Martin Davis, Julia Robinson, Hilary Putnam and Yuri Matijasevič.

Their proof, called the MRDP-Theorem (after their initials), gave a negative result. They proved there is no general procedure for solving Diophantine equations — and they proved it in a shocking way.

They showed an equivalence between solutions to Diophantine equations and what is computable. In other words, for any imaginable computer program, there is a Diophantine equation whose solutions equal all the outputs of that computer program.

This was so surprising that many mathematicians had difficulty believing it. It meant there is a Diophantine equation that picks chess moves like Deep Blue, and there’s a Diophantine equation that does your taxes like TurboTax, and there’s yet another Diophantine equation that does spellchecking like Microsoft Word.

For anything a computer can compute, there’s a Diophantine equation that gives the exact same answers.

But despite how surprising their result was, it was true.

And this is why there can be no general method for solving Diophantine equations: because the question of whether or not a program finishes (Turing’s halting problem) is equivalent to asking whether or not some Diophantine equation has solutions.

Since the halting problem is not generally solvable, the equivalence between Diophantine equations and computers meant Diophantine equations weren’t generally solvable either.

Yet again, what Hilbert asked for couldn’t be provided.

Hilbert’s questions probed at the heart of consistency, provability, decidability, and computability. They didn’t lead where he expected, but they did reveal deep truths about the nature of mathematics.

Universal Equations

In 1978, the mathematician James P. Jones went a step further. Just as it is possible to make a computer program that runs all other computer programs, it is also possible to make a Diophantine equation that includes all other Diophantine equations.

Matijasevič’s Theorem implies also the existence of particular undecidable diophantine equations. In fact there must exist universal diophantine equations, polynomial analogues of the universal Turing machine.

James P. Jones in “Undecidable Diophantine Equations” (1980)

Such Diophantine equations are general purpose computers: plug in the ‘program’ as one of the variables to the equation, and the solutions to the equation will be the outputs of that program.

Jones provided an example of such an equation. It is complex, but the truths concerning this single equation include all truths concerning the executions and outputs of all computer programs.

\text{In order that } x \in W_{v} \text{ it is necessary and sufficient that the} \\ \text{following equation has a solution in positive integers:}
\\ \text{}
 \\ 
(v - (((zuy)^2 + u)^2 + y))^2 + (elg^2 + \alpha - (b - xy)q^2)^2 + \\
(q - b^{5^{60}})^2 + (\lambda + q^4 - (1 +\lambda b^5))^2 + \\
(\theta + 2z - b^5)^2 + (l - (u + t \theta))^2 + (e - (y + m \theta))^2 + \\
(n - q^{16})^2 + (r - ([g + eq^3 + lq^5 + (2(e - z \lambda)(1 + xb^5 + g)^4 + \\
\lambda b^5 + \lambda b^5 q^4)q^4][n^2 - n]+ [q^3 -bl + l + \theta \lambda q^3 + \\
(b^5 - 2)q^5][n^2 - 1]))^2 +  (p - 2ws^2 r^2 n^2)^2 + \\
(p^2k^2 - k^2 + 1 - \tau^2)^2 + (4(c - ksn^2)^2 + \eta - k^2)^2 + \\
(k - (r + 1 + hp - h))^2 + (a - (wn^2 + 1)rsn^2)^2 + \\
(c - (2r + 1 + \varphi))^2 + (d - (bw + ca -2c + 4\alpha \gamma - 5 \gamma))^2 + \\
(d^2 - ((a^2 -1)c^2 + 1))^2 + (f^2 - ((a^2 - 1)i^2 c^4 + 1))^2 + \\
((d + of)^2 - (((a + f^2(d^2 - a))^2 - 1)(2r + 1 + jc)^2 + 1))^2 = 0

As [v] varies through the positive integers, the [equation] defines every recursively enumerable set. This is, to our mind, the attraction of the universal equations. At once, [this equation defines] primes, Fibonacci numbers, Lucas numbers, perfect numbers, theorems of ZF, or indeed theorems of any other axiomatizable theory.

James P. Jones in “Three Universal Representations of Recursively Enumerable Sets” (1978)

We might consider such universal equations as ‘God Equations‘ — equations whose solutions contain and include all the others.

In his 1987 book Algorithmic Information Theory, Gregory Chaitin describes one such equation: the “Exponential Diophantine Equation Computer.” It has 20,000 variables and is two hundred pages long.

This equation perfectly replicates the behavior of the LISP programming language. He describes the equation as follows:

If the LISP expression k has no value, then this equation will have no solution. If the LISP expression k has a value, then this equation will have exactly one solution. In this unique solution, n = the value of the expression k.

Gregory Chaitin in “META MATH! The Quest for Omega” (2004)

Chaitin showed that even modern day computers and programming languages have counterparts in the form of Diophantine equations.

Universal Diophantine equations are remarkable. They exist in pure arithmetic. The arithmetical relations they encode represent every program that can be computed along with all of their outputs.

Among these solutions we can find the valid proofs of every theorem in every mathematical system, every way of playing every computer game that has or will ever be invented, and simulations of every galaxy in the observable universe down to the atomic level.

Universal Diophantine equations contain in their solutions everything computable. Since known physical laws are computable, quantum-detailed simulations of every particle in the observable universe are counted among these solutions. Image Credit: Wikipedia
Universal Diophantine equations contain in their solutions everything computable. Since known physical laws are computable, quantum-detailed histories of every particle interaction in the observable universe are counted among these solutions. Image Credit: Wikipedia

Jones’s discovery of universal Diophantine equations inspired him to quote chapter 11, verse 7 of the Bhagavad Gita: “Whatever you wish can be seen all at once right here. This universal form can show you all that you now desire. Everything is here completely.”

Given that such equations include everything computable, including all physical laws and systems as well as simulations of any observer’s mind and brain — could these equations be the glue connecting eternal mathematical truths with contingent physical truths?

The Universal Dovetailer

In 1991, Bruno Marchal wrote a program he called the Universal Dovetailer — a program that generates and runs all programs.

In order to run every program without getting stuck on a program that never ends, the Universal Dovetailer interleaves, or dovetails, on the processing, doing a little bit of work on each program at a time.

The program is simple. The full program is quite short, consisting of about 300 lines of LISP code. Its pseudocode is even simpler:

for k from 0 to ∞:
    for j from 0 to k:
        for i from 0 to j:
            // Compute k steps of program i on input j

This program sequentially generates every program and runs it for every input. The longer the Universal Dovetailer runs, the more programs it generates and the more steps of each program it performs. If allowed to run forever, it runs every program there is.

The Universal Dovetailer, like a fractal, is itself simple and yet it generates infinite complexity. “For that which generates is always simpler than that which is generated.” — Plotinus in “The Enneads III.8.9” (270 A.D.)

This program, like universal Diophantine equations, contains all.

While studying the consequences of the existence of all computations, Marchal made an incredible discovery: what he describes as the “many-histories interpretation of elementary arithmetic.”

The discovery served as the basis of his 1998 PhD thesis, Computability, Physics and Cognition. This paper explains how we can explain the appearance of a multiverse given two assumptions:

  1. All computations exist
  2. Computation supports cognition

We will explain that once we adopt the computationalist hypothesis, which is a form of mechanist assumption, we have to derive from it how our belief in the physical laws can emerge from only arithmetic and classical computer science.

Bruno Marchal in “The computationalist reformulation of the mind-body problem” (2013)

Given there exist universal Diophantine equations, all computations exist as a consequence of arithmetical truth concerning them.

While there is no physical realization of the perpetual execution of the Universal Dovetailer, its complete execution exists in number theory as a consequence of arithmetical truth. There are, for instance, Diophantine equations whose solutions exactly equal all the sequentially generated states reached by the Universal Dovetailer.

So if we accept the self-existent truth of ‘2 + 2 = 4’, we must also accept truths concerning universal Diophantine equations — truths that concern all computational histories and all simulated realities.

To be sure, the existence of the UD is a logical consequence of elementary arithmetic with Church’s thesis or Turing’s thesis.

Bruno Marchal in discussion list (2019)

It therefore becomes a purely mathematical question to prove whether some Diophantine equation contains in its solutions a computational state equivalent to some person’s physical brain state.

We would then exist for the same reason that ‘2 + 2 = 4’ — as an inevitable consequence of mathematical truth. The question “Why is there anything at all?” is reduced to “Why does 2 + 2 = 4?”

A Story of Creation

We have arrived at a plausible story of creation.

We can now connect the causeless abstract entities: logic, truth, and numbers, with a viable cause for our perceptions of a physical reality.

Why does anything exist?

Because necessity requires logical laws; logical laws imply incontrovertible truth; such truth includes mathematical truth; mathematical truth defines numbers; numbers possess number relations; number relations imply equations; equations define computable relations; computable relations define all computations; all computations include algorithmically generated observers; and these observers experience apparent physical realities.

Ancient Anticipations

This account of how eternal mathematical truths could give rise to contingent physical truths depended on recent discoveries.

It required a deep understanding of modern ideas: universal equations, computers, computation, virtual reality, and simulation.

Only a century ago, we didn’t even have words for these concepts. Despite this, a few ancient thinkers gave theories for existence that are eerily similar to this modern creation story.

They postulated something primal and simple that gave rise to the numbers, and from numbers arose beings, consciousness, and matter.

2,600 years ago, Laozi wrote that numbers proceed from The Tao and that from numbers that all things are born:

The Tao gives birth to One.
One gives birth to Two.
Two gives birth to Three.
Three gives birth to all things.

Laozi in chapter 42 of “Tao Te Ching” (c. 600 B.C.)

Diogenes Laërtius was a biographer of eminent philosophers. The following is his account of 2,500-year-old Pythaogrean beliefs:

That the monad (one) was the beginning of everything. From the monad proceeds an indefinite duad (two), which is subordinate to the monad as to its cause. That from the monad and the indefinite duad proceed numbers. And from numbers signs. And from these last, lines of which plane figures consist. And from plane figures are derived solid bodies. And from solid bodies sensible bodies.

Diogenes Laërtius in “The Lives and Opinions of Eminent Philosophers” (c. 225 A.D.)

1,750 years ago, Plotinus developed neoplatonism — a rich theory concerning the relations between various levels of being.

Wikipedia describes Plotinus’s chain of being as a series of emanations: “The first emanation is Nous (Divine Mind, Logos, Order, Thought, Reason) […] From Nous proceeds the World Soul. […] From the world soul proceeds individual human souls, and finally, matter, at the lowest level of being and thus the least perfected level of the cosmos.”

The One is not a Being but the generator of Being. [V.2.1]

The greatest, later than the [One], must be the [Intellectual-Principle], and it must be the second of all existence. [V.1.6] For what emanates from the Intellectual-Principle is a Reason-Principle, a Logos. [III.2.2]

And as soon as there is differentiation, number exists. [V.1.5]
Thus Number, the primal and true, is Principle and source of actuality to the Beings. [VI.6.15]

[The Soul’s] substantial-existence comes from the Intellectual-Principle. [V.1.3] The Soul, itself a Divine Thought and possessing the Divine Thoughts, or Ideas, of all things, contains all things concentred within it. [III.6.18]

This gives the degree in which the kosmos is ensouled, not by a soul belonging to it, but by one present to it; it is mastered not master; not possessor but possessed. [IV.3.9] This one universe is all bound together in shared experience. [IV.4.32] So matter is actually a phantasm. [II.5.5]

Plotinus in “The Enneads” (270 A.D.)

1,570 years ago, Proclus wrote that mathematical existence occupies a middle ground. He said mathematical being sits between the simple reality that’s grounded in itself and the things that move about in matter.

Mathematical being necessarily belongs neither among the first nor among the last and least simple of the kinds of being, but occupies the middle ground between the partless realities—simple, incomposite, and indivisible—and divisible things characterized by every variety of composition and differentiation. The unchangeable, stable, and incontrovertible character of the propositions about it shows that it is superior to the kinds of things that move about in matter. But the discursiveness of [mathematical] procedure, in dealing with its subjects as extended, and its setting up of different prior principles for different objects—these give to mathematical being a rank below that indivisible nature that is completely grounded in itself.

Proclus in “A Commentary on the First Book of Euclid’s Elements” (c. 450 A.D.)

The Causeless Cause Found?

Could this be the answer? Could things be so simple?

In order for this explanation of existence to be correct, mathematical truth must be causeless. Mathematical existence must depend on neither human minds, nor on physical or material things.

In addition, mathematical truth must be something capable of generating observers — observers who consciously perceive their environment and which they consider as existing physically.

Ideally, this causeless cause will illuminate the relation between the mental and material, and explain why the universe obeys simple laws.

Can the theory achieve this?

Is it Causeless?

For mathematical truth to serve as a causeless cause, it must exist causelessly. Math must depend on neither minds nor matter.

Independent of Minds

Do numbers and their properties exist beyond the minds of mathematicians and their scribblings on blackboards?

Does math only exist as a product of human minds?
Does math only exist as a product of human minds?

Had Hilbert’s program succeeded, and given a mathematical theory capable of proving all true statements, then arguably, mathematics might only be that which follows from this theory. Math would then be an invention of the human mind.

But the failure of Hilbert’s program, and Gödel’s proof of the impossibility for any finite theory to define all mathematical truth, meant that mathematical truth is infinite and beyond description, and therefore cannot be a product of human minds.

[The existence of] absolutely undecidable mathematical propositions, seems to disprove the view that mathematics is only our own creation; for the creator necessarily knows all properties of his creatures, because they can’t have any others except those he has given to them. So this alternative seems to imply that mathematical objects and facts (or at least something in them) exist objectively and independently of our mental acts and decisions, that is to say, [it seems to imply] some form or other of Platonism or ‘realism’ as to the mathematical objects.

Kurt Gödel in “Some basic theorems on the foundations of mathematics and their implications p. 311″ (1951)

(See: “Is math invented or discovered?“)

Independent of Matter

The infinite nature of mathematical truth also implies an independence from matter. Our observable universe has an information capacity of 10^{120} bits. This number is large, but finite.

An artist's representation of the finite observable universe. Image Credit: Wikimedia
An artist’s representation of the finite observable universe. Image Credit: Wikimedia

Nowhere in physics, is there room to store, represent, or hold the infinite true statements of mathematics. If there are infinite primes, infinite factors of zero, infinite digits of \pi, they don’t exist physically.

If these infinite properties don’t and can’t depend on physical processes operating within a material universe, it follows that mathematical properties must exist independently of matter.

It is our firm belief that the Pythagorean theorem needs not be created, nor the fact that the circumference of a circle is 3.14… times the diameter; the laws of nature and the collection of truths, values and their interrelations are primordial and have always existed.

C. W. Rietdijk in “Four-dimensional reality continued” (2018)

Is it the Cause?

For this story to work, abstract objects: truth, numbers, equations, and so on, must play a causal role in generating reality and perceptions.

The default position of philosophers has been that abstract objects have no effects — they cause and do nothing. But we must admit that this has always been an assumption, it’s never been proven.

Although philosophers deny that abstract objects can have causal effects on concrete objects (abstract objects are often defined as causally inert), their potential, say as a collective, to be an explanatory source of ultimate reality cannot be logically excluded.

John A. Leslie and Robert Lawrence Kuhn in “The Mystery of Existence” (2013)

Recent advances in mathematics give us pause. The discovery that all computations exist as a consequence of mathematical truth, makes us wonder whether abstract mathematics is really so ineffectual.

But can mind or matter really be created by math?

The Cause of Minds

Consciousness remains one of humanity’s last great mysteries. While science has not settled the question of what consciousness is, it has progressed by developing a testable theory of consciousness.

In the 1600s, thinkers such as René Descartes and Thomas Hobbes advanced the idea of mechanism — the theory that our brains and bodies are machines that operate according to mechanical rules.

In 1936, the discovery of universal machines (or computers) led to the Church-Turing thesis, which says the behavior of any finite machine can be perfectly replicated by an appropriately programmed computer.

This is their special power. It is what makes computers so useful.

Without changing your computer's hardware, it is able to run any one of the millions of applications available to it, including applications not yet developed or conceived of. Each new application provides the computer with new functionality and behaviors.
Without changing your computer’s hardware, it is able to run any one of the millions of applications available to it, including applications not yet developed or conceived of. Each new application provides the computer with new functionality and behaviors.

Some were quick to recognize the implications of the Church-Turing thesis for theories of minds, brains, and consciousness.

The two fathers of computing, Alan Turing and John von Neumann, noticed parallels between computers and the mind. In 1948, Turing wrote the first chess playing program and in his 1950 paper Computing Machinery and Intelligence, Turing asked, “Can machines think?”

The last work of John von Neumann was a lecture series: The Computer and the Brain, published posthumously in 1958. In it von Neumann explains that it is not that the brain acts like a computer, but that computers are so varied in what they can do, that they can be set up to imitate any machine — presumably even the human brain.

The important result of Turing’s is that in this way the first [universal] machine can be caused to imitate the behavior of any other machine.

John von Neumann in “The Computer and the Brain” (1958)

In the 1960s and 1970s, philosophers of mind including Hilary Putnam and his student Jerry Fodor developed what they called functionalism. In its digital form, functionalism is known as the Computational Theory of Mind (or computationalism). This is the idea that function, or computation, is the foundation of consciousness.

The computational theory of mind remains as the most popular theory for consciousness among scientists and philosophers.

Computationalism, or digital mechanism, or simply mechanism, is [a] hypothesis in the cognitive science according to which we can be emulated by a computer without changing our private subjective feeling.

Bruno Marchal in “The computationalist reformulation of the mind-body problem” (2013)

If the computational theory of mind is true, then mathematics can explain where observers come from. Observers would be found among the infinite computational histories within arithmetical truth. (See: “What is consciousness?” and “Can a machine be conscious?“)

Recent discoveries in physics lend support to computationalism.

In 1981, Jacob Bekenstein discovered a physical limit now known as the Bekenstein bound. This bound says that a physical system of finite mass and volume can contain, at most, a finite amount of information. This applies to any finite physical system: a brain, the Earth, the Solar System, our galaxy, or the observable universe.

Given that the observable universe has a finite mass and volume, it follows by the Bekenstein bound that it has a finite description.

Given that it has a finite description, it follows by the Church-Turing thesis that the evolution of the observable universe is something that is perfectly replicated by a certain computer program.

This program contains a version of you, me, the Earth and everyone and everything present in our universe. Our shared histories and memories would be identical. But the question remains: are these computational doppelgängers conscious like we are?

If we inspected the contents of this computer program, we would find analogues of all the objects of our own universe. We would find the same books, articles, and movies. Among these we would even find many works on the mysterious nature of consciousness.

Here are books on consciousness found in our observable universe. These same books will also appear in a purely computational version of our universe – written by computational authors – who apparently are just as baffled by their conscious experiences as we are.
Here are books on consciousness found in our observable universe. These same books will also appear in a purely computational version of our universe — written by computational authors — who apparently are just as baffled by their conscious experiences as we are.

If these purely computational versions of us are not conscious, what drives them to write and read books about consciousness?

If, on the other hand, they are just as conscious as we are, then the idea of a separately existing physical reality becomes redundant. In that case, for all we know, we are these computational versions!

We would then exist as pure computations. We would inhabit the computational histories of simulated realities that exist only as a consequence of mathematical truth concerning universal equations.

Every imaginable computation is realized in arithmetic as true relations about these universal equations. This includes the computations that describe you, your environment, and even the evolving state of your brain as it processes this very sentence.

If computationalism is right, this is who we are.

We’ll explore the fascinating relations between computation, mathematics, physics and mind, and explore a crazy-sounding belief of mine that our physical world not only is described by mathematics, but that it is mathematics, making us self-aware parts of a giant mathematical object.

Max Tegmark in “Our Mathematical Universe” (2014)
The Cause of Matter

Can mathematical truth, with its inherent infinite collection of computational histories, explain matter, physical laws and universes?

Concretely existing things. Bricks, stones, houses, matter, planets, universes.
Concretely existing things. Bricks, stones, houses, matter, planets, universes.

How can abstract things, like truth, numbers, computations, give rise to concrete things like chairs, bricks, and houses?

What’s the difference between abstract existence vs. concrete existence?

Some say the difference is only a matter of perspective. To a being who inhabits an abstract object, (be it an abstract mathematical object or abstractly existing computation), it seems concrete to them.

This equivalence between physical and mathematical existence means that if a mathematical structure contains a [self-aware substructure], it will perceive itself as existing in a physically real world, just as we do.

Max Tegmark in “The Mathematical Universe” (2007)

The relative aspect of concrete existence, is explicit in Markus Müller’s definition of physical existence:

Given two objects A and B, we say that they [physically exist] for each other if and only if, under certain auxiliary conditions, modifying the state of A will affect the state of B, and vice versa.

Markus Müller in “Could the physical world be emergent instead of fundamental, and why should we ask?” (2017)

Whenever a conscious observer experiences or interacts with another object, that object appears concrete to that observer — even if, from another point of view, both that observer and object seem abstract.

Of the modes of existence, this understanding implies mind over matter.

Math produces an infinity of conscious minds, and the perceptions of these minds include experiences of material realities.

It is not matter that produces mind and mind that produces math, but the reverse.

Computationalism, together with the mathematical existence of all computations, leads to a causal reversal between mind and matter.

What results is not a primitive matter with consciousness emerging from its organisation but the reverse: consciousness is now the more primitive and matter, or rather the appearance of material organisation, emerges from all the possible experiences of all the possible consciousnesses.

Bruno Marchal in “The Amoeba’s Secret” (2014)

Matter is then, as Plotinus supposed, a phantasm.

Is This Testable?

This is a big pill to swallow. Are we to take as serious the idea that we live inside an equation? And this equation somehow produces all computations by virtue of its solutions? And that the whole physical universe is just some kind of shared hallucination?

Extraordinary claims require extraordinary evidence.

Unless there is a way to test and either confirm or falsify this theory, we are not operating in the realm of science, but fantasy.

Fortunately, there is a way to test this theory.

Due to the fact that not all programs appear with equal frequency, a particular bias should appear in the resulting computational histories.

We can then check for this bias by comparing our observations of the character of physical law and the properties of our universe against the predictions made by the theory.

Not all predictions of a theory are necessarily testable, but the more predictions of a theory we test and confirm, the more our confidence in that theory grows.

If our observations match the predictions, we gain evidence in support of the theory. If they don’t match, we rule the theory out.

This is how all theories are tested.

Algorithmic Information Theory

The reason not all programs occur with equal frequency is due to a consequence of algorithmic information theory (or AIT).

This field was developed by Ray Solomonoff, Andrey Kolmogorov and Gregory Chaitin, starting in the 1960s.

Chaitin says, “AIT is the result of putting Shannon’s information theory and Turing’s computability theory into a cocktail shaker and shaking vigorously. The basic idea is to measure the complexity of an object by the size in bits of the smallest program for computing it.”

Across the infinite programs executed by universal equations, some programs exhibit identical behavior. This is because the program’s code may instruct it to read only a fraction of its total available code.

Above we see bit-strings representing programs executed by universal equations. The bold digits represent bits read by the program. Highlighted in blue, are two different bit strings, which nonetheless result in identical program behavior, since the bits read are identical.

Programs that complete are naturally self-delimiting. They define their own length by virtue of reading only a finite number of bits.

Above we see two equivalent programs highlighted in blue, both of these programs are defined by the same 9-bit prefix.

Given that this program length is 9 bits, we can calculate that this program should appear once every 2^{9} (or 512) bit strings. Self-delimited 10-bit programs would be half as common, appearing once every 2^{10} (or 1,024) programs. Conversely, 8-bit programs are twice as common as 9-bit ones.

We can use this consequence of algorithmic information theory to make several predictions about the character of physical law.

The main point is that the derivation is constructive, and it provides the technical means to derive physics from arithmetic, and this will make the computationalist hypothesis empirically testable, and thus scientific in the Popperian analysis of science.

Bruno Marchal in “The computationalist reformulation of the mind-body problem” (2013)

Confirming Evidence

Could such a bold theory be true?

For now, let’s neither accept nor reject this theory. To do either before weighing the evidence would be premature.

So let us not believe anything and maintain an open mind. For the time, we will only play with the idea and see where it leads.

As with any theory, the only path forward is to see what this theory predicts and then to compare the predictions with our observations.

If we find it leads in a fruitful direction, by making predictions we can confirm and by not making predictions we can refute, then we will have cause to tentatively accept this theory.

Predictions of the Theory

Does the reality we see fit predictions of a reality generated by the infinite computations inherent to causeless arithmetical truth?

For that matter, what are the predictions?

At first blush, it seems impossible to get any useful predictions from a theory that includes all computations and all observations. For if they all exist, any observation is compatible with the theory. As Victor Stenger noted, “Theories that explain everything explain nothing.”

Fortunately, there is a catch: not all observations are equally likely.

If our conscious states result from the existence of all computations, then they are subject to the rules of algorithmic information theory.

This enables us to make testable predictions, and thereby tie it back to hard science, observation, and measurement.

Some of the predictions of this theory provide clues to otherwise unsolvable questions in physics and cosmogeny. These predictions offer answers to such fundamental mysteries as:

These results are the work of pioneers in the theory, who include Bruno Marchal, Max Tegmark, Russell Standish, and Markus Müller.

Using the tools of computer science, math, information theory, and algorithmic information theory, they revealed how these traits of the universe result from our mind states being computationally-generated.

The appearance of a universe, or even universes, must be explained by the geometry of possible computations.

Bruno Marchal in “The Amoeba’s Secret” (2014)

Let’s review the evidence for this most speculative of theories, which is presently at the forefront of mathematics and physics.

Why Laws?

We take for granted that our universe obeys laws. But why should it?

What’s the source of these laws? Why are they so simple? Why aren’t they ever violated? Why these laws and not others?

All these questions are mysteries left unaddressed by science.

In the orthodox view, the laws of physics are floating in an explanatory void. Ironically, the essence of the scientific method is rationality and logic: we suppose that things are the way they are for a reason. Yet when it comes to the laws of physics themselves, well, we are asked to accept that they exist “reasonlessly”.

Paul Davies in “The flexi-laws of physics” (2007)

With the equations, when they are not too complicated, we can predict phenomena. But in truth, the equation doesn’t explain anything. It compresses, certainly, in a very ingenious way, the description of the physical world, but it does not explain the nature of bodies nor why these bodies obey laws, nor from where these laws come.

Bruno Marchal in “The Amoeba’s Secret” (2014)

That laws are never violated, on its face, seems highly improbable. For in the space of possibility, for each way there is for the universe to obey the laws, there are infinite ways it might deviate from them.

For each law-governed world, there are countless variants that would fail in different ways to be wholly law-governed.

Derek Parfit in “Why Anything? Why This?” (2008)

Why the laws hold is unknown to science. And yet, this feature of reality is the very basis that allows us to do science.

Without consistent laws, experimental outcomes can't be reproduced or predicted.
Without consistent laws, experimental outcomes can’t be reproduced or predicted.

A lawful universe is the basis of empiricism. It is why we can repeat experiments, and make predictions about the future based on past observations. But why does this work, and why should it work?

Marchal explains the emergence of laws as a consequence of the computational reality. He says the laws are the ‘consistent extensions’ of programs that produce the observer’s mind state.

Arithmetic contains or executes all computations. Your first person is distributed on all computations going through your current first person state. To make any prediction on the future of your possible inputs, you need to take all the computations into account, and the laws of physics is what is invariant in all consistent extensions.

Bruno Marchal in discussion list (2019)

Müller goes further, and gives a mathematical proof that shows why, given algorithmic information theory, observers will, with high probability, observe a ‘persistence of regularities‘ (i.e. laws).

That is, computable regularities that were holding in the past tend to persist in the future. […]

Intuitively, highly compressible histories are those that contain regularities which can be used to generate shorter descriptions.

Markus Müller in “Law without law: from observer states to physics via algorithmic information theory” (2020)

Because most programs are simple, and simple programs tend to keep doing what they have been doing, this gives the appearance of a fixed set of laws that holds into the future as the program unfolds.

So in a sense, the laws of physics are the rules of the programs that instantiate us, as seen by those of us inside those programs.

Why the Laws are Mathematical

It has long been recognized that mathematics is “unreasonably effective” in describing the physical laws. In 1623, Galileo wrote, “[The universe] is written in the language of mathematics.”

This connection between math and physics still puzzles scientists.

The miracle of the appropriateness of the language of mathematics for the formulation of the laws of physics is a wonderful gift which we neither understand nor deserve. We should be grateful for it and hope that it will remain valid in future research and that it will extend, for better or for worse, to our pleasure, even though perhaps also to our bafflement, to wide branches of learning.

Eugene Wigner in “The Unreasonable Effectiveness of Mathematics in the Natural Sciences (1960)
Mathematical patterns appear everywhere in nature.
Mathematical patterns appear everywhere in nature.

But why should physics be so mathematical? Tegmark offers a simple explanation: because physical theories result from our perceptions of what are ultimately mathematical structures.

The various approximations that constitute our current physics theories are successful because simple mathematical structures can provide good approximations of how a [self-aware substructure] will perceive more complex mathematical structures. In other words, our successful theories are not mathematics approximating physics, but mathematics approximating mathematics!

Max Tegmark in “Is ‘the theory of everything’ merely the ultimate ensemble theory?” (1998)
Why the Laws are Simple

In the 2nd century, Ptolemy wrote, “We consider it a good principle to explain the phenomena by the simplest hypothesis possible.”

This rule of thumb is called the law of parsimony or Occam’s razor.

It is the idea that in science, the simplest answer that fits the facts is usually right. Occam’s razor is no doubt a useful and effective rule, but until recently no one understood why it works.

A few of the great equations in physics. What is striking is their simplicity.
A few of the great equations in physics. What is striking is their simplicity.

Deep truths of nature can be expressed by short formulas, like F = ma and E = mc2. Physical equations rarely involve more than a few terms, rather than dozens or hundreds.

Physicists are awestruck by this simplicity. Einstein remarked, “The eternal mystery of the world is its comprehensibility.”

Given there are far more ways for these formulas to be more complex, it’s especially odd that they should be so simple.

Compared with simple laws, there is a far greater range of complicated laws. […] We would have some reason to believe that there are at least two partial Selectors: being law-governed and having simple laws.

Derek Parfit in “Why Anything? Why This?” (2008)

But the lesson is that at present the idea that the ultimate laws are as simple as possible is a hope, not something suggested by the evidence. Moreover, the prospect still faces the challenge of explanatory regression, as one would [be] left to explain why the underlying laws should be so simple.

Sean Carroll in “Why Is There Something, Rather Than Nothing?” (2018)

The mystery of simple comprehensible laws can now be answered.

We have found a selector that preferentially selects universes with simple laws. Algorithmic information theory tells us that for each bit saved in a program’s description, its occurrences double.

This adds up fast. A program that’s 30 bits shorter, say 120-bits vs. 150-bits occurs 2^{30}or over 1 billion — times more often.

Ray Solomonoff, the father of algorithmic information theory, was the first to draw a connection between AIT and Occam’s razor.

On a direct intuitive level, the high a priori probability assigned to a sequence with a short description corresponds to one possible interpretation of “Occam’s Razor.”

Ray Solomonoff in “A Formal Theory of Inductive Inference” (1964)

When Müller applied algorithmic information theory to observer states, he found that it led to the prediction of simple physical laws.

Observers will, with high probability, see an external world that is governed by simple, computable, probabilistic laws.

Markus Müller in “Law without law: from observer states to physics via algorithmic information theory” (2020)
Why the Laws are Life-Friendly

One of the most surprising discoveries in physics of the past 50 years was the discovery that the laws of physics and constants of nature appear specially selected to allow complexity and life to arise.

Wheeler wrote, “A life-giving factor lies at the centre of the whole machinery and design of the world.”

Why are the laws of physics suited to the emergence of complexity and life?
Why are the laws of physics suited to the emergence of complexity and life?

That the constants of nature, the strengths of the forces, the particle masses, etc., are just right to permit complex structures to arise is mysterious. Why are the laws this way? Why are they life friendly?

Physicists ask, why does the universe appear fine-tuned?

As we look out into the universe and identify the many accidents of physics and astronomy that have worked together to our benefit, it almost seems as if the universe must in some sense have known we were coming.

Freeman Dyson in “Energy in the Universe” (1971)

The fine tunings, how fine-tuned are they? Most of them are 1% sort of things. In other words, if things are 1% different, everything gets bad. And the physicist could say maybe those are just luck. On the other hand, this cosmological constant is tuned to one part in 10^{120} — a hundred and twenty decimal places. Nobody thinks that’s accidental. That is not a reasonable idea — that something is tuned to 120 decimal places just by accident. That’s the most extreme example of fine-tuning.

Leonard Susskind in “What We Still Don’t Know: Are We Real?” (2004)

The first step in explaining fine-tuning is to recognize that for any universe to be perceived, requires that it be populated with conscious observers. This reasoning is known as the anthropic principle.

The next step is to explain why any universe exists that supports conscious observers. Typical answers are that the universe was either designed or it is just one among a vast set of mostly dead universes.

We imagine our universe to be unique, but it is one of an immense number—perhaps an infinite number—of equally valid, equally independent, equally isolated universes. There will be life in some, and not in others.

Carl Sagan in “Pale Blue Dot” (1994)

The existence of infinite computational histories, guarantees that some will be of a type that can support life. Moreover, algorithmic information theory tells us the resulting physics should be maximally simple while respecting the constraint of being life-friendly.

In this paper I show why, in an ensemble theory of the universe, we should be inhabiting one of the elements of that ensemble with least information content that satisfies the anthropic principle. This explains the effectiveness of aesthetic principles such as Occam’s razor in predicting usefulness of scientific theories.

Russell Standish in “Why Occam’s Razor” (2004)

And indeed, this is what we find when we examine our physics:

A very interesting question to me is: is the universe more complicated than it needs to be to have us here? In other words, is there anything in the universe which is just here to amuse physicists?

It’s happened again and again that there was something which seemed like it was just a frivolity like that, where later we’ve realized that in fact, “No, if it weren’t for that little thing we wouldn’t be here.”

I’m not convinced actually that we have anything in this universe which is completely unnecessary to life.

Max Tegmark in “What We Still Don’t Know: Why Are We Here” (2004)

(See: “Is the universe fine-tuned?“)

Why Quantum Mechanics?

Quantum mechanics is a cornerstone theory of modern physics. It’s among the most thoroughly tested of all theories in science, and it’s given us the most accurate predictions in all of physics.

But quantum mechanics is incredibly strange.

It suggests the existence of many (infinite) histories (i.e. many-worlds or many-minds). Observation or measurement appears to cause the infinite set of possibilities to “collapse” to just one of the possibilities, and the selected result is absolutely unpredictable.

According to quantum mechanics, no one can predict whether a photon will be reflected by or transmitted through a piece of glass, not even in principle. It's fundamentally random.
According to quantum mechanics, no one can predict whether a photon will be reflected by or transmitted through a piece of glass, not even in principle. It’s fundamentally random. Image Credit: Wikipedia

Quantum mechanics includes apparent absurdities, like unobserved cats being simultaneously alive and dead, non-local faster-than-light influences, and unlimited computation underlying physical reality.

I have never been able to let go of questions like: How come existence? How come the quantum?

John Archibald Wheeler in “Geons, Black Holes, and Quantum Foam” (1998)

Of the mysteries in physics, “How come the quantum?“, ranks highly:

Niels Bohr said, “Those who are not shocked when they first come across quantum theory cannot possibly have understood it.” Werner Heisenberg admits, “I repeated to myself again and again the question: Can nature possibly be so absurd as it seemed to us in these atomic experiments?” And Richard Feynman said, “I think I can safely say that nobody understands quantum mechanics.”

Wheeler thought if an ultimate theory could explain quantum mechanics, it would be a sure sign the theory was on the right track.

The most important test is whether it gives anything like quantum mechanics. If it does, we have a go-ahead sign, if not, we have to revise our thinking.

John Archibald Wheeler quoted in “Trespassing on Einstein’s Lawn” (2014)

Marchal’s 1998 thesis, Computability, Physics and Cognition, gave the first hints that features of quantum mechanics, such as indeterminism, the many parallel histories, the non-clonability of matter, and quantum logic, could be explained as a consequence of computationalism.

As in quantum mechanics, computationalism highlights a strong indeterminism, as well as a form of non-locality. […] Computationalism entails the existence of a phenomenology of many-worlds or parallel states.

Bruno Marchal translated from “Computability, Physics and Cognition” (1998)

Marchal writes, “The quantum empirical clues happen to be serious hints that the physical emerges from an internally defined statistics on the numbers dreams or computations seen from inside.”

Standish went further. In a 2004 paper and in his 2006 book, he showed one could derive the basic rules, or postulates, of quantum mechanics, including the Schrödinger equation, purely from basic assumptions about observation within an infinite set of possibilities.

The explanation of quantum mechanics as describing the process of observation within a plenitude of possibilities is for me the pinnacle of achievement of the paradigm discussed in this book. I can now say that I understand quantum mechanics. […]

So when I say I understand quantum mechanics, I mean that I know that the first three postulates are directly consequences of us being observers. Quantum mechanics is simply a theory of observation!

Russell Standish in “Theory of Nothing” (2006)
Irreducible Randomness

One of the strangest features of quantum mechanics is the presence of irreducible randomness that creates absolute unpredictability.

Compounding this strangeness is the fact that the equations of quantum mechanics are entirely deterministic. And yet, when a measurement is made, it seems the universe momentarily stops following these equations to randomly select one possibility to make real, from among the many possibilities present in the equations.

This was a pill too hard for Einstein to swallow. He declared, “God doesn’t play dice with the world.” And in the end he never accepted it.

In the single-electron double-slit experiment, an electron is put into a superposition — where the electron exists in multiple locations at once.

Then it’s location is measured.

But when we measure the electron’s location, it will appear in only one location, seemingly at random. Before measurement, it’s impossible, even in theory, to predict where the electron will be.

If we inhabit a computational reality why do we see any randomness or unpredictability? Computations are perfectly predictable. Might this observation of randomness give us cause to doubt or rule out our being in a computational reality?

The opposite is true. The existence of an infinite computational reality explains why we encounter absolute unpredictability.

If only one computational history existed, observing randomness would be cause to dismiss the theory. But here there are infinite computational histories. Some of these histories will be similar to each other, some, so similar as to be almost indistinguishable.

Since there are infinite computational histories, each observer’s mind state can be found within infinite parallel computational histories.

In a 1988 conference and in a 1991 paper, Mechanism and Personal Identity, Marchal explained how the appearance of randomness emerges from multiple instantiations of a single observer’s mind.

He calls the phenomenon first-person indeterminacy.

To predict the first person observable outcome of any physical experiment, you have to assume that your current computational state will not be obtained in some other part of the universe, or the multiverse, with different output for your experience.

Bruno Marchal in “The computationalist reformulation of the mind-body problem” (2013)

In summary: no brain that belongs to multiple distinct universes, or computational histories, can ever be sure what it will see next.

Multiple parallel histories contain identical instances of the same observer's mind state (or brain). A fundamental unpredictability and randomness will result from the observer's inability to determine which universe she's a part of, as she exists in all of them.
Multiple parallel histories contain identical instances of the same observer’s mind state (or brain). A fundamental unpredictability and randomness will result from the observer’s inability to determine which universe she’s a part of, as she exists in all of them.

It is impossible for any observer to deduce with certainty on the basis of her observations and memory which world she is a part of. That is, there are always many different worlds for which being contained in them is compatible with everything she knows, but which imply different predictions for future observations.

Markus Müller in “Could the physical world be emergent instead of fundamental, and why should we ask?” (2017)

So even in a fully deterministic reality, the existence of infinite histories makes the appearance of randomness inevitable.

The physicist shining a photon at a piece of glass is in an infinity of histories where the photon will reflect, and is in an infinity of histories where the photon will pass through. The physicist can’t tell which until after the experiment is performed and she learns the result.

Ultimately, randomness stems from our inability to self-locate within the infinite sea of indistinguishable computational histories.

Tegmark notes how randomness appears in deterministic processes:

It gradually hit me that this illusion of randomness business really wasn’t specific to quantum mechanics at all. Suppose that some future technology allows you to be cloned while you’re sleeping, and that your two copies are placed in rooms numbered 0 and 1. When they wake up, they’ll both feel that the room number they read is completely unpredictable and random.

Max Tegmark in “Our Mathematical Universe” (2014)

Einstein is vindicated. God doesn’t play dice with the world. But perhaps, not even God can predict what universe you will find yourself in once you perform a measurement that splits yourself.

(See: “Does everything that can happen, actually happen?“)

Infinite Complexity

In 1948, Richard Feynman developed the path integral formulation, which provided a new way to understand quantum mechanics.

Feynman showed that you get the same results quantum mechanics predicts by taking into account and adding up every one of the infinite combinations of possible particle paths and interactions.

It was bizarre, but it worked. And this new formulation provided key insights that helped develop quantum electrodynamics (or QED). In 1965, Feynman, together with Sin-Itiro Tomonaga and Julian Schwinger shared the 1965 Nobel Prize in physics for developing QED.

But why adding up all of these infinite possibilities gave the right answers presented a great puzzle, which bothered Feynman.

It always bothers me that, according to the laws as we understand them today, it takes a computing machine an infinite number of logical operations to figure out what goes on in no matter how tiny a region of space, and no matter how tiny a region of time. How can all that be going on in that tiny space? Why should it take an infinite amount of logic to figure out what one tiny piece of space/time is going to do?

Richard Feynman in “The Character of Physical Law” (1965)
Under quantum mechanics, an infinite number of things happen behind the scenes. The smaller the scales you look, the more seems to be happening, with no bottom in sight.

The appearance of infinite happenings, infinite computations and infinite logical operations underlying physical reality is mysterious.

Perhaps the simplest answer for why reality appears this way is, “It appears this way because that is the way reality is.”

If infinite computational histories form the foundation of reality, then infinities in physics might just be a reflection of this reality.

In short, within each universe all observable quantities are discrete, but the multiverse as a whole is a continuum. When the equations of quantum theory describe a continuous but not-directly-observable transition between two values of a discrete quantity, what they are telling us is that the transition does not take place entirely within one universe. So perhaps the price of continuous motion is not an infinity of consecutive actions, but an infinity of concurrent actions taking place across the multiverse.

David Deutsch in “The Discrete and the Continuous” (2001)

Matter is only what seems to emerge at infinity from a first person plural point of view (defined by sharing the computations which are infinitely multiplied in the [Universal Dovetailer’s] work) when persons look at themselves and their environment below their substitution level. The non-cloning results from the fact that such a matter emerges only from an infinity of distinct computations.

Bruno Marchal in “The computationalist reformulation of the mind-body problem” (2013)
Quantum Computers

Richard Feynman and David Deutsch are the two fathers of the quantum computer. Feynman proposed their possibility in 1982 and in 1985, Deutsch described how to build one.

These computers exploit the unlimited complexity inherent in quantum mechanics to build computers of incredible power.

How quantum computers do what they do is puzzling.

Each qubit added to a quantum computer doubles its power. A quantum computer with 300 qubits can simultaneously process 2^{300} states. This number of states exceeds the 2^{265} atoms in the observable universe.

How could a tabletop device process more states than there are atoms? How could it solve problems that no conventional computer could solve in the lifetime of the universe, even if all matter and energy in the observable universe were recruited for that purpose?

Some found the abilities of these computers so incredible, they concluded quantum computers simply weren’t possible. After all, where exactly would all that computation be occurring?

Deutsch and Tegmark offer some answers.

Since the Universe as we see it lacks the computational resources to do the calculations, where are they being done? It can only be in other universes. Quantum computers share information with huge numbers of versions of themselves throughout the multiverse.

David Deutsch in “Taming the Multiverse” (2001)

Given engineering challenges, for decades quantum computers remained only theoretical. Today, quantum computers are a reality.

In 2019, engineers at Google reported that their 53-qubit quantum computer solved in 200 seconds a problem that would take the world’s most powerful supercomputer 10,000 years.

Quantum computers speed up computations by exploiting the parallelism of the multiverse. Image Credit: IBM Research
Quantum computers speed up computations by exploiting the parallelism of the multiverse. Image Credit: IBM Research

Today, anyone can sign up for free to program and use IBM’s quantum computers over the internet.

What makes quantum computers difficult to build, is that to work, they must be completely isolated from the environment — such that they are not measured by anyone or anything until it finishes its work.

By isolating the quantum computer from the environment, observers temporarily make their existence compatible with all the possible states the quantum computer might simultaneously be in.

The parallel computations performed by quantum computers can then be explained by the work of parallel computational histories.

If current efforts to build quantum computers succeed, they will provide further evidence for [the quantum multiverse], as they would, in essence, be exploiting the parallelism of the [quantum] multiverse for parallel computation.

Max Tegmark in “Parallel Universes” (2003)

(See: “How do quantum computers work?“)

Why Time?

The universe, our lives, and even our thoughts are inextricably linked with the march of time. Few things are as familiar to us as time, and yet time remains little understood. (See: “What is time?“)

2,500 years ago, Heraclitus recognized change to be the only constant in life, saying, “All entities move and nothing remains still.” But it doesn’t seem logically necessary for a universe to have time.

Mathematical structures are eternal and unchanging: they don’t exist in space and time—rather, space and time exist in (some of) them. If cosmic history were a movie, then the mathematical structure would be the entire DVD.

Max Tegmark in “Our Mathematical Universe” (2014)

Why should our universe have a property like time?

The mystery of time captures our imaginations. Here Salvador Dalí depicts clocks melting in "The Persistence of Memory" (1931)
The mysterious nature of time captures our imaginations. Salvador Dalí depicts clocks melting in “The Persistence of Memory” (1931)

All computers process information in an ordered sequence of steps. This ordering defines a notion of time that exists for any computation.

A Turing machine requires time to separate the sequence of states it occupies as it performs a computation.

Russell Standish in “Why Occam’s Razor” (2004)

Müller further showed that with algorithmic information theory, we can predict the appearance of a universe that evolves in time.

Our theory predicts that observers should indeed expect to see two facts which are features of our physics as we know it: first, the fact that the observer seems to be part of an external world that evolves in time (a ‘universe’), and second, that this external world seems to have had an absolute beginning in the past (the ‘Big Bang’).

Markus Müller in “Could the physical world be emergent instead of fundamental, and why should we ask?” (2017)

Assuming we are part of an unfolding computation, then we should expect to find ourselves in a universe with time.

A Beginning in Time

Current evidence suggests our universe has a beginning.

But why should it?

Until the middle of the 20th century, most scientists believed the universe was infinitely old, without a beginning. They considered theories of an abrupt creation event to be inelegant.

Accordingly, scientists resisted the idea of a beginning until overwhelming evidence came out in its favor. It wasn’t until we could actually see the afterglow of the big bang, in the form of microwaves, that scientists were convinced the universe began a finite time ago.

The history of the universe, as presently understood. Image Credit: NASA.
The history of the universe began some 13.8 billion years ago. Image Credit: NASA.

We call this point the beginning because in tracing the history of the universe backwards, we hit a point where predicting earlier states breaks down and further backwards tracing becomes impossible.

The physics either stops providing sensible answers, or we run into an explosion of possibilities and can’t tell which of them is real.

The theory of cosmic inflation, gives an account of what caused the hot, dense, early phase of the universe. (See: “What caused the big bang?“)

But inflation makes further backwards prediction (or retrodiction) impossible. It wipes its footprints with a set of infinite prehistories.

Since our own pocket universe would be equally likely to lie anywhere on the infinite tree of universes produced by eternal inflation, we would expect to find ourselves arbitrarily far from the beginning. The infinite inflating network would presumably approach some kind of a steady state, losing all memory of how it started, so the statistical predictions for our universe would be determined by the properties of this steady state configuration, independent of hypotheses about the ultimate beginning.

Alan Guth in “Eternal Inflation: Implications” (2013)

Müller shows that algorithmic information theory predicts most observers will find themselves in a universe with simple initial conditions and an absolute beginning in time.

He explains this reasoning for a hypothetical observer named Abby:

If she continues computing backwards to retrodict earlier and earlier states of her universe, she will typically find simpler and more “compact” states, with measures of entropy or algorithmic complexity decreasing — simply because she is looking at earlier and earlier stages of an unfolding computation.

At some point, Abby will necessarily arrive at the state that corresponds to the initial state of the graph machine’s computation, where simplicity and compactness are maximal. At this point, two cases are possible: either Abby’s method of computing backwards will cease to work; or Abby will retrodict a fictitious sequence of ‘states before the initial state’, typically with increasing complexity backwards in time.

Markus Müller in “Law without law: from observer states to physics via algorithmic information theory” (2018)

This mirrors what cosmic inflation does for our universe.

In an alternate history where humans developed algorithmic information theory before microwave telescopes, we might have predicted a beginning of the universe before telescopic evidence came in.

Information as Fundamental

Physicists are increasingly recognizing that information plays a fundamental role in physics.

Scientists have long understood that matter and energy can be neither created nor destroyed. They are, in all interactions, conserved.

But only recently have physicists realized the same is true for information. Physical information can neither be copied nor deleted. There is an equivalent law for the conservation of information.

This discovery stemmed from the black hole information paradox.

The supermassive black hole at the center of Galaxy M87. Image Credit: Event Horizon Telescope
The supermassive black hole at the center of Galaxy M87. Image Credit: Event Horizon Telescope

According to general relativity, dropping something into a black hole destroys its information, like an ultimate furnace. But according to quantum mechanics, information can’t be destroyed. At best, a black hole can only rearrange information, like an ultimate shredder.

In 1981, this paradox sparked the “black hole war” — waged by two camps of physicists. After decades of debate, the black hole war settled in favor of quantum mechanics.

Information can’t be destroyed, not even by a black hole. Physicists now understand a kind of mass-energy-information equivalence.

There is also an equivalence between entropy in thermodynamics and entropy in information theory. And constants of nature are closely linked to the ultimate physical limits of computational speed, efficiency and storage density. (See: “How good can technology get?“)

Why is the link between physics and information so tight?

Wheeler dedicated his life to the pursuit of fundamental questions. Ultimately, he reached the conclusion that everything is information.

It from bit symbolizes the idea that every item of the physical world has at bottom — a very deep bottom, in most instances — an immaterial source and explanation; that which we call reality arises in the last analysis from the posing of yes-no questions and the registering of equipment-evoked responses; in short, that all things physical are information-theoretic in origin.

John Archibald Wheeler in “Information, Physics, Quantum: The Search for Links” (1989)

Now I am in the grip of a new vision, that Everything is Information. The more I have pondered the mystery of the quantum and our strange ability to comprehend this world in which we live, the more I see possible fundamental roles for logic and information as the bedrock of physical theory.

John Archibald Wheeler in “Geons, Black Holes, and Quantum Foam” (1998)
Does information somehow form the bedrock of reality?
Does information somehow form the bedrock of reality?

Why is information fundamental? The answer is easy if reality is computational. Information lies at the heart of computation.

In the end, all that computers do is process information. So to say, “computation is the foundation of reality,” is another way of saying, “information processing is the foundation of reality.”

The burgeoning field of computer science has shifted our view of the physical world from that of a collection of interacting material particles to one of a seething network of information.

Paul Davies in “The flexi-laws of physics” (2007)

What we can learn from these reconstructions is that a few simple and intuitive constraints on encoding and processing of information will automatically lead to (aspects of) the Hilbert space formalism of quantum theory.

Markus Müller in “Law without law: from observer states to physics via algorithmic information theory” (2019)

Observation as Fundamental

Observation also appears to have a fundamental role in reality.

The universe and the observer exist as a pair. […] The moment you say that the universe exists without any observers, I cannot make any sense out of that. You need an observer who looks at the universe. In the absence of observers, our universe is dead.

Andre Linde in “Does the Universe Exist if We’re Not Looking?” (2002)

Quantum mechanics revealed that observation somehow forces reality to choose from among many possibilities.

More recently, physicists have speculated that the observer’s power to force reality’s hand applies not only to the here and now, but perhaps all the way back to the beginning of the universe.

We are participators in bringing into being not only the near and here but the far away and long ago. We are in this sense, participators in bringing about something of the universe in the distant past.

John Archibald Wheeler in “The anthropic universe” (2006)

The top down approach we have described leads to a profoundly different view of cosmology, and the relation between cause and effect. Top down cosmology is a framework in which one essentially traces the histories backwards, from a spacelike surface at the present time. The no boundary histories of the universe thus depend on what is being observed, contrary to the usual idea that the universe has a unique, observer independent history. In some sense no boundary initial conditions represent a sum over all possible initial states.

Stephen Hawking and Thomas Hertog in “Populating the landscape: A top-down approach” (2006)

The observer might even, in some sense, choose the laws of physics.

It is an attempt to explain the Goldilocks factor by appealing to cosmic self-consistency: the bio-friendly universe explains life even as life explains the bio-friendly universe. […] Cosmic bio-friendliness is therefore the result of a sort of quantum post-selection effect extended to the very laws of physics themselves.

Paul Davies in “The flexi-laws of physics” (2007)
Can there be a universe if there is no one to call it home? Do observations themselves somehow define the histories and laws of the universes containing them?

Observation and its relation to observed reality is an enigma.

Wheeler believed the relation between them was our best clue to finding an answer to why there is something rather than nothing.

« Omnibus ex nihil ducendis sufficit unum », Leibniz told us; for producing everything out of nothing one principle is enough. Of all principles that might meet this requirement of Leibniz nothing stands out more strikingly in this era of the quantum than the necessity to draw a line between the observer-participator and the system under view. […] The necessity for that line of separation is the most mysterious feature of the quantum. We take that demarcation as being, if not the central principle, the clue to the central principle in constructing out of nothing everything.

John Archibald Wheeler in “Quantum Theory and Measurement” (1983)

In the view that all computational histories exist, observation does play a role in selecting both histories and physical laws.

It is a tautology that observers only find themselves in computational histories capable of producing their observations.

Since every imaginable program exists, implementing every imaginable set of laws, then in a very real sense, the observer does force reality to select both the laws and history they observe.

To derive the effective laws of physics, one needs to do statistics over the ensemble of identical observers. This involves performing summations over the multiverse, but these summations are with a constraint that says that some given observer is present.

Saibal Mitra in discussion list (2018)

It’s curious that Buddhist thinkers reached similar conclusions about observers well ahead of modern physicists.

The Buddhist does not believe in an independent or separately existing external world, into whose dynamic forces he could insert himself. The external world and his inner world are for him only two sides of the same fabric, in which the threads of all forces and of all events, of all forms of consciousness and their objects, are woven into an inseparable net of endless, mutually conditioned relations.

Anagarika Govinda in “Foundations of Tibetan Mysticism” (1969)

Reviewing the Evidence

We have found evidence in support of this theory. The existence of infinite computational histories predicts many features of reality.

It predicts a universe of inviolable, but simple, mathematical, and life-friendly laws. It predicts a multiverse of parallel histories, infinite computational complexity, and a fundamental unpredictability, as we find in quantum mechanics.

The theory predicts a universe that evolves in time, has simple initial conditions, and a point that we can’t retrodict beyond: a beginning. Further, it predicts information and observation are fundamental.

So far, all of these predictions are confirmed by current physical and cosmological observations. For the first time in history, humanity has an answer to why we exist that is backed by physical evidence.

Conclusions

Given the observational evidence, we have reason to suspect that this theory, or something close to it, is correct.

It implies: We live within the total set of all computations.

Moreover, we have traced the existence of this set to something that’s a strong candidate for having necessary existence: self-existent truths concerning numbers and their relations.

One option, following Leibniz and others, is that we reach a level at which further explanation is not required, because something is necessarily true.

Sean Carroll in “Why Is There Something, Rather Than Nothing?” (2018)

This truth not only seems causeless, but because from it we can deduce much of physics, it is also a candidate for being the cause.

The supreme task of the physicist is the discovery of the most general elementary laws from which the world-picture can be deduced logically.

Max Planck in “Where is science going?” (1932)

Under this theory, the most general laws from which we can deduce the world-picture become the laws of arithmetic. Thus, arithmetic, as a theory of arithmetical truth, becomes a theory of everything.

This brings a whole new meaning to Leopold Kronecker’s edict: “God made the integers, all else is the work of man.”

This is why, with Church’s thesis, and the quantum confirmation of mechanism, intuitive arithmetic, a.k.a. number theory and its intensional variants, may well be the simplest and richest “theory of everything” that we can have at our disposal.

Bruno Marchal translated from “Computability, Physics and Cognition” (1998)

This theory — arithmetic — has been under our noses the whole time!

Behind it all is surely an idea so simple, so beautiful, so compelling, that when—in a decade, a century, or a millennium—we grasp it, we will all say to each other, how could it have been otherwise? How could we have been so stupid for so long?

John Archibald Wheeler in “How Come the Quantum?” (1986)

The Journey Here

It’s been a long road to reach the point where humanity can scientifically address the question: “Why does anything exist?”

Humans have walked the earth for some 500,000 years. But only in the last 1% of that time, or the past 5,000 years, have we had writing. Only in the last 0.1% of that time, or the past 500 years, have we had the scientific method. And only in the past 0.01% of that time, or the past 50 years, has humanity known about universal equations.

To get an answer to our question, required that humans discover numbers, equations, computation, and wrestle with topics at the foundation of mathematics, including consistency, completeness, and decidability. In the end, this led to our discovery of universal equations that define all computation.

To find evidence linking this computational reality to physics, humans had to discover the expanding universe and gather evidence of the big bang. We also had to probe the smallest scales and through careful study of particles, discover the quantum nature of reality.

A century ago, we had none of this understanding.

A Strange Answer

We can’t help but notice how strange this answer is.

But perhaps we should have expected this. Would we expect that the final answer to the greatest mystery of the cosmos would be ordinary?

Now, my own suspicion is that the universe is not only queerer than we suppose, but queerer than we can suppose.

J. B. S. Haldane in “Possible Worlds and Other Essays” (1927)

Whatever may be the truth about the universe, it is bound to be astonishing.

Bertrand Russell

We will first understand how simple the universe is when we recognize how strange it is.

John Archibald Wheeler in “Geons, Black Holes, and Quantum Foam” (1998)

Tegmark cautions against rejecting theories just for being weird. And admits he would be disappointed if the answer weren’t a bit weird.

It’s very important for us physicists to not dismiss ideas just because they are weird, because if we did we would have already dismissed atoms, black holes, and all sorts of other marvelous things. And actually, you know when you ask a basic question about the nature of reality, you know, don’t you expect an answer which is a bit weird? I think anything but weird would be a big letdown.

Max Tegmark in “What We Still Don’t Know: Are We Real?” (2004)

A Triumph of Human Reason

I believe when the history of science is written, then what’s being discovered about our universe in the last decade or two will be one of the most exciting chapters.

Martin Rees in “What We Still Don’t Know: Are We Real?” (2004)

We now have viable answers to great questions of existence:

  • Leibniz’s question: Why is there something rather than nothing?
  • Einstein’s question: Why is the universe so comprehensible?
  • Wigner’s question: Why is the universe so mathematical?
  • Wheeler’s question: How come the quantum?
  • Smolin’s question: Why these laws and not others?
  • Feynman’s question: Why does infinite logic underlie physics?
  • Hawking’s question: What breathes fire into the equations?

It required us to assume math, rather than matter, is fundamental. Given the evidence supporting this view, we might consider the 2,400-year-old debate between Plato and Aristotle as settled.

If we do discover a complete theory, it should in time be understandable in broad principle by everyone, not just a few scientists. Then we shall all, philosophers, scientists, and just ordinary people, be able to take part in the discussion of the question of why it is that we and the universe exist. If we find the answer to that, it would be the ultimate triumph of human reason — for then we should know the mind of God.

Stephen Hawking in “A Brief History of Time” (1988)

Hawking believed if we could discover what breathes fire into the equations, then we should know the mind of God.

But do we? By postulating infinite, eternal, mathematical truth as the ultimate explanation, and the cause and source of reality, have we succeeded in explaining God, or have we explained God away?

Open Questions

While this theory provides answers to many questions, it does not answer everything, and much additional work is required.

Room for God

This theory provides a purely natural and rational account for why anything exists. Is there any room for God in this picture?

We now have a view of reality where everything emerges from absolute truth. This infinite truth embodies all knowledge. Being a container of all knowledge, as well as all minds and things, can we compare this infinite set of truth to an omniscient mind?

This truth is infinite and incomprehensible, eternal and indestructible, without a beginning or end. It is uncreated and self-existent. It is transcendent, immaterial, immanent, and indivisible. It’s the reason and cause behind all things. It serves as the creator, source, and ground of being, supporting us and the material universe.

Does this infinite truth or ‘omniscient mind‘ lead to the existence of God? Might it even be God? It’s not a simple question.

But knowing why anything exists, leaves us in a better position to answer questions about what exists and what doesn’t.

(See: “Does God Exist?“)

Deriving Physical Law

How much of physical law can we derive from the assumption of all computations together with the requirement of life-friendliness?

Can we predict things like types of particles and forces, or the dimensionality of spacetime? Might we even be able to predict values of constants like particle masses and force strengths?

What really interests me is whether God could have created the world any differently; in other words, whether the requirement of logical simplicity admits a margin of freedom.

Albert Einstein

It remains to be seen how much of physical law is universal (applying to all observers in all computational histories), and how much is geographical (depending on which histories an observer belongs to.

As a theoretical physicist, I would like to see us able to make precise predictions, not vague statements that certain constants have to be in a range that is more or less favorable to life. I hope that string theory really will provide a basis for a final theory and that this theory will turn out to have enough predictive power to be able to prescribe values for all the constants of nature including the cosmological constant. We shall see.

Steven Weinberg in “Dreams of a Final Theory” (1992)

But this hope, of deriving every aspect of physics, is waning.

Max Tegmark recounts, “as recently as 1997, the famous string theorist Ed Witten told me that he thought string theory would one day predict how many times lighter an electron is than a proton. Yet when I last saw him at Andrei Linde’s sixtieth birthday party [in 2008], he confessed after some wine that he’d given up on ever predicting all the constants of nature.”

Implications

If all computations exist, and if those computations explain our observed reality, it leads to many surprising implications.

The Universe is a Dream

The theory lends support to the ancient idea, expressed by Taoist, Greek, and Christian philosophers, and a tenet of Hindu and Buddhist belief: that the material universe is a kind of dream or illusion.

It implies that the material and physical are byproducts of mind.

Collective karmic impressions, accumulated individually, are at the origin of the creation of a world. […] The outside world appears as a result of the acts of sentient beings who use this world. […] The “creator of the world,” basically is the mind.

The 14th Dalai Lama in “Beyond Dogma” (1994)

For the things which one thinks are most real, are the least real.

Plotinus in “The Enneads V.5.11” (270 A.D.)

Only recently have modern scientists begun to embrace this view, with a few even doubting the “realness” of physical existence.

Neils Bohr said, “Everything we call real is made of things that cannot be regarded as real.” In an interview, Marvin Minsky admitted, “We don’t know that we exist because […] maybe we’re just what a program would do if the computer were turned on and it’s not even running.”

Marvin Minsky - Are There Things Not Material?

We Live in a Simulation

The simulation hypothesis and simulation argument raise the question of whether or not we inhabit a vast computer simulation.

Cypher enjoys a simulated meal in The Matrix (1999)
Cypher enjoys a simulated meal in The Matrix (1999)

If we exist as a consequence of mathematical truth, the simulation hypothesis is made true by default. For we would then find ourselves living within the infinite set of computationally generated histories.

This blurs the distinction between virtual reality and real reality.

In the beginning was the code: Juergen Schmidhuber at TEDxUHasselt
Juergen Schmidhuber presents what he calls the Algorithmic Theory of Everything: the idea that this universe, and all others, are contained in a short computer program.

It remains an open question: is anyone in control of the simulation we happen to be in? (See: “Are we living in a computer simulation?”)

Our Place in Reality

With an answer to why anything exists, we can orientate ourselves in reality. We now understand our position and place in it.

Mathematical truth implies the existence of all computations. The existence of all computations implies the existence of all observers. The existence of all observers leads to a quantum mechanical reality populated with all possibilities and ruled by simple laws.

So what exists? Almost everything.

Reality becomes so big and so comprehensive that it includes everything and everyone that can be. Every thought that can be had and every experience. Every story and scenario plays out, eventually and somewhere. Actually, they all recur an infinite number of times.

Indeed, in this view, reality is so large that it guarantees the existence of an afterlife. See (“Is there life after death?“)

Mahā-Viṣhṇu dreaming in the great Causal Ocean. Image Credit: Krishna.com

Confession: if I love [this theory], it is because it entails the existence of many things not “physically present”, notably those incredible deep universal dreamers which keep [losing] themselves in an incredible labyrinth of partially sharable dreams, meeting ladders and ladders of surprises, self-multiplying and self-fusing, and which are partially terrestrial and partially divine creatures.

Bruno Marchal in discussion list (2011)

Reasoned study of the mysteries of existence has brought us to a coherent theory of why there is something rather than nothing.

The best evidence suggests our universe is one among an infinite number of possible realms, with the full extent of reality being unbounded. The source of this reality is logical necessity, via infinite mathematical truths which are independent of any material universe.

We can count ourselves among the first generation of humans able to reason logically, with the support of observational evidence, to arrive at answers for why our universe has the laws it does, why we are here, and why there is something rather than nothing.


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668 Replies to “Why does anything exist?”

  1. “”And about the popular culture ones who think “mythology = urban legends” and “gods = urban legends”, in their eyes all mysticism is just urban legend; all religion, all spirituality, all metaphysics, all philosophy, all extraphysics, all esotericism, all occultism, all spiritual sciences and everything related to those are just urban legends. Anything that doesn’t fit into conventional physics is a urban legend for them (popular culture ones). That is how popular culture treat religion, spirituality and such. And everything who fit into conventional physics most of the time become propaganda in favor of neopositivism, antitheism, Big Tech, mass media, capitalism, neoliberalism, identity politics, alt-right and such. And about politics, well, most of political things and historical things just become into the way right-wingers, alt-rightists and neoliberals make alternative history, historical fiction and political fiction, always with propaganda in favor of capitalism, neoliberalism, alt-right and such. And also no wonder popular culture is so antitheistic, misotheistic and speciesist, because they are also trembling in front of the divine and of the gods and spiritual beings, and making these popular this way is a way to lessen their fear, so the formula “mythology = urban legends” and “gods = urban legends” is a form to reduce their fear of the divine, of gods and of spiritual beings. Popular culture must be criticized, as well as this systemic unidimentionality, universal neurodivergence, programmed cognitive impairment and militant secularism that reduces everything that does not fit into conventional physics or into neopositivism into just “urban legends” and who leads the alt-right, neopositivists, antitheists, capitalists, neoliberais and rightists to take full control of popular culture and mass media. And of course, we shall reconnect humans back to the gods and to the divine and reconnect this world back to the gods and to the divine.””

    “”E sobre os da cultura popular que pensam “mitologia = lendas urbanas” e “deuses = lendas urbanas”, a seus olhos todo misticismo é apenas lenda urbana; toda religião, toda espiritualidade, toda metafísica, toda filosofia, toda extrafísica, todo esoterismo , todo ocultismo, todas as ciências espirituais e tudo relacionado a isso são apenas lendas urbanas. Tudo o que não se encaixa na física convencional é uma lenda urbana para eles (as da cultura popular). É assim que a cultura popular trata a religião, a espiritualidade e afins. E tudo que se encaixa na física convencional na maioria das vezes se torna propaganda a favor do neopositivismo, antiteísmo, Big Tech, mídia de massa, capitalismo, neoliberalismo, política de identidade, alt-right e tal. E sobre política, bem, a maioria das coisas políticas e as coisas históricas apenas se transformam no modo como direitistas, alt-direitistas e neoliberais fazem história alternativa, ficção histórica e ficção política, sempre com propaganda a favor do capitalismo, neoliberalismo, alt-right e tal. E também não é à toa que a cultura popular é tão antiteísta, misoteísta e especista, pois eles também estão tremendo diante do divino e dos deuses e seres espirituais, e popularizá-los dessa forma é uma forma de diminuir o medo deles, então a fórmula ” mitologia = lendas urbanas” e “deuses = lendas urbanas” é uma forma de reduzir o medo do divino, dos deuses e dos seres espirituais. A cultura popular deve ser criticada, assim como essa unidimensionalidade sistêmica, neurodivergência universal, déficit cognitivo programado e secularismo militante que reduz tudo o que não cabe na física convencional ou no neopositivismo a apenas “lendas urbanas” e que lidera a alt-right, neopositivistas , antiteístas, capitalistas, neoliberais e direitistas para assumir o controle total da cultura popular e da mídia de massa. E, claro, vamos reconectar os humanos de volta aos deuses e ao divino e reconectar este mundo de volta aos deuses e ao divino.””

    “”Y sobre la cultura popular los que piensan “mitología = leyendas urbanas” y “dioses = leyendas urbanas”, a sus ojos todo misticismo es solo leyenda urbana; toda religión, toda espiritualidad, toda metafísica, toda filosofía, toda extrafísica, todo esoterismo , todo el ocultismo, todas las ciencias espirituales y todo lo relacionado con eso son solo leyendas urbanas, todo lo que no encaja en la física convencional es una leyenda urbana para ellos (los de cultura popular), así es como la cultura popular trata la religión, la espiritualidad y tal. Y todo lo que encaja en la física convencional la mayoría de las veces se convierte en propaganda a favor del neopositivismo, el antiteísmo, las grandes tecnologías, los medios de comunicación, el capitalismo, el neoliberalismo, las políticas de identidad, la derecha alternativa y demás. las cosas históricas simplemente se convierten en la forma en que los derechistas, ultraderechistas y neoliberales hacen historia alternativa, ficción histórica y ficción política, siempre con propaganda a favor del capitalismo, el neoliberalismo, alt-right y tal. Y también con razón la cultura popular es tan antiteísta, misoteísta y especista, porque ellos también están temblando frente a lo divino y a los dioses y seres espirituales, y popularizarlos de esta manera es una forma de disminuir su miedo, así la fórmula” mitología = leyendas urbanas” y “dioses = leyendas urbanas” es una forma de reducir su miedo a lo divino, a los dioses y a los seres espirituales. Hay que criticar la cultura popular, esa unidimensionalidad sistémica, la neurodivergencia universal, el deterioro cognitivo programado y el laicismo militante que reduce a “leyendas urbanas” todo lo que no encaja en la física convencional o en el neopositivismo y que lidera la alt-right, los neopositivistas. , antiteístas, capitalistas, neoliberales y derechistas para tomar el control total de la cultura popular y los medios de comunicación. Y, por supuesto, volveremos a conectar a los humanos con los dioses y lo divino y volveremos a conectar este mundo con los dioses y lo divino”.”

    “”Et à propos de ceux de la culture populaire qui pensent “mythologie = légendes urbaines” et “dieux = légendes urbaines”, à leurs yeux tout mysticisme n’est qu’une légende urbaine ; toute religion, toute spiritualité, toute métaphysique, toute philosophie, toute extraphysique, tout ésotérisme , tout l’occultisme, toutes les sciences spirituelles et tout ce qui s’y rapporte ne sont que des légendes urbaines. Tout ce qui ne rentre pas dans la physique conventionnelle est une légende urbaine pour eux (ceux de la culture populaire). C’est ainsi que la culture populaire traite la religion, la spiritualité et autres. Et tout ce qui rentre dans la physique conventionnelle devient la plupart du temps de la propagande en faveur du néopositivisme, de l’antithéisme, de la Big Tech, des médias de masse, du capitalisme, du néolibéralisme, de la politique identitaire, de l’alt-right et autres. les choses historiques deviennent juste dans la façon dont les droitiers, les alt-rightistes et les néolibéraux font de l’histoire alternative, de la fiction historique et de la fiction politique, toujours avec de la propagande en faveur du capitalisme, du néolibéralisme, alt-droite et autres. Et aussi pas étonnant que la culture populaire soit si antithéiste, misothéiste et spéciste, car ils tremblent aussi devant le divin et les dieux et les êtres spirituels, et les rendre populaires de cette façon est un moyen de diminuer leur peur, donc la formule ” mythologie = légendes urbaines” et “dieux = légendes urbaines” est une forme pour réduire leur peur du divin, des dieux et des êtres spirituels. Il faut critiquer la culture populaire, ainsi que cette unidimentionalité systémique, cette neurodivergence universelle, cette déficience cognitive programmée et cette laïcité militante qui réduit tout ce qui ne rentre pas dans la physique conventionnelle ou dans le néopositivisme à de simples “légendes urbaines” et qui dirige l’alt-right, les néopositivistes , antithéistes, capitalistes, néolibéraux et de droite à prendre le contrôle total de la culture populaire et des médias de masse. Et bien sûr, nous allons reconnecter les humains aux dieux et au divin et reconnecter ce monde aux dieux et au divin.””

    “„Und was die Populärkultur betrifft, die denken „Mythologie = urbane Legenden“ und „Götter = urbane Legenden“, in ihren Augen ist jede Mystik nur eine urbane Legende; alle Religion, alle Spiritualität, alle Metaphysik, alle Philosophie, alle Extraphysik, alle Esoterik , aller Okkultismus, alle spirituellen Wissenschaften und alles, was damit zusammenhängt, sind nur urbane Legenden. Alles, was nicht in die konventionelle Physik passt, ist eine urbane Legende für sie (die der Populärkultur). So behandelt die Populärkultur Religion, Spiritualität und dergleichen. Und alles, was in die konventionelle Physik passt, wird meistens zur Propaganda zugunsten von Neopositivismus, Antitheismus, Big Tech, Massenmedien, Kapitalismus, Neoliberalismus, Identitätspolitik, Alt-Right usw. Und über Politik, naja, die meisten politischen Dinge und historische Dinge werden einfach zu der Art und Weise, wie Rechte, Alt-Rightisten und Neoliberale alternative Geschichte, historische Fiktion und politische Fiktion machen, immer mit Propaganda zugunsten des Kapitalismus, Neoliberalismus, alt-rechts und so. Und auch kein Wunder, dass die Populärkultur so antitheistisch, misotheistisch und speziesistisch ist, denn sie zittern auch vor dem Göttlichen und vor den Göttern und geistigen Wesen, und diese so populär zu machen, ist ein Weg, ihre Angst zu mindern, so die Formel ” mythology = urban legends” und “gods = urban legends” ist eine Form, ihre Angst vor dem Göttlichen, vor Göttern und vor spirituellen Wesen abzubauen. Die Populärkultur muss ebenso kritisiert werden wie diese systemische Eindimensionalität, die universelle Neurodivergenz, die programmierte kognitive Beeinträchtigung und der militante Säkularismus, der alles, was nicht in die konventionelle Physik oder in den Neopositivismus passt, zu nur „urbanen Legenden“ reduziert und die Alt-Right, die Neopositivisten, anführt , Antitheisten, Kapitalisten, Neoliberais und Rechte, um die volle Kontrolle über die Populärkultur und die Massenmedien zu übernehmen. Und natürlich werden wir die Menschen wieder mit den Göttern und dem Göttlichen verbinden und diese Welt wieder mit den Göttern und dem Göttlichen verbinden.””

    “”En over de populaire cultuur degenen die denken “mythologie = stedelijke legendes” en “goden = stedelijke legendes”, in hun ogen is alle mystiek slechts een stedelijke legende; alle religie, alle spiritualiteit, alle metafysica, alle filosofie, alle extrafysica, alle esoterie , alle occultisme, alle spirituele wetenschappen en alles wat daarmee te maken heeft, zijn gewoon stadslegendes. Alles wat niet in de conventionele natuurkunde past, is voor hen een stadslegende (populaire cultuur). Zo behandelt de populaire cultuur religie, spiritualiteit en dergelijke. En alles wat in de conventionele natuurkunde past, wordt meestal propaganda ten gunste van neopositivisme, antitheïsme, Big Tech, massamedia, kapitalisme, neoliberalisme, identiteitspolitiek, alt-right enz. En over politiek, nou ja, de meeste politieke dingen en historische dingen worden gewoon de manier waarop rechtse, alt-rightisten en neoliberalen alternatieve geschiedenis, historische fictie en politieke fictie maken, altijd met propaganda ten gunste van kapitalisme, neoliberalisme, alt-right en zo. En ook geen wonder dat populaire cultuur zo antitheïstisch, misotheïstisch en speciesistisch is, omdat ze ook beven voor het goddelijke en voor de goden en spirituele wezens, en deze populair maken op deze manier is een manier om hun angst te verminderen, dus de formule ” mythologie = stedelijke legendes” en “goden = stedelijke legendes” is een vorm om hun angst voor het goddelijke, voor goden en voor spirituele wezens te verminderen. De populaire cultuur moet worden bekritiseerd, evenals deze systemische eenzijdigheid, universele neurodivergentie, geprogrammeerde cognitieve stoornissen en militant secularisme die alles wat niet past in de conventionele fysica of in het neopositivisme herleidt tot slechts ‘stedelijke legendes’ en die de alt-rechtse, neopositivisten leidt , antitheïsten, kapitalisten, neoliberais en rechtsen om de volledige controle over de populaire cultuur en massamedia over te nemen. En natuurlijk zullen we mensen opnieuw verbinden met de goden en het goddelijke en deze wereld opnieuw verbinden met de goden en het goddelijke.””

    “”E riguardo alla cultura popolare quelli che pensano “mitologia = leggende metropolitane” e “dei = leggende metropolitane”, ai loro occhi tutto il misticismo è solo leggenda metropolitana; tutta la religione, tutta la spiritualità, tutta la metafisica, tutta la filosofia, tutta l’extrafisica, tutto l’esoterismo , tutto l’occultismo, tutte le scienze spirituali e tutto ciò che riguarda queste sono solo leggende metropolitane. Tutto ciò che non rientra nella fisica convenzionale è una leggenda metropolitana per loro (quelle della cultura popolare). È così che la cultura popolare tratta la religione, la spiritualità e così via. E tutto ciò che rientra nella fisica convenzionale il più delle volte diventa propaganda a favore del neopositivismo, dell’antiteismo, della Big Tech, dei mass media, del capitalismo, del neoliberismo, della politica dell’identità, dell’alt-right e così via. E sulla politica, beh, la maggior parte delle cose politiche e le cose storiche diventano semplicemente il modo in cui la destra, l’alt-rightist e i neoliberisti fanno storia alternativa, narrativa storica e narrativa politica, sempre con propaganda a favore del capitalismo, del neoliberismo, alt-right e simili. E inoltre non c’è da stupirsi che la cultura popolare sia così antiteista, misosteista e specista, perché tremano anche davanti al divino e agli dei e agli esseri spirituali, e renderli popolari in questo modo è un modo per diminuire la loro paura, quindi la formula ” mitologia = leggende metropolitane” e “dei = leggende metropolitane” è una forma per ridurre la loro paura del divino, degli dei e degli esseri spirituali. La cultura popolare va criticata, così come questa unidimenzionalità sistemica, neurodivergenza universale, deterioramento cognitivo programmato e laicità militante che riduce tutto ciò che non rientra nella fisica convenzionale o nel neopositivismo in sole “leggende metropolitane” e che guida l’alt-right, i neopositivisti , antiteisti, capitalisti, neoliberisti e di destra per assumere il pieno controllo della cultura popolare e dei mass media. E, naturalmente, ricollegheremo gli esseri umani agli dei e al divino e ricollegheremo questo mondo agli dei e al divino”.”

    “”The right and the center are very genocidal and very authoritarian/totalitarian, and the Internet, social media, popular media, popular culture, videogames, mods and the Big Tech show that very well. Capitalism, neoliberalism, rightism, centrism and related are very genocidal and authoritarian/totalitarian ideologies, but sadly how they are installed everywhere it is hard to fight that and convince people, despite it is very easily to prove that by seeing he Internet, social media, popular media, popular culture, videogames, mods and the Big Tech. The world will only become great again when the last rightist is strangled with the entrails of the last centrist. It might sound genocidal as well, but that is what rightists and centrists are, despite that people who want to strangle others with other entrails should be strangled with their own entrails for learn what is good. But anyway, that is the why they attack the left, communism, socialism and leftism so much, because both are against the right and the center. And of course rightists and centrists will say he left, communism, socialism and leftism are genocidal and such and compare them to nazism and fascism being the rightists and centrists are the true nazis and fascists here. We shall fight rightism and centrism everywhere in the world and turn the World Socialist Republic in reality.” “A direita e o centro são muito genocidas e muito autoritários/totalitários, e a Internet, as mídias sociais, a mídia popular, a cultura popular, os videogames, os mods e a Big Tech mostram isso muito bem. Capitalismo, neoliberalismo, direitismo, centrismo e afins são ideologias muito genocidas e autoritárias/totalitárias, mas infelizmente como estão instaladas em todos os lugares é difícil lutar contra isso e convencer as pessoas, apesar de ser muito fácil provar isso vendo internet, mídia social, mídia popular, cultura popular, videogames, mods e a Big Tech. O mundo só voltará a ser grande quando o último direitista for estrangulado com as entranhas do último centrista. Pode soar genocida também, mas é isso que os direitistas e centristas são, apesar de pessoas que querem estrangular os outros com outras entranhas devem ser estrangulados com suas próprias entranhas para aprender o que é bom. Mas enfim, é por isso que atacam tanto a esquerda, o comunismo, o socialismo e o esquerdismo, porque ambos são novamente st à direita e ao centro. E é claro que direitistas e centristas dirão que ele deixou, comunismo, socialismo e esquerdismo são genocidas e tal e os comparam ao nazismo e fascismo sendo os direitistas e centristas os verdadeiros nazistas e fascistas aqui. Devemos lutar contra o direitismo e o centrismo em todo o mundo e transformar a República Socialista Mundial em realidade.””

    ““La derecha y el centro son muy genocidas y muy autoritarios/totalitarios, e Internet, las redes sociales, los medios populares, la cultura popular, los videojuegos, los mods y las Big Tech lo muestran muy bien. El capitalismo, el neoliberalismo, el derechismo, el centrismo y afines son ideologías muy genocidas y autoritarias/totalitarias, pero lamentablemente como están instaladas en todos lados es difícil combatir eso y convencer a la gente, a pesar de que es muy fácil comprobarlo viendo Internet, redes sociales, medios populares, cultura popular, videojuegos, mods y las Big Tech. El mundo solo volverá a ser grande cuando el último derechista sea estrangulado con las entrañas del último centrista. También puede sonar genocida, pero eso es lo que son los derechistas y los centristas, a pesar de que las personas que quieren estrangular a otras con otras entrañas deben ser estrangulados con sus propias entrañas para aprender lo que es bueno, pero en fin, por eso atacan tanto a la izquierda, al comunismo, al socialismo y al izquierdismo, porque ambos son otra vez st la derecha y el centro. Y, por supuesto, los derechistas y los centristas dirán que se fue, el comunismo, el socialismo y el izquierdismo son genocidas y demás, y los compararán con el nazismo y el fascismo, siendo los derechistas y los centristas los verdaderos nazis y fascistas aquí. Lucharemos contra el derechismo y el centrismo en todas partes del mundo y convertiremos la República Socialista Mundial en una realidad”. “La droite et le centre sont très génocidaires et très autoritaires / totalitaires, et Internet, les médias sociaux, les médias populaires, la culture populaire, les jeux vidéo, les mods et la Big Tech le montrent très bien. Le capitalisme, le néolibéralisme, le droitisme, le centrisme et autres sont des idéologies très génocidaires et autoritaires/totalitaires, mais malheureusement comme elles sont installées partout, il est difficile de lutter contre cela et de convaincre les gens, même s’il est très facile de prouver qu’en voyant Internet, les médias sociaux, les médias populaires, la culture populaire, les jeux vidéo, les mods et la Big Tech. Le monde ne redeviendra grand que lorsque le dernier droitier sera étranglé avec les entrailles du dernier centriste. Cela peut aussi sembler génocidaire, mais c’est ce que sont les droitiers et les centristes, malgré le fait que les gens qui veulent étrangler les autres avec d’autres entrailles qu’il faut étrangler avec leurs propres entrailles pour apprendre ce qui est bien.Mais enfin, c’est pour ça qu’ils s’attaquent tant à la gauche, au communisme, au socialisme et au gauchisme, parce que les deux sont à nouveau st la droite et le centre. Et bien sûr, les droitiers et les centristes diront qu’il est parti, le communisme, le socialisme et le gauchisme sont génocidaires et autres et les comparent au nazisme et au fascisme étant que les droitiers et les centristes sont les vrais nazis et fascistes ici. Nous combattrons le droitisme et le centrisme partout dans le monde et transformerons la République socialiste mondiale en réalité.””

    “”The US laws, the US justice and the US constitution are far-right, totalitarian, authoritarian, dictatorial, imperialist, colonialist, neopositivist and alt-right. And the right is fine with that because the right supports totalitarianism, authoritarianism, dictatorship and genocide since it is favorable to capitalism, neoliberalism, rightism and such. They want law and justice; totalitarian, authoritarian, dictatorial and genocidal laws and justice in favor of capitalism, neoliberalism and rightism and against everyone who opposes or disagrees with capitalism, neoliberalism and rightism. The right is nazifascist, as well as everyone who supports capitalism, neoliberalism and rightism.” “As leis dos EUA, a justiça dos EUA e a constituição dos EUA são de extrema direita, totalitárias, autoritárias, ditatoriais, imperialistas, colonialistas, neopositivistas e alt-right. E a direita está bem com isso porque a direita apoia o totalitarismo, o autoritarismo, a ditadura e genocídio porque é favorável ao capitalismo, neoliberalismo, direitismo e afins. Eles querem lei e justiça; leis totalitárias, autoritárias, ditatoriais e genocidas e justiça a favor do capitalismo, neoliberalismo e direitismo e contra todos que se opõem ou discordam do capitalismo, neoliberalismo e A direita é nazifascista, assim como todos que apoiam o capitalismo, o neoliberalismo e o direitismo.””Las leyes estadounidenses, la justicia estadounidense y la constitución estadounidense son de extrema derecha, totalitarias, autoritarias, dictatoriales, imperialistas, colonialistas, neopositivistas y de extrema derecha. Y la derecha está bien con eso porque la derecha apoya el totalitarismo, el autoritarismo, la dictadura y genocidio por ser favorable al capitalismo, al neoliberalismo, al derechismo y demás, quieren derecho y justicia, leyes y justicia totalitarias, autoritarias, dictatoriales y genocidas a favor del capitalismo, del neoliberalismo y del derechismo y contra todo aquel que se oponga o esté en desacuerdo con el capitalismo, el neoliberalismo y La derecha es nazifascista, así como todos los que apoyan el capitalismo, el neoliberalismo y el derechismo”.”Les lois américaines, la justice américaine et la constitution américaine sont d’extrême droite, totalitaires, autoritaires, dictatoriales, impérialistes, colonialistes, néopositivistes et de droite alternative. Et la droite est d’accord avec cela parce que la droite soutient le totalitarisme, l’autoritarisme, la dictature et génocide puisqu’il est favorable au capitalisme, au néolibéralisme, au droitisme, etc. Ils veulent la loi et la justice, des lois et une justice totalitaires, autoritaires, dictatoriales et génocidaires en faveur du capitalisme, du néolibéralisme et du droitisme et contre tous ceux qui s’opposent ou sont en désaccord avec le capitalisme, le néolibéralisme et La droite est nazifasciste, ainsi que tous ceux qui soutiennent le capitalisme, le néolibéralisme et le droitisme.”

  2. “maidenofthevoyage Hi! 💙 My name is Shayna! I would love to freely express myself here on this platform while being respected and allowed to be who I am as I come to be in this world and in the realm of Spirit. I will not tolerate disrespect or misbehavior while on my channel. Any such energies of ill intent will be removed by such way of Karma, by my protectors, my Ancestors, guides, Dragons, water spirits, my higher self, God, and my counterpart and the suspect will be punished. I will not tolerate bullshit on my channel and any such comments as 8i’ve described above will be removed, no question.! So, this is my second post. I love this picture because it shows my sense of style and my personality. I love to wear these harem pants! These ones were made in India and I got them thrifted! So I’m a Fashionista, creative artist, and I added more highlights to my photo to accentuate the aura colors that are most prominent around me or currently at this moment. 🧡💙 8 is the number for life and death and is one of my numbers so best not to reckon with me or it’ll be hell for you… 🖤 (I guess I’ll reveal myself slowly….) 💖💝🥰🌊🌊🌊🌊 #spiritual #fashionista #spirit #waterenergy #dragon #waterspirits #God #Ra #Isis #Nepthys #spiritstyle #spiritualjourney #called 22 sem https://www.instagram.com/p/CY2PzbxJp2l/ maidenofthevoyage A new Dawn is coming! 🌅 #Theawakening #Thegoldenage #Thechosenones #angelsonearth #Thegreatdivide #blackwolf #whitewolf #thefae #naturespirits #warriors #rainbowwarriors #theprotectors #guardiansoftheearth #spiritualawakening #spirituality #wakeup #Anunnaki #Nibiru #Rainbowdestiny #Theancestors 21 sem https://www.instagram.com/p/CZIN-clJ8ob/ maidenofthevoyage My Galactic Signature from the 13 moon calendar on the Tzolkin, or Harmonic Molecule is Kin 86: White Galactic Worldbridger. I was born on the first moon. Year of the White Electric Wizard. ⚪🌕😇👽🖤🤍⚖💓 #Galacticsignature #13mooncalendar #Whiteworldbridger #Spirituality #Wavespells #Theawakening #2022 #synchronicity #galactic #Starseed #Anunnaki #Skypeople #earthangels #Godsonearth #Nibiru #Lifeanddeath #Ancient #Chosen 20 sem https://www.instagram.com/p/CZK094oJUtV/

    “Foto do perfil de maidenofthevoyage maidenofthevoyage I am not afraid to express my truth and live naturally within my boundaries to grow and expand. When I feel comfortable to embrace the uncomfortable….that’s the only way we can get it done. Live free and be authentic. ~ #freespirit #spirituality #love #loveunconditional 💗 #peacepipe #nativeway #nativepeople https://www.instagram.com/p/CaIksJfJUEv/ maidenofthevoyage My starseed oracle deck! 🔼 I love the way this picture shines! The way I capture it is a gold light coming from a hidden source of eternal flame, always burning 🕯 ~I can do tarot readings completely out of spirit, spirits, and spirit guides with none of me compromising the drawing. I can do them for free or ask for a payment. All about your abundance and your true power. 💙🤍 #tarot #tarotreadings #readings #visions #spirit #higherself #spiritguardians #starseedoracle #starseeds #anunnaki 17 sem https://www.instagram.com/p/CaJF4fROAFt/ maidenofthevoyage Fuck all this shit! I need to get a lot off my chest! Yo! And this water hydrant was going off across the street from where I am working and probably my guess went off before I clocked out! Wonder if it’s connected? 🌊💙 #waterenergy #tsunamipower #watermovement #throatchakra #telepathy #empathy #crownchakra #thirdeyechakra #rootchakra man I wanna tell me everyone off at my work! 🤬😤🌞🌛🔥💦👁️💀 #spirituality #psychic 13 sem https://www.instagram.com/p/CbYTx_0poQ8/ maidenofthevoyage This is an affirmation that I personally made. It’s an affirmation and I feel a real positive spell for breaking out of enchantments, disillusionment spells? Or illusion spells? Keep repeating this affirmation or this personal mantra? And you will come out of it! 💦🗡️💎🦪✨🌸 #Affirmations #Spiritualattacks #Spellattacks #disenchantment #disenchantmentspell #enchantmentspell #breakingbindingspells #tomeofknowledge #evileyeprotection #Spells #magic #Spellcrafting #channelingwiseelders #ancientancestors #sourcemagic #bookofspells #bookofknowledge #grimoire 6 sem https://www.instagram.com/p/CdHP3wmJwfW/

    “maidenofthevoyage Writings from within. Messages from the dark. (In a place of light)And visions from the eye 👁 They should not be tampering with things they don’t understand! Innocent souls have been being taken which have not been justified!!!! Energy pyramid scheme, soulsuckers, worse than Death himself, disrespectful, and low! And signing contracts, making deals, that are giving permission to these beings to invade and take! Hollowed out bodies, soulless! #visionjournal #spiritualawakening #thegreatdivide #revealingtruecolors #theevilsinthisworld #spirituality #propheticnightmares #propheticdreams #dreams. #therealmofdreams #higherself #Libra #lifeanddeath #darkandlight Gate 8. What goes up must come down! #Anunnaki #oldsoul #rainbowsoul #dragon #ancient Dark cloak walkers. #soulsuckers #energyvampires #thesoulless #zombies #2022 #highempath #unjustifieddeaths #maliciousinsidiousbehavior #inhuman 💙🤍💙🤍💙🤍💙🤍💙🤍💙🤍💙🤍💙🤍💙🤍💙🤍 Editado · 19 sem https://www.instagram.com/p/CZczOErphT3/ maidenofthevoyage ×Bonus×: Journal#2: messages from the dark in a place of light! Messages from within! Time and space transcending, dimension jumping, planeswalking, eye talking, dimensional journeys, deep wells of different vibrations. Boat driving (but not a good passage guide to the world of the dead!) 😂 🤍little inside joke! Lmao 3D!!! A vision of spirits dwelling, people going through different doors using different energies! Energies speak for themselves! Discernment. #spirituality #transcendence #thespiritworld #spirits #ghosts #energydraining temporary power source, lost…hmm so within so without! Soon many messages!!! Wow 👻👻👻👻👻👻👻👻👻👻👻👻👻👻👻👻 #thirdeye #visiontrips #visionjournal #seeingbeyond #multidimensionality #passagewayofthedead #thedeadspeak #deadmantelltales 19 sem https://www.instagram.com/p/CZc388hpXlb/ maidenofthevoyage A thought on meditation: Recently I have been meditating more frequently for at least 5 minutes and building from there. I started realizing that I can utilize my meditation more effectively when I add an intention for my meditation by examining something I need a closer look at for a deeper insight on it. If I needed guidance from my higher self, or wanted to make a review on parts of me that aren’t in alignment with my spirit, I hold that thought energy in my mind or mention it aloud whether releasing it in the process so the answer can be revealed then the meditation is given direction im your practice! Of coming back to being, and being present! 2:22! *i used rainbow bubbles for my gram background this time! I like these little thought messages i have been creating lately.! Always brings a certain space a certain realm into the ideas I am conveying. #meditation #spirituality #awaken #awakening #awakenedlife #spiritualjourney #spiritualpractice #dragonsoul #dragon #mermaid #magick #dreams #dreamrealm #waterrealm #rainbowsoul #starseed #anunnaki #lovebubble #waterworld #mamaearth #pachamama #gaia #aphrodite #ishtar #mothermary #inanna #Venus #isis #mothergoddess 18 sem https://www.instagram.com/p/CZumLZ9pdqp/

    “maidenofthevoyage https://youtube.com/channel/UC04onUv-JVDbl0n49qPWqdg Please check out my brothers page!!! He makes really good videos on spirituality, shadow work, the demonica, or daemons, and he is a beautiful singer and artist! A 1 of a kind metal artist! He can play hella good guitar! Please check him out! ❤🧡💛💚💙💜🖤🤍💖💗💫 #lightwork #shadowwork #spirituality #metal #music #daemon #lightanddark #annunaki #egyptiangods #earthangels #thechosenones 18 sem https://www.instagram.com/p/CZ5Mbh0pAFR/ maidenofthevoyage ~Weeping Willow~ 💗💙💚 Last week I really found myself at an awe at the sight of seeing the name to this tree spirit and upon seeing its name I remembered why I was attracted to this particular tree and found photos of her on Google showcasing what I love sooo much about her and my connections to this being. All I can think of is, her, creation stories, deep sadness, the birth of this plant and where she came from. The fact I know its a female embodying this tree. You can even see her in the photo right in the center. How she is made first of water and then the body being made of her branches. Blue and green. Lots of deep mature love. Wisdom and knowledge. I think of and see images or aspects of Gaia. I see Earth Angels. A river that passes through time in another realm completely off the ground just floating suspended from one time and to the next. She exists. She always does. I feel the birth of Earth, the crown that sits on top of head. Her sacred hair. 😇💙💦💫 The Tree of life. 🌳 #pachamama #gaia #treeoflife #wateroflife #thewateringtree #thelovingtree #grandmotherwillow #grannywisdom #ourancestors #intothewild #greenwoman #waterspirit #femininespirit #divinefeminine #earthangels #ancientones #dragons #mysteryoflife #spirituality #treespirits #naturespirits #Nature #weepingwillow #spiritualhealing #spiritualawakening 17 sem https://www.instagram.com/p/CaA-GvJJ8uD/

    “maidenofthevoyage Personal thoughts. 💭 Messages from Source. Messages out of my Divine Guidance for your Inspiration. This post is not intended to condone harmful and reckless use of magick in the spiritual community. I do not wish for those to view my post and instantly think it’s promoting death or violence. It is a delving into the past and analyzing the persons who I played a role in, in that timeline for that life. This time it’s Queen Elizabeth the 1st from my akashic records. For every life, there is a certain set up, a certain plotting. Call it, fate, or destiny. You have your allies, and then you have your enemies. Some of your allies are hidden forces which those who are not open can not see, and they play on your side and help you win your battles. Then you have your higher self, and all your potential traits that will take you to the top for the Bounty of this Life. Good choices and bad choices. Spirit and God. God’s will. Also deploy discernment in order to deeply analyze the components leading up and into an event, and the events that unfolded in someone’s life while incorporating what is known about aspects of life, and what is not known. You have a mesh of energies together, if you learn to decipher the mesh pool, you can see where each energy comes from. There is luck energy, the energy of karma, the energy of love, energy of hatred, energy of spirit, bad omens, energy of darkness, of negativity, energy of honesty, energy of truth, of revealing, of true intention, energy of innocence. Energy of the stars, energy of higher realms, energy of dragons, the serpent, the way the story is, neutrality. Studies of the dark arts and studies of the light arts, and using this knowledge for good, to be good. Sometimes, we have energy vampires and pyramid schemes that are under the water going on and sucking the life energy out of individuals who shine with such a magnificent bright light. If they were not put out of subdued, the story would not continue. There would be no story, no heroine, no hero, no justice. The story would not be able to continue. And there was a lot of secretive murders going on in that lifetime…👀 #divineguidance #divinemessages #thedivine 6 sem https://www.instagram.com/p/CdJF6N6uOKu/ maidenofthevoyage LOVE. Love isn’t something I can simply explain. I once asked myself if love is actually born out of pain and suffering? I learned recently that you grow to love someone. In this process, you are letting go of the thoughts and ideas that do not serve love which isn’t of this Earth and isn’t an easily graspeable concept. You are letting go of the vibrational frequencies that are not supported by Love. Essentially, removing the mask, opening yourself to trust and intimacy, and stop the self-destructive habits which kept you from growth in the vibration of love here, Love for yourself and others, without compromising who you are. Love is free. I also believe that the divine feminine are souly responsible for creating the light that is Love in the time of Creation, at the very beginning. I see it as like a flame that blinds the sky. Orange and pink and fuschia and gold shining through. So Women, representatives of divine feminine, by the rule choose first what or who to give love to. ❤️ I feel like that’s the way. 💗 🌸 #Love #Divinefeminine #higherlove #creation #unconditionallove #higherrealms #QueenElizabethI theme is queen Elizabeth the first vibes. Shout out to my sisters! @sirenandirareign11, @aanyas_place, @carlyrosebergman, @jennifer.booth.9887 @bigmammasahn @hquinzelhaha47, @annalise_wellman, @kriszta.veres Editado · 6 sem https://www.instagram.com/p/CdJgBk-Ji-c/

    “maidenofthevoyage Hey everyone! ♥️♥️♥️ Seems like my live just canceled on itself! 😂👏🏽✌🏽💖🔆 These are some major strong cleansing energies of White Sage, and my prayer card for this live🔼 The Cosmic Heart 💗 ! ‼️‼️ Always be a moving prayer! Wish for good health and protect those who need protecting, all the while independence shows where love grows! See ya in my next live!!! ☀️☀️☀️ 🤍🤍🤍🤍🤍🤍🤍🤍 #starseeds #chosenones #lightworkers #higherheart #cosmicheart #divinefeminine #divinemasculine #whitesage #purifying #cleansing #white #dragon #purge #detoxify #spirituality #spiritualjourney #twinflamejourney #egyptiangods 5 sem https://www.instagram.com/p/Cdgnw8TJljx/ maidenofthevoyage #Hogwartsmystery #Slytherin #Dragons #dragonsclub #mysticism #Avalon #magicschool #mysteryschool #magick #darkfeminine Thought I’d share my character creation over in Hogwarts Mystery. Her name is Arianna Rose. Her hair is red with eyes that are blue, dark olive skin born into a secret bloodline and destined to join the house of Slytherin as many of her Ancestors of gone once before her. And who knows she might have some close relatives in Gryffindor…maybe a few in Hufflepuff? But yes she befriends everyone and acts out of bravery, compassion, and love to ensure all magicks are protected in the world. She too knows all too well about being disloyal. Cunning and psychic with power natural talents. And a natural talent to pick up on everyone’s thoughts. She can guess your move in dueling before you make it and best you with a strategic counter. She also loves to read and be studious, learning about all the magicks because they are all important to developing mastery and graduating from magic school while conducting your behavior. Her favorite class is Defense against the Dark Arts. 🖤🐉💜❤️💛💙🔥🗻🌊🌬️🌞🌜🌚✨ 4 sem https://www.instagram.com/p/Cd6SgMYpRpb/ maidenofthevoyage May 23rd, 2022. Crystal of the day 💎: Blue Topaz Key words: Enhancement of mind and communication. Element: Fire Chakras: Throat (5th), Third Eye(6th) I love Blur Topaz! 💙💙💙 Such a sunken Gem, rare and a beautiful jewel! I can think of lost ancient temples or civilizations that once adorned this gem into the founding of their culture. Those are where my thoughts take me from my higher mind. 🗿 #crystals #crystaloftheday #bluetopaz #throatchakra #thirdeyechakra #fireelement #spirituality #schoolofthoth👁️ 4 sem https://www.instagram.com/p/Cd6m70fpI6w/ Foto do perfil de maidenofthevoyage maidenofthevoyage 💲✨♓My very own created money sigil, to create, power, generate a flow of currency drawing in from the roots and shooting upward, spreading out into Mountains with 3 major pinnacles or open triangles. A center core force is centralizing the energy in the middle of the drawing.❇️❇️❇️🌏🌎🌍🌐☀️🌕🌌💫🌟 |=>Money flows everlasting to me. I always know where to get it. The core element in this exercise is Abundance. The core driving force is a universal law. ♻️🔺🟡🟡🟡 #Abundance #sigil #moneyflows ~~Money flows directly to me, through me from my Ancestors… #spirituality #moneysigil #solarplexus sun and the planetary bodies, orbital patterns, from the Universe into me, the universal, the eternal. I Am Confident. I Am always flowing. #magic #magicschool #wordsarepower #soundsarepower #affirmations #moneyspell #moneymagic #spiritualcurrency #mysteryschool #lightworker #Isis #lakshmi #Inanna I Am in the Flow Staying Current to the Flow 💰💰💰 🌊🌊🌊💠 2 sem Foto do perfil de maidenofthevoyage maidenofthevoyage I am Ready to receive the blessings which the Divine has prepared for me. 2 semResponder https://www.instagram.com/p/CePA55upDrJ/

    “maidenofthevoyage 👁️Anyone who chooses to attack me, Spirit is watching👁️ You can find this video on my main YouTube channel:https://youtube.com/channel/UCSRXlIp4ggUSGR5Gz10kcgA. 🦂♏🖤 Please help grow both my channels and support me on this powerful journey that I am on! Spirit wants to help grow my abundance, and so for now I will no longer be talking to any people that became my friends from an online platform. I am not going to say names, but if you were always there for me, then this shouldn’t bother you. I need to see who is trustworthy and who isn’t because of all the projections and spells I have been receiving. I am strengthening my bonds with myself and my twin partner, and will only be going to My ancestors and my personal Spirit team for help for now on! 🌹♥️🗡️🐉⚖️♎📚💖 I’ve been told by Spirit for a long time that I don’t need anybody to help me grow or teach me anything new. I already have what I need and I can trust the path laid out before me, and only that from Spirit and my Ancestors for right now! I’m moving steadily and stealthily, not going to share this information outside this media or my YouTube media. Keep my mouth shut. And focus. Focus on my love and what is going to be parallel and in alignment with my success which is all promised to me after all the shit that I’ve been through to get here. 🙏🏽 #spirituality #loveandlight #lightanddark #shadowwork #lightwork #twinflamejourney #twinflame #Divinefeminine #scorpio #scorpion #scorpionenergy #discernment #goddess #divine #sacred #cosmiclove #cosmictime #ancestors #Spirit #ascension #spiritualawakening #multidimensional #higherself #higherguidance #77 #88 5 sem Foto do perfil de maidenofthevoyage maidenofthevoyage THIS IS AN EXAMPLE ^^^ everytime your light grows and you’re speaking your truth, you have deceivers like this wanting to knock you down and steal your fame and fortune. Especially when you’re pure hearted and innocent! Do not fall for this scheme! It’s a TRAP! She won’t help you. It’s false promises. There are just as many misaligned voodoo witches as there are good ones. Don’t be the one to make that mistake. As I have learned from many experiences already about these types of people and what they are really after. They are losing and we are getting stronger Chosen ones! #chosenones 5 semResponder https://www.instagram.com/p/CdeiCdxDd5O/ maidenofthevoyage #scorpioenergy 🦂🖤♏ Cutting off certain people for right now to clear and hone my energy. (The dead don’t lie). #Lionenergy 🦁🗡️♥️🌹🐉 #Isis, #Hathor 💎✨☀️ I’m not going to be sharing external information anymore orally to people that I know whether I trust or don’t trust them. This is a test, both for me and for them to see where the Truth lies. This Queen is going into solitude to continue with the rest of her plan in this game of chess. ⚖️♎#Libra, #Thescales, #Balance, #Temperance, #Thetower, #TheLovers 💖 https://youtube.com/channel/UCSRXlIp4ggUSGR5Gz10kcgA This is my YouTube channel! Please, check it out and support me in my endeavors! By subscribing, liking, and/or viewing my content. #Ancestors, #Abundance, #Spirit, #Spiritualguidance, #Manifestation, #Justice ⚔️ #Queen, #TheEmpress, #Queenofhearts, #truelove 5 sem https://www.instagram.com/p/CdejY8pj5Tl/

    “maidenofthevoyage Please, please support me. I have a YouTube channel which you can click the link here: https://youtube.com/channel/UCSRXlIp4ggUSGR5Gz10kcgA and help support the content that I put out for everyone. Like, comment, and subscribe to connect to me. I am giving my trust over to Spirit this time, and for another moment again calling Spirit out for help. Which includes my Ancestors! Backing off from anybody in my life for right now whether helping me or not helping me on my journey. If you were always there for me since the beginning, this will prove that you stayed a LOYAL and TRUSTWORTHY friend that I could rely on for help if it arises and always had my back in the dark. 🖤🦂✨ Too many projections and psychic attacks. I am called to retreat into Solitude, so I can work on manifesting my abundance further and solidify my fortune. I will no longer be sharing any information directly about what I know outside this platform or my other channel to anyone in a verbal manner. #333 #Godintervention ♎⚖️🤍⚔️#Justice #Goddess #Queen #Discernment #Gameofchess #Gameofthrones ain’t nobody stealin my throne! #888 5 sem https://www.instagram.com/p/Cdelo4yDTp9/ maidenofthevoyage Hi!~🌀 everyone! I’m here with you today going to do a sage cleansing soon! 💖🤍💎 I wanted to create a little altar for it and I cleaned a whole space on this table to set this up! A white feather, giant seashell for divination, prayer/Oracle card, white sage, and a vial I placed on the table for a symbol of cleaning. ✨ For me and for anyone who needs and where it might reach you in Spirit. Clean up bad energies, cut through dirty spells, pray on energies of white, the significant tarot card for this moment is 🔼: THE COSMIC HEART. pulled from my Starseeds Oracle deck. 🌸🌸🌸 You can find a link to my YouTube channel in my bio, where I’m gonna be doing a LIVE blessing you all including where I need.. In the name of LOVE, the highest order, the spiritual counsel, and console to you. You can invoke loving spirits if you wish. 💖💖💖 I may call upon the Pyramids through my higher self and bring those energies into the cleansing prayer as well! Please join me and support me with love and blessings! I am looking forward to seeing everyone there! https://youtube.com/channel/UCSRXlIp4ggUSGR5Gz10kcgA #Sage #purging #purify #white #whiteenergy #spirit #spiritblessings #blessings #cleanse #altar #loveenergy #higherlove #spirituality #humanitarian #lightworker #loveworker #Starseedsoracle #rainbowsoul #ancientsoul #synchronicity #heartenergy #spiritualrealm #egyptiangods #pyramids #prayer #Spirit 5 sem Foto do perfil de elias_mattu elias_mattu Finally I have been cured from disease after suffering from the virus for over 6years with several out-breaks, thank you @dr_ahonsiehimare.herbs for curing me from HPV for this l’m going to continue sharing with other people can be cured too. He also has cure, HIV, DIABETES, LUPUS, CANCER, HERPES, INFERTILITY, HSV, WARTS, WEIGHT LOSS 5 sem1 curtidaResponder Foto do perfil de maidenofthevoyage maidenofthevoyage @elias_mattu well thank you sooo much for sharing! 🤍🔥 That’s a really positive message! 5 sem1 curtidaResponder https://www.instagram.com/p/Cdgd9QZpvSH/

    “maidenofthevoyage Hey beautiful souls! 💗 If you didn’t know, I have a YouTube channel under the same name “Maidenofthevoyage” and you can also look up my name too if you want! Please show me support by watching my videos on my channel, liking, and commenting if you’re engaged, and please subscribe to share my love with others and my passions while I’m here with all of you on this planet Earth. Here is the link to my YouTube channel: https://youtube.com/channel/UCSRXlIp4ggUSGR5Gz10kcgA Also, please let me know what you think, and if you choose to stay and join my following let me know why. I’m curious. I am really grateful for everyone who has supported me from the beginning. I also greatly thank Spirit for helping me to rise! ☀️💮#annunakistarseed #isis #inanna #aphrodite #loveenergy #lovegoddess #goddess #youtube #amaterasu #spirituality #mysticism #mysteryschool #magicschool #spiritualjourney 2 sem https://www.instagram.com/p/CeWojcdpaGw/ maidenofthevoyage #rawbeauty #lovegoddess #selflove #royalty #bloodline #dna #anunnaki #inanna #unveiling #Truelove My true love is me! Oh and I love my father God 🌸☀️🤍🔱👑💖#dragon #warrior #ancientsoul #Divinefeminine #darkandlight #spirituality #awakening 2 sem https://www.instagram.com/p/CecTETUpYCX/ maidenofthevoyage Alice in wonderland! Alice is one of my favorite character personalities never really thought of her as a Disney princess though, she is sooo imaginative. The impossible comes to life and riddles! #loveenergy #bigeyes #bigexpression #bigheart #puresoul #childofgod #dragon #cosmicheart #divinity #divinefeminine 2 sem https://www.instagram.com/p/CecWn8SJcre/ maidenofthevoyage Please help this old soul gain back her blessings and fortune. We need a pick me up, stuck in Jacksonville, but I have faith y’all will help me! We need food, clean water. After accepting my #abundance I have faith God/source/spirit will provide whatever I need. I am #mothermary #blackmadonna #aphrodite #ancestor #isis and my twin flame who is #osiris needs your help! We were spelled, my parents spelled me into poverty, tried stealing my royalty, my crown, my energy, making pacts with the wrong entities, car spelled broken down! #spiritualcommunity #nativeamerican #anunnaki I am here on Earth. #goddessinanna 🐚🤍🦪🙏🏽 1 sem https://www.instagram.com/p/CekPwWfDtBD/

    “maidenofthevoyage Ma’Ats Rules of Truth to live by and this applies to every soul who lives and walks on this Earth! Learn them and practice them everyday! ⚖️♎🤍💙💛👁️ #justice #lawsoftruth #lawisgod #iamuniverse The Universal Ideals. You will see a post detailing Ma’At on her written laws to live by Truthfully soon here. I have not left the world of Instagram. Nor will I! #twinflame #yahweh #asherah #dragon #thirdeye #iamopen I am receiving my blessings (…from the universe I live in) #maat #goddessoftruth #144000 #chosen I am living in a sea of my creation. I am a God. Now you have met me. 5 d https://www.instagram.com/p/Ce0GzJ2AZW-/ Foto do perfil de maidenofthevoyage maidenofthevoyage 🌌✡️42 ideals of Ma’At. Read them. Speak them. Hear them. And Live them. #spiritualdownload #maat #egyptianmythology #mysteryschool #iamgod #iamuniverse ~The universe flows through me, I am the creator of my own Universe. I take my own responsibility for the Universe I create. I live in the ever resounding frequency of TRUTH. 🤍🐉 #dragon #magicschool #Ancestors #yahwehandasherah #yahweh #asherah #goddessinanna #dumuzi #tammuz #moses 5 d https://www.instagram.com/p/Ce0JzNquA1K/ maidenofthevoyage #Zombieapocalypse is real. Look up Seattle Zombie and Seattle Zombie Train! Scientists like ones from Jurassic Park have been experimenting with retroviruses, Designer drugs where governments are secretly distributing them into your poor neighborhood, “societyraiseskids” stealing information to bioweaponize viruses to kill people with. They’ve been manufacturing all the viruses and they created a cover up and changed the story about it. TikTok leaked all the US Patents…never trust a “Fact Check” they’ve all been lying to us. China Artificial Sun,Zombie businesses, AIDS>HIV>ZIKA>INFLUENZA(which affects Birds and pigs too beside humans!)>SARS>COVID…there are zombie raccoons, zombie deer, and zombie coyote, and zombie birds. The plague app on your smartphone. Eugenics, Genocide. Bill Gates. ELITE 1% People who stole all the money. Destroying people’s lives, their health, their families, killing people with invisible sicknesses They know how to activate genes and inactivate genes They figured out how to stop genes from sending codes that transcribe the rna or the DNA? I know what I’m talking about. NEUROLOGY. PATHOLOGY OF VIRUSES. ELON MUSK BRAIN CHIPS. SENDING LARGE AMOUNTS OF HEAVY METALS IN SPACE AND PUTTING THEM IN OUR ATMOSPHERE. 5G RADIO TOWERS. MICROWAVES GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOODS. THE FACT THEY TRYNA WIPE OUT FARMERS AND DESTROY FOOD SUPPLY CONTAMINATE THE WATERS, MAKE THEM RADIOACTIVE AND DESTROY THE EARTH. Radiation can mutate the DNA y’all!! MIND CONTROL SUBLIMINAL SONAR WAVES HUGE CELLPHONE TOWERS AND RADIO TOWERS WHICH CAN BROADCAST HUGE VIBRATIONAL SIGNALS THAT REACH THE BRAIN IN SECONDS TO HUUGGEE CROWDS OF PEOPLE, THINK ZOMBIE LAND CHEESEBURGERS AND VOODOO ZOMBIE SLAVES BLACK MAGIC, MANUFACTURED VIRUSES TO FAKE CURE IDEAS “VACCINES” THE CONTROL BARRIERS, THE POLICE PROTECT THE INTERESTS OF THE SHADOW GOVERNMENT AND THEY HUNT DOWN THE CHOSEN ONES, THEY LOCK YOU UP, THEY SEND YOU TO THE HOSPITAL ITS ALLLL A SET UP!!! DONT GO TO THE HOSPITAL, STEAL BABIES, ORGAN HARVEST FROM CHILDREN KIDNAPPED AND WENT MISSING, THE SCHOOLS…THIS IS ALL DEVILS WORK!!! WAKE UP PEOPLE! PLEASE FIND ME ON MY TIKTOK! I have it in my likes> @maidenofthevoyage 1 d Foto do perfil de jordanselbyfall jordanselbyfall That’s what I felt about the Covid 19 virus 1 d1 curtidaResponder https://www.instagram.com/p/Ce_eIqZAjNO/

    1. I reposted those posts from @maidenofthevoyage (Shayna Blackman) here because the Anunnaki asked me to do it and also I thought it was necessary to post here as well. Since I posted about
      Salih Mirzabeyoğlu and about Aaron Minch, so posting about Shayna Blackman would be correct from my part to do it.

  3. Monday, June 20, 2022
    *IN OUR SISTER COLOMBIA, PEACE – UNITY TRIUMPHED, BY SUPPORTING POPULAR PARTICIPATION * Siguaraya-CBSTCCP / Venezuela
    *IN OUR SISTER COLOMBIA, PEACE – UNITY TRIUMPHED, BY SUPPORTING POPULAR PARTICIPATION*

    FRANCIA MARQUEZ

    The Cantevista family, in commemoration of the 92nd anniversary of its foundation, celebrates that at the same time, Bolívar’s dream begins to permeate the American UNIT, all with a beam of hope in the electoral result of Gustavo Petro as president and Francia Márquez as vice president. president of sister Colombia 🇨🇴

    There are more than 200 years of pro-Yankee – San Tanderian governments, hegemonic interests foreign to peace, prone to war, drug trafficking, paramilitarism, prostitution, continuous and permanent violation of human rights, exclusion…

    This moment is historic, because the paths of optimism are being sown, the confidence to overcome the horrors of war. Colombia is in tune with the sister peoples of the continent, giving itself the opportunity to build a different model of government. The false positives were defeated, the disqualification (Rendón), the lie, this defeat will deepen the opposition and will only be overcome with permanent mobilization.

    In another order of ideas, this Monday, the 20th, at the Cantv (NEA) Caracas facilities, more than three hundred workers from all over the country will meet, not only to celebrate the 92nd anniversary of Cantv’s founding, but also to ratify the awakening of the working class as a fundamental pillar for the maintenance of our source of work and production for the Bolivarian Homeland…

    This massive participation is a sign that the management that is seen and felt must continue to dialogue with the foundations, so that they are increasingly solid and the new management promotes respect for their forms of organization, which cannot be interfered with. .

    Tomorrow, Monday, the mobilization of the entire national territory is a re-encounter of organizational evaluation, since in 92 years we have gone through more than 26 Collective Agreements, they meant strikes, jails, dismissals, some levels of unethical inspection and we highlight that since privatization – nationalization – privatization – nationalization, we have not yet reached the structures of power and carried out a new type of governance.

    Today, as a Class, we are participating in this activity with the prevention delegates, the CPTT, the workers’ militia, the trade union world. Our leadership role in the company is no small thing.

    Our union institutions are not alien to us, the history of Cantv because we were born in it, we are the product of collective construction, where the hands and intellect of workers, retirees, pensioners and survivors continue to lay the foundations for the development, support and permanence of our entity.

    We recognize that this meeting serves to re-moralize our forces, restore confidence and was built by this new management, by the contribution of the combative union world, which, recognizing its failures, we have advanced quickly to take the leadership out of poverty.

    In the same way, we are advancing and promoting the massive participation of men and women in the natural and organic rescue of the union world.

    The current crisis in the system and the Covid pandemic have affected the entire labor entity, along with the grassroots organizations that nourish it, and together we are moving towards global recomposition.

    Thus, we congratulate everyone who attends this activity, while confirming that we remain committed to promoting, deepening organizational, training and ideological spaces, where the working class will continue to struggle to lead, govern and build different scenarios of protagonist participation.

    This is the year of the working class and we are moving forward without hesitation in building the unitary bases.

    *Ate Siguaraya*

    *President of FETRATEL*

    *Director of CBSTCCP*

    MORE COLOMBIA

    Communist Party of Brazilian Workers: CHALLENGES AFTER GUSTAVO PETRO’S VICTORY * Fernando Rivero / VEN

    ***

    Posted by FRT OFFICIAL at 09:45 No comments:
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    Tags: francia marquez , gustavo petro , IN OUR SISTER COLOMBIA , PEACE – UNITY TRIUMPHOU , FOR SUPPORTING POPULAR PARTICIPATION , Siguaraya
    Sunday, June 19, 2022
    BOLSONARO DRINKS THE VERVA FROM THE HOUSE * Rosely Rocha / CUT
    BOLSONARO DRINKS THE VERVA FROM THE HOUSE

    Insensitive to the pain of the other, without the slightest empathy, President Jair Bolsonaro (PL) flew over areas of the Recife Metropolitan Region hit by heavy rains, which caused landslides leaving 106 dead, 11 missing and 6,600 homeless, and said things like “tragedies happen”.

    To make matters worse, he said that the “population should collaborate by avoiding living in risky areas”. What Bolsonaro didn’t say is that, in May of last year, his government practically wiped out the Union’s budget for the construction of affordable housing. The cut in funds was R$ 2.039 billion (98%) from the project approved by the National Congress, which provided for R$ 2.151 billion for the program.

    Without houses in safe places to live because the government blocked public policy, poor people from Pernambuco experienced the tragedy of seeing their houses being taken away or buried by the landslides of hills, slopes and barriers that also took or buried entire families.

    Most victims belong to tier 1, the most affected by the cuts in resources of the “Minha Casa Verde Amarela” program (formerly Minha Casa, Minha Vida, created by the Lula government, of the PT) and could be alive if Bolsonaro’s priority was the people. Several survivors stated in interviews that they live in risk areas due to an absolute lack of options.

    Band 1 includes poor families earning between one (R$1,212) and two minimum wages (R$2,224). About 80% of Brazil’s housing deficit is concentrated in this segment.

    Economist Clovis Scherer, who advises CUT on the Board of Trustees of the Severance Indemnity Fund (CCFGTS) explains that when “Minha Casa, Minha Vida” was created, band 1 received funds from the Union Budget, without counterparts, It was a government contribution. Families with higher incomes for the purchase of houses in the above ranges have to finance part of the financing via FGTS.

    According to the economist, when Bolsonaro eliminates the Union’s contribution to the construction of low-income housing, he simply stops building and the population that earns between 1 and two minimum wages is unable to take out loans because the money from the FGTS it belongs to the worker and he needs to be remunerated, which is why the Fund cannot be used for the construction of tier 1 houses, as the borrower has to pay back the loan.

    “Families that earn a minimum wage are barely able to buy basic food, pay water, electricity and rent bills. These are people who do not have the slightest ability to take out a loan on which they will have to pay interest”, says the economist.
    Whoever builds shacks without less infrastructure, without drainage, without urbanization are those who had fully subsidized housing financing, but Bolsonaro cut it to maintain the Public Expenditure Ceiling – Clovis Scherer

    The Public Expenditure Ceiling, instituted in 2016, after the coup against former president Dilma Rousseff (PT), prohibits the government from investing resources above inflation for 20 years. The term ends in 2036.

    Budget cuts cause unemployment in construction

    The cut of funds in the program came to paralyze the construction of 250,000 affordable housing in 2021, also affecting workers in civil construction and furniture, who suddenly became unemployed.

    Casa Verde e Amarela accounted for 50% of the jobs generated in civil and wood construction at the end of the second half of 2020 and has already decreased to something around 35% to 30% in April last year.

    “Before, civil construction was responsible for 4 million jobs. The stoppage of Casa Verde Amarela generated unemployment of around 1.5 million construction workers. Today, what keeps jobs in the sector is financing from private banks, but even so, the economic crisis made purchasing power decrease and the level of employment in the sector was affected”, says the president of the National Confederation of Workers Unions. in the Construction and Wood Industries affiliated to CUT (Conticom-CUT), Cláudio da Silva Gomes, or Claudinho.

    The leader recalls that the then Minha Casa, Minha Vida had its peak in the number of jobs in the Dilma government in 2012, with 1.2 million people working that year in Lula’s housing program.

    According to Claudinho, the demand for home construction has also dropped, in addition to the economic crisis and low wages, because of the increases in the prices of materials used in the sector, including furniture, since after the end of the work, it is necessary to put sinks, tanks, floors, among other equipment.
    Bolsonaro is a disaster for the economy in general. All economic indicators demonstrate this and within our activity it is a catastrophic government- Claudio da Silva Gomes

    ***
    Posted by FRT OFFICIAL at 00:00 18 comments:
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    Tags : BOLSONARO BEBE A VERVA DA HOUSING , bolsonaro genocidal , cut , homeless , neglect , housing , homeless , Rosely Rocha , homeless
    Saturday, June 18, 2022
    THE TRAGEDY OF DOM AND BRUNO * Eliane Brum NEXO
    THE TRAGEDY OF DOM AND BRUNO

    With the tragedy of Dom Phillips and Bruno Pereira, a limit was crossed in the Amazon – for us, who are alive, it is only up to the fight

    On Monday (6), early in the morning, I was startled by a message on WhatsApp. I was asked if Tom Phillips, correspondent for The Guardian in Brazil, was missing in Vale do Javari, one of the most dangerous regions of the Amazon. My husband, Jonathan Watts, is global environmental editor for the British newspaper and lives in the Amazon with me. Tom, however, was at his home, in Rio de Janeiro, and promptly answered his cell phone. If it wasn’t Tom, then who would be missing? Bishop Phillips, we concluded in the next second.

    The difference of just one letter in the name of two journalists who write for The Guardian in Brazil tends to cause confusion. Dom is one of Jon’s best friends, he’s a lovely guy, an excellent journalist, an experienced and responsible reporter. We knew Dom was working on a book about the forest. So I asked an indigenous leader from Vale do Javari to send me a photo of the missing person, so that we could be sure. When the image opened on the cell phone, the certainty was a hand crushing the stomach. Yes, it was Dom. Our beloved Dom, with his solar face, of whom nothing is afraid to show the world, dressed in the green of the forest around him.

    The pain then became more stinging. It was necessary to tell his wife, our friend Alessandra, and the family in England, that Dom had been missing for 24 hours. It was also necessary to inform the Guardian, the newspaper with which Dom collaborates most frequently. Bruno Pereira, one of the most important indigenists of his generation, was traveling with Dom, who was dismissed from his position at the National Foundation for the Indian in 2019, when Sergio Moro was Minister of Justice, after leading an operation to repress illegal mining. A career servant at Funai, Bruno had to ask the agency’s permission to continue protecting indigenous people: under Bolsonaro’s government, Funai became an agency against indigenous people.

    We needed to move very quickly because we knew that the Bolsonaro government would do nothing unless there was a lot of pressure. Our fear would soon prove to be legitimate: the government’s deliberate delay in mobilizing human and material resources became evident from day one, culminating in the note: “The Military Command of the Amazon is in a position to carry out a humanitarian search and rescue mission , as it has done throughout its history. However, the actions will be initiated upon activation by the Upper Echelon”. As you know, the “activation” took too long to arrive. As journalists who cover and live in the Amazon, we know that time is crucial in the rainforest. Every second counts. And every second counted.

    This Monday (13), I woke up from a thin sleep with the news that the bodies had been found tied to a tree. Since the discovery of the backpack, clothes, boots, material remains of a life, of interrupted gestures, of desires, a cold settled inside me, from the inside out, and I spent the night shivering. There is no blanket for this cold. For this cold there will never be a blanket. Some time later, the news was denied. The objects belonged to them, but there would still be no bodies. At the time of writing, we do not know whether or not the bodies were found. It is yet another obscenity in the current context of Brazil.

    My biggest fear since last week was that the bodies would not be found, because I follow the heart-rending pain of family members of political disappeared from the military-business dictatorship that Jair Bolsonaro extols so much. Not having a body to cry on is the torture that never ends, it is the grief that cannot be completed and, therefore, will never be overcome. Still, I discovered this Monday morning, there was something inside of me waiting for a miracle, because I broke. It took me a few hours to gather my anger and get myself to my feet to write this text. And then I broke again from the horror of not knowing what the true information is.

    Dom and Bruno are possibly dead. They are the latest victims of the war led by Bolsonaro against the forest, its people and all those who fight in defense of the Amazon.

    This is the point.

    The disappearance of Dom and Bruno is just the latest violence in the Amazon trapped in this country we call Brazil, ruled by a champion of dictatorship, execution and torture named Jair Bolsonaro. We are in war. And to say that is not rhetorical.

    It is desperate to keep shouting that we are at war and not be understood. Because understanding is not agreeing, retweeting or giving likes, it’s something harder: it’s acting like people who live a war. If people in Brazil and around the world don’t understand this this time, the lives of those on the forest floor, with bodies on the front lines, will be worth even less than they are now. And when forest people leaders, environmentalists, advocates and frontline journalists are dead, so is the forest. Without the forest, the future will be hostile for the children who have already been born. Children, nephews, grandchildren, brothers of those who are reading this text. Your people. You.

    It is undeniable that the national and international commotion over the disappearance is greater because Bishop Phillips is white and a British citizen. This is an easily verifiable fact if we compare it with the murders that opened this year’s execution season in the Amazon, in São Félix do Xingu, the municipality with the largest cattle herd in Brazil. Anonymous and friendless influential forest protectors, José Gomes, Zé do Lago, his wife, Márcia Nunes Lisboa, and their 17-year-old daughter Joane Nunes Lisboa, were little mourned and the crime goes unpunished to this day. Likewise, in 2019, Maxciel Pereira dos Santos, a Funai collaborator for over a decade, was shot twice in the back of the head without the world moving. Like most crimes against the invisible, his also goes unpunished.

    What I mean is that this immense, strong and powerful movement that was made by Dom and Bruno, of which I was a part from literally the first minute, now needs to be activated by everyone.

    All. All. all

    Or we will succumb. The ones on the forest floor, in blood. Those who live in the big cities of Brazil and the world, with climate impact, whose covid-19 pandemic was just one of the first moments of catastrophe.

    Five years ago I chose to live in Altamira, one of the most violent regions in the world, because I chose to be on the front lines of the climate war. I defend, like other people, that the real centers of the world are the enclaves of nature, the natural supports of life, such as tropical forests and oceans, other biomes, such as the Cerrado and the Pantanal. In these centres, weeks begin and end with houses set on fire, gunshots fired by gunmen, calls for help from forest defenders and entire communities, death threats.

    Early last week, with the news of Dom’s disappearance, was no exception. Only the victim was closer, only Dom belonged to the same social stratum as public people capable of making their voices reach far and had the passport of an English citizen, something that is still an advantage in a world where walls only multiply.

    State violence, associated with the private sector, in the perverse collusion that structured Brazil, has been overwhelming, especially since the business-military dictatorship (1964-1985). There were some periods of lesser violence during redemocratization, especially when Marina Silva was Minister of the Environment in the Lula (PT) government, but the destruction was never stopped. Indigenous lands were never fully demarcated, as the Federal Constitution determined, within five years after enactment in 1988. Funai was never strengthened enough to avoid being dismantled by governments that were enemies of the forest and its people. . Conservation units would need to have been expanded and really protected, with human and technological staff that would allow real care, strengthening bodies like Ibama and ICMBio, at a much higher level than what happened in the best moments of democracy, and they weren’t. Agrarian reform should also have been carried out to provide effective conditions for the development of agroecology by landless peasants and settlers. Without agrarian reform in the forest and other biomes, it is important to make it clear, there will be no climate justice.

    Violence escalated again in the period that preceded the impeachment of Dilma Rousseff (PT) and has exploded since Michel Temer (MDB) usurped power backed by a corrupt Congress and a complicit press. It has risen to an even more serious level since Bolsonaro became a candidate with a chance of winning. When the right-wing extremist took power, the escalation of destruction accelerated even further. In this all-or-all election year for Bolsonaro and his support base in the Amazon, made up of squatters (public land thieves), loggers and mining chiefs, violence has reached unprecedented levels and the fire season has not even begun.

    It will get worse.

    I want to say very emphatically that, at this moment, a limit has been crossed in the Amazon in Brazilian territory. And that puts the war on another level of use of violence, also for journalists. If his death is proven, Dom Phillips will almost certainly be the first journalist murdered in the Amazon rainforest in recent decades. There were press professionals executed in urban contexts in the Amazon, but not in the forest. The violent death of indigenous people, quilombolas, riverine people, peasants, indigenists, environmentalists and activists is frequent. But not journalists. And especially not from white journalists and even less from foreigners from the global north.

    Killing journalists, as well as killing foreigners from countries with economic and political power, is often a bad deal for criminals, because it attracts more press, more authorities, more international attention, more repression of crime. This was confirmed in recent history when the American missionary Dorothy Stang was pierced by six bullets in 2005, in the municipality of Anapu, in the Middle Xingu region. Since then, the violators of the forest and its peoples have followed a double strategy: on the one hand, to kill leaders in the cities, so that the crime is not framed as a land conflict; on the other hand, they have been betting on disqualifying those who may have a broader resonance, as happened in 2018 with Father Amaro Lopes, one of the people who carried out Stang’s work and who was arrested in a blatant operation,

    This was a limit respected for pragmatic issues of crime. Its rupture points in at least four directions: 1) the lack of control also in criminal operations, which multiplies the risks; 2) the advance of drug trafficking and organized crime in the forest; 3) the increasing involvement of people from traditional forest communities in illegal activities, often because they have no other alternative, as there is no protection on the part of the State; 4) the certainty of impunity for the perpetrators and masterminds of crimes against the forest and its peoples, guaranteed daily by Bolsonaro and his government.

    Respectable people claim that the state is absent in the Amazon. I do not share this view. I understand that the State is very present in the Amazon today. Bolsonaro has appropriated the state and corrupted it to unprecedented levels. This explains the note from the Military Command of the Amazon previously mentioned, stating that he had all the training and conditions to search for missing people, but he had not been ordered to do so. He also explains that those who really undertook the search and never stopped looking, with all the resources they had, were the indigenous people, under the coordination of Univaja (Union of Indigenous Peoples of the Javari Valley). In the first days of the search, in addition to them, literally only half a dozen military police officers. It also explains that no helicopter was assigned for the search in the first moments.

    It’s not incompetence or carelessness. It’s method. On the eve of the elections, Bolsonaro showed that the Brazilian state is dominated by him and his criminal bases and that he would do nothing for defenders of the forest, even calling the work expedition to denounce crimes committed in the forest, undertaken by Dom Phillips and Bruno Pereira, “adventure not recommended”. Disqualifying victims, as we know well, is a recurrent method. It works.

    Our next day will be determined by what will happen in four directions: 1) elucidation of the probable crime and the accountability of the culprits, far beyond the executioners. It is necessary to identify the principals and judge them. It is not enough, nor has it ever been enough, to find the person who carried out the act and who, in general, is the most fragile end of the chain of criminal operations that, frequently, has its command and profits outside Brazil or in Central-South states, such as Sao Paulo; 2) pressure for real forest protection, with immediate sanctions on the Bolsonaro government and increased boycott of deforestation products and economic agreements with Brazil that involve deforestation; 3) increased mobilization against the package of evil projects, in progress in Congress, to allow the predatory advance on the forest, such as those involving mining on indigenous land, regularization of illegally owned land and a time frame; 4) direct involvement of every citizen of Brazil and other countries in the creation of broader and more effective protection networks for forest defenders, so that each crime or attempted crime has massive and immediate repercussions.

    The most difficult thing at this moment is also our only chance to save the Amazon, its defenders and each one of us, the inhabitants of this home planet. The hardest thing is to understand – really understand – that this is a war and that the illusion that there is somewhere safe is just that, an illusion. The most difficult thing is to understand that the illusion that there is still a choice is an intrinsic part of this new type of war.

    I have tried to explain to people close to me that there is no choice between fighting and not fighting. The choice is just between choosing to live fighting or waiting for the war to kill everything you love and respect. In the cities of the Center-South of Brazil this illusion can still be fed and distracted by consumption and entertainment products. In the heart of the Amazon, in the Cerrado and in other biomes, this illusion is impossible. War is with us every day – and it never lets up.

    In weeks like this, we, who are still alive, have to choose what to denounce and for whom we mobilize. It’s an indignity. While the world legitimately clamored for Bruno Pereira and Dom Phillips, in Lot 96, a peasant settlement in Anapu (PA), farmers had to hide in the bush at dawn to escape gunfire. Erasmo Theofilo, his wife and five children are dramatically threatened, and, like them, there are other people and families suffering attacks and violence throughout the Amazon at this time, such as indigenous women raped by prospectors in Yanomami territory.

    Having to choose who we scream for is also a violence, one in which, in addition to being violated, we are corrupted. And yet, so it is. We need to campaign for people threatened with death right now, but we fear that we will not be able to mobilize public opinion. And we fear that after these weeks of horror, those who moved for Dom and Bruno will pull back to regain their strength and our screams will fall on weary ears.

    This is the reality of war. Bodies keep falling because they are no longer the exception. Either we become brothers, friends, family members of everyone who falls or is threatened with falling, regardless of blood ties, friendship, race or nationality, or we will continue to lose. And losing and losing until it’s us who fall.

    I often hear that if we defeat Bolsonaro at the polls in October, we can rebuild Brazil. It is evident that there is no chance for any of us if Bolsonaro remains in power. There is no chance even for Bolsonarism followers if their “myth” remains in power. At some point, sooner rather than later, they’ll find out the hard way.

    The point, however, is that it will not be possible to just “rebuild” Brazil. We are not in the 20th century and what happens in the Amazon and in Brazil is not remotely similar to a post-war period in the mold of Europe after 1945 or even the redemocratization of Brazil after the business-military dictatorship. We are in climate collapse. We are in the sixth mass extinction of species. Both catastrophes provoked by the dominant minority that, in the words of the great Yanomami thinker Davi Kopenawa, ate the planet.

    We will have to recreate a country that has always been structurally racist and brutally unequal as we face the greatest challenge of the human trajectory on the home planet. It is an immense task in front of at least three generations of adults, of which I am a part, demonstrably selfish and corrupted by the logic of the market. Still, it’s the human stuff we have, which is why teenagers like Greta Thunberg have taken the lead. And it is with this human matter that we need to wage this war that, until now, has proved to be a massacre, given the disproportion of the forces. There is still only something to fight for because the peoples who have maintained themselves as nature have been resisting for centuries. In Brazil, since 1500.

    The most important war of this moment, the one that will define the very near future, the tomorrow of the children who have already been born, is the one that takes place in the largest tropical forest on the planet and in other enclaves of nature, which we defend are the legitimate centers of world. The war that Vladimir Putin’s Russia inflicts on Ukraine is still a war of the 20th century. The longest and most difficult wars to win, those of the 21st century, are those that are taking place on the natural supports of life at this moment, those that end of victimizing Dom Phillips and Bruno Pereira. Without understanding this key change, it may be impossible to give the urgent answer we need now if we are to stop our self-destruction.

    The Amazon may be, according to scientists, just a few years away from the point of no return. Without the forest standing, there is no possibility of controlling global warming. The disappearance of Dom Phillips and Bruno Pereira also marks a turning point in the Amazon. A different kind of tipping point, but still very dangerous for the health of the planet. As journalists, we need to respond to violence with journalism, we need to finish the work that Bishop Phillips started. As living beings on this planet, we need to show that for each one of us who falls, thousands will rise.

    It’s still not enough, though. If we want the children of the present to be able to grow into the future, it is necessary that the global community ceases to be a phantasmagoria and begins to exist in the field of action, by engaging in the most lethal war of our time, the war of nature, the war of the Amazon. . In this war, where specimens die today, an entire species may succumb in the future. Like all war, it doesn’t demand our action once in a while, it demands our commitment every day, it demands to be our first thought when we wake up and our last thought when we go to sleep. Being subjected to war and not recognizing war is the most dangerous type of denialism. I am referring not to the calculated denialism of Bolsonaro and his followers, but to the denialism that dominates the majority as a symptom – and also as a shield, for the unbearability of life in catastrophe.

    Bruno Pereira knows the essence of this war and has never stopped fighting. Dom Phillips is writing a book with the title: “How to save the Amazon?”. It is us?

    Even the most primal organisms have a survival instinct. I appeal here to the survival instinct of each one. Everything we are doing is not enough. It’s time to do not just what we know, but what we don’t. Not just out of altruism or compassion for those who fall. But for life. The Amazon war is the war of this time. The Amazon war is the war against the planet eaters. It was up to us, who are still alive, to wage this war. May we have shame on our faces and fight.

    Eliane Brum is a journalist, writer and documentary filmmaker, author of “Brasil Construtor de Ruínas – a look at the country, from Lula to Bolsonaro” (Arquipélago) and “Banzeiro òkòtó, a trip to the Amazon Center of the World” (Companhia das Letras). The most awarded journalist in the history of Brazil, she lives in Altamira, in the Amazon.

    ***
    Posted by FRT OFFICIAL at 00:00 29 comments:
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    Tags : THE TRAGEDY OF DOM AND BRUNO , BOLSONARO GENOCIDA. Amazon War , Bruno Pereira. Eliane Brum , Dom Phillips , war
    Friday, June 17, 2022
    COMMUNIST VERVE * Jean Mendonça / CE
    COMMUNIST VERVE

    Shadows and living shadows trails skies
    at the sunset of my crude steps cross
    will travel light miles later
    same sick verve and brief failure,
    simple razor insistent poetry
    when even at the veil of weariness
    defying their twitching shapes.

    Verses made keels to the gas world
    sown utopias islands pregnant bread
    cheeky pranks crumbs grains,
    as if I soul of the cry mourning go
    in my delays share voice
    the juices and furrows of the ground itself.

    Even to the repeated words gutters
    of the indispensable indignant reason,
    since when does a flower not starve
    the honey bouquet scent of the due passions,
    always moving forward vector
    gifted with the art of loving construction act.

    Half a thread a little eternity serious faith
    until when the blood red comes
    make me contain the most human rivers
    perennial passengers rites challenges pride
    beyond the navel which temptation burns me
    the illusion of ownership over any silos.

    Jean Mendonca / CE
    Posted by FRT OFFICIAL at 3:27 PM 78 comments:
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    Tags: communism , ideology , Jean Mendonça , poetry , COMMUNIST VERVE
    OPEN LETTER FOR THE REPEAL OF HIGH SCHOOL REFORM * UNIONS AND CIVIL SOCIETY ENTITIES
    OPEN LETTER

    FOR THE REPEAL OF HIGH SCHOOL REFORM (LAW 13.415/2017)

    In 2003, which marked the beginning of Lula’s government, a seminar entitled High School: Science, Culture and Work was held in Brasília, with the purpose of debating and proposing a basic high school education policy with two problems at the center: the curricular fragmentation that has always characterized this educational stage and to place youths who attend public schools in Brazil at the center of this debate.

    The event represented an inflection point in the search for a new high school project in Brazil that was capable of organizing the improvised massification of previous periods and of democratizing the curriculum of this teaching stage. After all, the country had gone from just over three million high school enrollments in the early 1990s to nine million in 2004! The central questions were: what high school for these youths? What kind of youth is this that becomes part of the last stage of basic education?

    In terms of propositions, what resulted from that meeting – and it was supported by a vast production of knowledge – is that there was a need to build a curriculum that was less fragmented, more integrated and capable of allowing a dense understanding of an increasingly diverse world. increasingly complex.

    As a result of that debate, some experiences in the field of educational policy followed: in curricular terms, the axis science, culture, work and technology, understood as dimensions of life in society and of human formation, acquired centrality. The attempt to reformulate the curriculum was present in the new national curriculum guidelines enacted by the National Council of Education (Resolution CNE n. 02/2012), in the Innovative High School Program, in the National Pact for the Strengthening of High School Education, among other actions.

    Contrary to everything that had been going forward, today we have a High School Reform that, instead of integrating, disintegrates. The current reform in the country was

    presented as a Provisional Measure (MP 746/2016) a few months after the ascension of Michel Temer to the Presidency of the Republic, as a result of the impeachment of President Dilma Rousseff. With that, the then president aborted the (albeit insufficient) process of discussion about high school education started in the Chamber of Deputies in 2012. The use of the authoritarian expedient of the Provisional Measure to carry out an educational reform was criticized by organizations of organized civil society, but also by the then Attorney General of the Republic, Rodrigo Janot, who presented an opinion to the Federal Supreme Court alleging the unconstitutionality of the measure.

    Also in 2016, there was an intense movement of student occupations in high schools and public universities in 19 states of the federation, with protests targeting MP 746 and PEC 241 of the Michel Temer government’s primary spending ceiling. The message against the proposal of the Reform was given by the Brazilian youth.

    In 2017, MP 746 was converted into Law 13,415/2017, and the far-right government elected in 2018 allied with the Reform to approve the legal documents that would provide its normative support. Thus, the public notice for the new National Textbook Program (PNLD) adapted to Law 13.415/2017 was structured and executed, as well as the National Common Curricular Base (BNCC) and the National Curriculum Guidelines for High School in 2018 were approved.

    Thus, since 2016, the High School Reform has taken on the characteristic of an anti-popular project with authoritarian contours. Its implementation permeated the illegitimate government of Michel Temer and gained natural continuity in the far-right and conservative government of Jair Bolsonaro, who won the elections after an election campaign marked by disinformation.

    Not even the Covid 19 pandemic and the disastrous federal administration that resulted in 667,000 deaths in Brazil were enough to stop the reformist desires, which took advantage of the suspension of face-to-face classes to accelerate the approval of state curricula without the proper participation of school communities. , in flagrant disrespect to the constitutional principle of democratic school management. The implementation of the High School Reform by the states during the pandemic reveals another of its perverse facets, making democratic debate impossible, making social control difficult and deepening processes of precariousness and privatization of public education.

    By publishing MP 746/2016, the Temer government justified the measure with three objectives that would be achieved by the Reform: 1) make secondary education more attractive to young people, allowing them to choose different training itineraries;

    2) expand the offer of full-time education; and 3) increase the professionalizing aspect of High School.

    However, the accelerated implementation of the Reform in states like São Paulo exposes the fallacy about the need to reduce the number of subjects in High School, since, with the training itineraries, a set of new subjects was created under the guidance of civil society institutes and foundations linked to capital, while disciplines linked to the traditional scientific, cultural and artistic fields of high school professional teaching were eliminated from the curriculum – in a clear move to dismantle the possibilities of scientific and humanistic training of the youth who study in the public schools.

    The much-vaunted freedom of choice on the part of students, one of the main propaganda banners of governments in defense of reform, has proved to be a decoy, since the choice is restricted to the training itineraries provided by the school, and which never cover the totality of possibilities of education networks.1 Although, for some students, changing schools to follow the desired itinerary may be an option, this is not the case for most, especially in the almost three thousand municipalities in the country that have a single public school of High school.

    So far, all the evidence points to the same fact: the commitment of the current High School Reform is not with the consolidation of the Democratic Rule of Law nor with the fight against social and educational inequalities in the country. The Reform is at the service of an authoritarian project to dismantle the Right to Education as recommended in the 1988 Constitution. In fact, the first concrete impacts of the implementation of the Reform in the states show that Law 13.415/2017 is linked to an education project averse to democracy, equity and the fight against educational inequalities, since it:

    1) It weakens the concept of Secondary Education as part of basic education, guaranteed in the Law of Directives and Bases of National Education (LDB), insofar as this stage is no longer a general education for all. THE

    1 PUBLIC SCHOOL AND UNIVERSITY NETWORK. New Secondary Education and Induction of School Inequalities in the State of São Paulo [Technical Note]. São Paulo: REPU, 02 Jun. 2022. Available at: http://www.repu.com.br/notas-tecnicas.

    The incorporation of Secondary Education into Basic Education was a recent achievement of the democratization process, and not yet consolidated. Faced with a historically elitist, stratified and propaedeutic secondary education, the integration of secondary education to basic education was an important measure to democratize this stage, together with the guarantee of offering night education adequate to the conditions of working students and the modality of Youth and Adults (EJA) – both neglected by Law 13.415/2017;

    2) Expands the adoption of the Full-Time High School model without ensuring sufficient investments to guarantee conditions of access and permanence of students, excluding working students and those of lower socioeconomic level from extended-day schools, as well as encouraging the closing of classes night shift and EJA;

    3) It induces young people from public schools to follow low-complexity professional qualification itineraries that are offered in a precarious way in schools without infrastructure. Evidence of this is Bill 6,494/2019, which is being processed in the Chamber of Deputies and aims to amend the LDB, proposing the use “of working hours in apprenticeship for the purpose of completing the workload of High School up to the limit of 200 hours per year ”. Once again, what is proposed is the ban on qualified access to scientific knowledge, art, critical and reflective thinking for the vast majority of young people who study in public schools, which account for more than 80% of enrollments in public schools. Average in the country;

    4) It puts at risk the most successful and democratic public high school model in the country: the Integrated High School practiced by the Federal Institutes of Education, Science and Technology. It is a model that has adopted social and racial quotas for entry since 2012 and that has shown excellent results in large-scale assessments such as PISA. Its organizing center is the integration between a General Basic Training founded on the principles of work, science, culture and technology and Vocational Education at a Technical Level. Law 13,415/2017 downgrades professional education to the status of “training itinerary”, dissociating basic general training from professional education;

    5) It considerably increases the number of curricular components and accentuates fragmentation. One of the justifications for the High School Reform was precisely the need to reduce the number of compulsory school subjects. However, the implementation of the Reform in the states has been doing exactly the opposite. Although there are variations between state networks, in the state of São Paulo – by way of example – the 2nd year of high school in 2022 has 20 curricular components;

    6) It deregulates the teaching profession, which takes two forms:

    1) construction of training itineraries that aim at the acquisition of instrumental competences, dismantling the construction of knowledge and scientific methods that characterize the school subjects in which teachers were trained, uprooting the formation of professional performance; and 2) offer of vocational education subjects by people without teacher training and precariously hired to deal with young people in a school environment. All of this undermines the construction of a broad and articulated training to the various aspects that involve teaching – teaching, learning, pedagogical planning, democratic management and dialogue with the community;

    7) It broadens and accentuates the process of unschooling in the country, outsourcing parts of schooling to agents exogenous to the educational system (companies, business institutes, social organizations, associations and individuals without professional qualifications for teaching activities). One of the dimensions of this problem is the possibility of offering both general training and vocational training in secondary education at a distance, which transfers the responsibility of the State to guarantee the provision of public education to market agents, with potentially catastrophic effects for the offer. education in a country with already so pronounced social inequalities;

    8) It compromises the quality of public education through the massive offer of Distance Education (EaD). The experience with emergency remote teaching during the Covid-19 pandemic demonstrated the immense digital exclusion of the majority of the Brazilian population, which prevented millions of students from public schools from accessing digital platforms and virtual learning environments. The same tools used during the pandemic are now being employed by states in

    regular offer of Secondary Education, making the conditions of schooling of the poorest students even more precarious;

    9) It segments and deepens educational inequalities – and, by extension, social inequalities -, by instituting a curricular diversification through training itineraries that deprive students of access to the basic knowledge necessary for their training, as attested by comparative research that analyzed systems of education. teaching from several countries2;

    10) It delegates to the education systems the forms and even the option to fulfill the objectives, making the consolidation of a National Education System even more distant, as recommended by the National Education Plan 2014-2024 (Law 13.005/2014).

    For the reasons mentioned above, it is essential that the next government in the democratic field REVOK THE HIGH SCHOOL REFORM and open a broad process of discussion about this stage of Basic Education supported by the principles established in the LDB of 1996 and the discussions and theoretical constructions accumulated in the field. progressive and democratic, so that any change is supported by a participatory and democratic process.

    Brazil, June 08, 2022.
    SIGN THIS LETTER:

    Brazilian Literacy Association (ABAlf) Brazilian Curriculum Association (ABdC)

    Brazilian Association for Teaching Biology (SBEnBio) Brazilian Association for Teaching Social Sciences (ABECS) Brazilian Association for Teaching History (ABEH) National Association for History (ANPUH Brazil)

    Brazilian Association of Researchers in Special Education (ABPEE)

    2 FERREIRA, EB; SANTOS, KC; GONÇALVES, T. NEM policy in Espírito Santo: what the documents say in their local and global contexts. In: KORBES, C.; FERREIRA, EB; SILVA, MR; BARBOSA, RP (org.). High School in Research. Curitiba: CRV, 2022. p. 33-46.

    Brazilian Association for Research in Science Education (Abrapec) National Association for the Training of Education Professionals (Anfope) National Association for Research in Education Financing (Fineduca) National Association for Education Policy and Administration (ANPAE) National Graduate Association and Research in Education (ANPEd) National Campaign for the Right to Education

    Center for Education and Society Studies (Cedes) National Confederation of Workers in Education (CNTE)

    National Forum of Pibid Institutional Coordinators and Pedagogical Residency (Forpibid-RP)

    National Forum of Directors of Faculties, Centers, Departments of Education or Equivalents of Brazilian Public Universities (ForumDir)

    Public School and University Network (REPU)

    Brazilian Society of Mathematics Education (SBEM) Brazilian Society of Chemistry Teaching (SBEnQ) Brazilian Society of Sociology (SBS)

    National Union of Federal Servants of Basic, Professional and Technological Education – São Paulo Union Section (Sinasefe-SP)
    Posted by FRT OFFICIAL at 00:00 50 comments:
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    Labels: OPEN LETTER FOR THE REPEAL OF HIGH SCHOOL REFORM , UNIONS AND CIVIL SOCIETY ENTITIES. neoliberal education reforms

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    1. Thursday, June 16, 2022
      AND NOW? WHO CRIES THEIR DEATH? WHO SCREAMS ABOUT THEIR BODIES? * Walter Takemoto Via Mira Mattos Chaves
      AND NOW? WHO CRIES THEIR DEATH?

      WHO SCREAMS ABOUT THEIR BODIES?

      The press reported that the bodies of Dom Phillips and Bruno Pereira were found. There are reports that the PF and military were already holding information about the viscera and parts of them found. They stung. All because they were waiting for Bolsonaro to return from the trip to finally reveal. They had already ordered and collected DNA from the families for analysis. The deaths were facts!

      Regrettable… And they join the list of thousands of men and women murdered by land grabbers, landowners, loggers, prospectors and drug trafficking, under the omission and complacency of the Brazilian State.

      It is obvious that Bolsonaro’s genocidal and militia government deliberately boosted the killings in the countryside, from land grabbers to illegal miners, and illegal predatory fishing.

      Under his rule the murders grow. According to the CPT, there was a growth of 75% from 2020 to 2021, with 35 deaths in land conflicts. The Legal Amazon concentrates 85% of these murders.

      In 2022, until the end of April, 18 murders were recorded.

      The genocidal government did not open the gates just for the herds to pass. With this genocidal government, the militiamen pass with impunity to kill everyone who opposes the advance of land grabbing, mining, deforestation and the genocide of indigenous peoples.

      However, it must be said that it is not enough to demarcate indigenous lands, create areas of environmental protection and increase the rigor of the laws.

      Unfortunately, we have to remember that even during the PT governments, deaths continued to occur and almost no gunmen or masterminds were arrested. It’s been more than 17 years since the missionary Dorothy Stang was murdered and 34 years since the murder of Chico Mendes. And nothing has changed!

      É preciso fazer a reforma agrária de fato, garantir assistência técnica e financiamento para os pequenos agricultores, os povos da floresta, dar condições efetivas para que os órgãos do estado se façam presentes, gerar condições de produção e distribuição dos produtos, instituir uma nova política de segurança pública, que atue nas fronteiras e regiões isoladas, de forma articulada com a ação urbana, mas que tenha como base que não é a militarização das forças policias que irá colocar um fim ao narcotráfico e a pistolagem, muito menos a ocupação armada das comunidades ou o encarceramento em massa da juventude negra e pobre. É preciso enfrentar com seriedade o debate sobre a legalização das drogas e o fim da militarização das polícias.

      Derrotar o genocida é uma tarefa.

      Para ontem… necessária! E inadiável.

      But we have to stand up and fight for a society in which Chico Mendes, Dorothy Stang, Dom, Bruno, Margarida and thousands of men and women are not victims of economic power and the State for defending what is a common good for all of us. . ”

      This is the fight we have permanently.

      Walter Takemoto Via Mira Mattos Chaves

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      Tags: amazon , Bruno Pereira , Dom Phillips , extermination of indigenous peoples , illegal extraction in the amazon , impunity , agribusiness militias , Mira Mattos Chaves , agrarian reform , Walter Takemoto
      Care work, gender and violence * Cristiane Batista Andrade / Inês Monteiro / Natália Ramos Rodrigues – SP
      Care work, gender and violence

      A study with nursing technicians.
      Cristiane Batista Andrade

      Inês Monteiro

      Natalia Ramos Rodrigues

      INTRODUCTION

      Work in the contemporary world has undergone changes that influence the working and health conditions of the working class, especially since the end of the last century. The area of ​​service provision, such as health, has also been affected by the productive restructuring of capital. The reduction of expenses with labor contracts, the decrease in the number of workers, the outsourcing of professionals in public sectors (doctors and nurses) and, consequently, the intensification of work are observed. This is a reality that puts the working and health conditions of the working class at risk 1 .

      Thus, it is important to address the specifics of care work performed in the public sphere (hospitals, health and referral centers, etc.), as it is a paid activity and requires specialized professional training in the health area. Assuming that nursing is a profession that was, over time, performed especially by women, and is still predominantly female (85.1%), with a massive workforce of technicians and/or assistants (77% ) 2 , the analytical category of gender 3 becomes central to understanding the daily activities that nursing workers perform.

      Taking the analysis of gender relations allows us to understand the modes of organization in the world of work, since it is from the conception of the sexual division that it is verified, in general, that the work of men is more valued than that of women. In addition, there are predominantly female professions, such as nursing. Associated with this, domestic work in Brazilian society is still performed, above all, by women 3 , even when they have partners.

      Thus, the analytical perspective of care studies has been established in Brazil based on the contributions of authors 4 – 6 . Care work is considered relational, with the expenditure of attention, concern and attention to human needs and the perpetuation of life: “[…] it is at the same time emotional work and material, technical work. In it, ethical posture, action and interaction are inseparable” 4 :3. It is characterized by invisibility, as the sufferings and pleasures felt and produced in social relationships, learning, knowledge and actions in the face of the difficulties faced are not always perceptible 7 .

      Care is nursing savoir-faire and encompasses attention, concerns, actions that are not always visible, such as “knowing how to do discreetly” 8 :278, the knowledge learned in training and/or in the daily activities to deal with the suffering of the other. Through it, challenges such as death, the vulnerabilities of people cared for and professional burnout are encountered. In this sense, nurses’ compassion (suffering with others) is considered a strategy for building and maintaining health at work in an activity that permeates emotions and fear of “contamination, error, violence” 8 :267.

      If, as proposed by the psychodynamics of work and studies on care 8 , that nursing activities can permeate situations of violence, when discussing them in the world of work it is important to consider the complexity of the phenomena that involve them, such as the damage physical and/or psychological, the absence of rights related to work, negligence and precarious working conditions, which put health and life at risk, in addition to illness linked to work activities 9. The official document of the International Labor Organization (ILO) points out that violence in the workplace can affect millions of people worldwide. Among the professionals who are most at high risk in the health area for violence at work are nurses, technicians and assistants, ambulance professionals and doctors. Among the types of violence are physical and psychological, such as aggression, moral and sexual harassment, abuse, intimidation, threats and racial discrimination 10 .

      Care work is complex 11 and goes beyond situations of violence that health professionals may experience. However, the violence perceived and experienced in care activities can put workers in conflicts and constraints, so that their emotions can be influenced in the face of harassment, aggression, intimidation and structural and social violence. Regarding the influences of violence on nurses’ health, authors 12 highlight: post-traumatic stress, feelings of fear, guilt, impotence, anguish, anxiety, psychological trauma, decreased job satisfaction, in addition to considering violence as a invisible social problem, which can influence health care.

      Therefore, the question that guides this research is: what are the working conditions and situations of violence expressed by nursing technicians? This article aims to analyze the working conditions and violence experienced by mid-level nursing professionals in the hospital area.

      METHOD

      Initially, this research with a qualitative approach and theoretical framework of the sexual division of labor 3 , intended to analyze the care activities performed by nursing technicians, as well as the professional and training paths, investigating the actions and difficulties in the care work hospital. However, through the collection of testimonies, aspects related to violence at work were identified in the research, even without having been the object of it.

      Thus, it is considered that qualitative research seeks to understand social relationships and has as “[…] raw material opinions, beliefs, values, representations, human and social relationships and actions from the perspective of actors in intersubjectivity” 13 : 626. Thus, oral history as a methodological device became important, as it was possible to apprehend and analyze social and cultural representations, the historical process 14 of care work, daily difficulties and the ways in which they are faced.

      In order to capture the representations about the work they perform, oral testimonies were collected through semi-structured interviews with seven women and two men from a public hospital in the southeastern region of the country, in order to obtain the “narratives of the human experience”. ” 15 :18 about the work they do in caring for people. The collection of testimonies does not always: “[…] necessarily cover the entirety of the informant’s existence […]” 15 :21. However, in this case, it is possible to say that the testimonies helped in the apprehension of the experiences of the interviewees, as they recalled the facts and events of the work in the face of the obstacles experienced.

      Initially, authorization was requested from the nurse in charge of the hospital, and then the project was forwarded to the Research Ethics Committee (CEP). The choice of subjects was made through contact with the team on duty to ask interested professionals to provide oral testimonies. There was a refusal because of the worker’s lack of time. The interviews were carried out in the afternoon, between May and October 2015, at the hospital where they worked.

      All interviews were recorded, transcribed digitally and delivered in hard copy to the participants. All observations of daily work and the perceptions of the interviews were recorded in a field diary 16 . The research was approved by the Institution’s CEP (Opinion No. 769,315, of 09/11/2014). The names of the deponents were replaced to guarantee confidentiality.

      RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

      Regarding the employment relationships found, five workers were public tenders (statutory) and four were outsourced, and the statutory salary was almost double that of outsourced workers. This reaffirms the reduction in public spending on labor charges as a result of the outsourcing process, which is already observed in the health area 1 .

      It is considered that the way work is organized and its conditions are essential to understand the relationship between subjectivity, the challenges imposed by the activities and the ways in which they deal with them. Therefore, it appropriated the conception of authors 17 :410 who analyze the context of work-related illnesses as those “[…] physical and mental illness”. In the same perspective, they associate work accidents that can lead to death or not, “[…] usually causing injuries and injuries to the body, fractures, mutilations, among other physical impacts” 17 :410.

      Regarding working conditions, some interviewees reported their difficulties in the face of the reduction in the number of workers for health care, in addition to the occurrence of work accidents (diseases and accidents with sharps). The precarious living conditions of the population assisted by nursing generate suffering in the workers, as well as the scarcity of material and human resources in care:

      In my work, I, I, get very sad [to] look and see material lacking health professionals. I think he’s very sick. It comes to not realizing everything. […] many patients, and few health professionals. So that makes me sad, doesn’t it? […] many patients, and few health professionals. So that makes me sad, doesn’t it? […] And hospitals, sometimes, do not have bedding, nor do they have necessary medicines, and patients. The family members there [emphasis] poor people, people without even knowing what is happening in the area. (Violet).

      The problem is the people, isn’t it? There are very few people to work with, the patient demands a lot from you, we are a team, a team of two is not enough. A team of three or four is right to work well with the patient […] We never have a large team in nursing, always a small team, always a reduced team. (Hyacinth).

      Too many patients for unprofessional, exactly. Bad work structure, lots of bad things. Now with the outsourcing of public health what they want to do, right? […] They are trying to exterminate the civil servant, aren’t they? And it’s difficult, it’s very difficult. (Lily).

      According to these reports, the form of work organization, such as the “downsizing” of the number of workers for health care, is one of the challenges for some interviewees. This finding corroborates the process arising from the restructuring of production and the precariousness of work, including in the health area 1 . As a result of the economy of labor charges, there is a reduction in jobs and in the number of workers, and, therefore, these conditions can contribute to fomenting violence perpetrated by service users 18. However, according to the testimonies, this relationship was not verified. The small number of professionals was reported only as one of the ways of not providing the care considered “ideal”, and there are reports of sadness and suffering when they are unable to perform it the way they would like.

      Working conditions are central to the development of health care, as, according to a Canadian survey, nurses reported that one of the central aspects of caring work was the interaction with the people assisted. It was found that the increases in stress and frustration levels were related to the shortage of workers due to the impossibility of giving adequate attention to the people they care for 19 .

      In addition, it is important to emphasize that, based on studies on the theory of care and the psychodynamics of work, authors 20 show that nursing activities are related to the processes of work organization, which, by reducing the number of workers per people cared for, there is an overload of work, which is considered undervalued, little recognized and which leads to experiences of violence and harassment. In other words, nursing is a profession that is at constant risk to health 20 . In Brazil, according to the Regulatory Norms (NR) 21, occupational hazards include physical, chemical and biological. It should also be noted that the specific Brazilian legislation for health professionals (NR32) considers the need for protection and actions to prevent the risk of accidents with sharps, in addition to work-related illnesses 21 .

      Regarding work accidents, a worker reported having had an accident with a scalp that penetrated her finger. All tests for the diagnosis and prevention of diseases were carried out and there were no more serious health consequences:

      It was a patient [who] went for an exam, he had a scalp, right? And it’s the one that’s the, it’s not the plastic bezel. Then I took the curve, didn’t I? I made everything cute, didn’t I? I don’t know what. Then when I passed another room, I saw blood coming back. When I changed hands, I was wearing gloves. The scalp entered my finger. How can you, right? That’s why I speak. The more attention you have, you have to have a lot more attention, because accidents do happen, right? (Sage).

      Through Sálvia’s testimony, it is clear that attention and zeal are part of the daily lives of these professionals. Attention, concerns and disengaged dispositions are at the heart of the care provided, especially by women in the face of human suffering and the vulnerabilities of their bodies 7 .

      An issue to be considered is the repercussions of work on the body over time, as the older workers, who started working at the hospital in the 1980s, reported diseases such as musculoskeletal disorders and body aches. As a result of the physical activities of weight lifting (mobilizing people in bed, carrying objects and moving around) and the aging process, some nursing technicians were allocated to the Material and Sterilization Center, without direct contact with hospital patients. . In this place, they carry out the work of preparation, sterilization and distribution of materials used in the wards and outpatient clinics. When asked about the development of her back problem, Violeta said that “it must have been working” and also:

      I, for example, have a knee problem from time to time. So the leadership… You have to take a course, right? Pick up patient. Then it was better for me to stay here. And column, right? (Violet).

      The care activity has its physical dimension, as the bodily effort to care for another person 22 sometimes puts health at risk. And, when considering gender relations in work studies 3 , it is possible to say that the fact that these nursing technicians are women and also carry out domestic work influences health and the body throughout their professional experience.

      Regarding urban/social violence, a technician reported that, in an old hospital where he worked, he experienced the death of a child affected by a projectile of unknown origin, having felt very ill for a few days:

      That ended my shift, I cried like a child. […] And from there I felt sick for a few days. I couldn’t work anymore, at the same time I called home to find out about my daughter how she was and such. Telling my wife not to go out on the street […] He died, unfortunately, right? They did everything they had to do, but it wasn’t possible. Then that left me. It was the only time I was really bad for a few days, really bad. (Lily).

      Violence is one of the realities of large urban centers in Brazil, and engenders the complexity of everyday life: the use of firearms, cases of homicides, robberies and/or thefts, kidnappings, drug trafficking, among others. In this way, social and economic inequalities and their historical contexts are important for understanding violence 23 . This scenario is also essential to understand the relationship between urban violence and health work. Because it is care work surrounded by emotions 21, it can be said that the violence suffered by the child, leading to death, contributed to the suffering of this worker who was sad and involved by the feeling of nonconformity in the face of what happened: “With its infinity of manifestations, the emotional dimension imposes a greater complexity of work analysis, as well as its relationship with physical and mental health” 22 :48.

      It is also necessary to emphasize the character of emotional work in health care, because it is through it that emotions are built in the face of challenges. In other words, whether to allow oneself to cry or not is a learning that takes place during professional activities. In fact, it is believed that care work goes beyond the scientific knowledge acquired in formal learning courses (undergraduate or nursing technician). Knowledge is needed for “[…] empathy, listening, dialogue, tenderness and compassion. The qualities traditionally attributed to ‘women’ or femininity […]” 20:165, are still social constructions of nursing savoir-faire and are representations of femininity for health care. Therefore, even though Lírio was a man in a predominantly female activity, crying was expressed as a feeling of sadness because of the child’s death.

      The care work takes on its multiple dimensions 22 when the deponents point out obstacles in the face of death, suffering and the refusal of the HIV/AIDS diagnosis by the people assisted. The nursing technicians, with more time working in the hospital, expressed how they were first treated with HIV cases in Brazil. They reiterated that interpersonal relationships in care were not always harmonious:

      There was a time when [the patient] wanted to hit a nurse who had, there was a pocketknife, then he said “I’m going to do it to your face like I did to those women”. (Sara).

      For Sara, the beginning of care for people with AIDS was influenced by the lack of knowledge about the treatment and ways of transmitting the disease, but it was overcome by training in courses in the health area, by the media and in the daily work: “using all the material to protect us, the glove, the mask, everything. But we were learning and putting fear aside, caring was important” (Sara). Another interviewee highlighted the revolt of many people when faced with the diagnosis of HIV, understanding the difficulty of accepting a disease permeated by stigmas and social prejudices.

      These findings are similar to the Brazilian research on the feelings of health professionals when caring for people with AIDS at the beginning of the epidemic. There was fear, fear of contamination and ignorance of the disease on the part of the workers. Likewise, indignation, revolts, stigma of people with AIDS, difficulties in accepting the diagnosis by patients and family members were reported 24 .

      Although the deponents have verbalized the verbal aggressions and threats by some patients, at no time did they express anger and/or deal with aggression towards them. The fact that they understood their moment of vulnerability and the stigma surrounding HIV made them learn to deal with these cases, as expressed by Tulipa:

      Because when he finds out he has HIV, he hates the world, doesn’t he? People have to understand. That I always… I always understood. I stop to think, if it were me, I wouldn’t want it to be like this, understand? (Tulip).

      It was very clear, through the testimonies, that the care actions at the beginning of HIV treatment were collectively constructed by the health team, and from the emotional and psychological support received by professionals in the field of psychology, as pointed out in the diary of field:

      The interesting thing about this research was to know the work of a person who experienced the beginning of HIV care in Brazil. She says [nursing technician] that there are improvements in the treatment, survival and quality of life of patients. At first it was difficult, but he realized that there in the [hospital] there was greater control thinking about “worker health”. That is, doctors and nurses explained to them (technicians) the ways in which the disease was transmitted, reassuring them. […] She says that there was psychological treatment to accompany the workers at that time. (Field Journal, May 22, 2015).

      It is considered that nursing work related to care and promotion of the lives of sick people or not, should be analyzed from the perspective of working conditions and the demands of emotional work in the face of conflicts. In other words, the emotional work that nursing technicians experience in the face of violence must be in the understanding of what they do and how they do human care, as many are exposed to humiliation by those who are being cared for or by their family members, having to endure a tougher relationship or even situations of violence.

      The impediments and obstacles encountered in the face of precarious conditions and/or situations of violence can make these professionals not express their emotions, which contributes to an overload in their emotional work, as a scholar in the area 22 puts it . Work is a carrier and producer of emotions. In it, workers may or may not express feelings of anger, aversion, satisfaction or pleasure, putting the health of the professional at risk, such as cases of exhaustion at work 25 . Even in the face of difficulties in care work, all interviewees said they were satisfied with the activities performed and wanted to remain in the profession.

      When reporting the differences between work at the beginning of their careers and today, they signaled the improvements: they studied more and were able to understand the process of illness and treatments for people with HIV. In addition, feelings of pride and the desire to remain in care are evidenced.

      CONCLUSION

      Although this article has briefly brought the conditions and violence in nursing work to the center of the debate, its approaches should not disregard their complexities. The influences of Brazilian social and economic inequalities, as well as working conditions and the way to organize it for health care, are not disconnected from the contradictions of capitalist society.

      The care work performed by nursing professionals is part of a society in which women are at the forefront of this professional activity. Therefore, the analytical categories of gender relations and care studies can help to understand the modus operandi of the relationships they establish in the face of the challenges that the activities impose. Compassion, sensitivity, putting oneself in the other’s shoes, the emotions developed in care should be central in the sociological analysis of nursing work. In addition, the emotional aspect in the face of conflicts in social relationships and, above all, in health care is essential for the debate in the training of health professionals.

      When considering that violence is influenced by social and historical contexts and can have repercussions on people’s lives and health 26 , the importance of theoretical and methodological deepening, in future research on health care, of work-related violence is highlighted. and its specificities of a predominantly female profession.
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      Tags: Cristiane Batista Andrade , nursing , Inês Monteiro , Natália Ramos Rodrigues , Gender care work and violence

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      Wednesday, June 15, 2022
      APOROPHOBIA AVERSION TO THE POOR * Adela Cortina
      APOROPHOBIA AVERSION TO THE POOR

      A CHALLENGE FOR DEMOCRACY
      Aporophobia – Adela Cortina
      ADELA CURTAIN

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      Tags : Adela Cortina , aporophobia , APOROPHOBIA AVERSION TO THE POOR , discrimination , extremism , fundamentalism , nazism
      RACISM IN ORGANIZATIONS: LIFE AND WORK IN SUPERMARKETS * Patrícia Rocha Lemos/ Unicamp
      RACISM IN ORGANIZATIONS: LIFE AND WORK IN SUPERMARKETS

      -Pão de Açúcar Group-

      Patricia Rocha Lemos
      (Doctor in Social Sciences and researcher at CESIT/Unicamp)

      WALMART – MONOPOLY

      The cruelty and brutality of the murder of João Alberto, a black man beaten to death, causes deep indignation. If we still have a shred of humanity left, it should be. The event took place on the eve of Black Consciousness Day, a date that has required so many struggles to maintain itself, brought to light one of the most extreme and heartbreaking expressions of our structural racism that, in a criminal way, our rulers and authorities insist on denying. . But, once the effect of this immediate shock is over, there is a risk that “normality” will impose other urgencies on us and that unacceptable absurdities will overlap without us being able to create the tools to understand, combat and transform this reality.

      It seems to have been so with many of the events of the last few days, months, and years. Despite this, some sighs of hope are opened from those who revolt and give voice to this struggle. Women and men challenge society as a whole, claiming that black lives matter, and it’s not new. Silence is not and cannot be an option. But how, then, to add something different to what has already been said about the absurdities that are expressed in this crime?

      From the most diverse perspectives on which we can discuss how we got here, how we allowed them to kill João Alberto, I think the only one in which I could have something to contribute has to do with, not when, nor how, but where and by whom João Alberto, or Beto, was murdered. The genocide of the black population is already public knowledge, replaced with each new statistical balance, year after year. And there was no lack of concrete cases of men, women and children whose stories were told on TV in the form of tragedy. What is missing for us to see that these are not exceptions, episodic extreme situations, but realities that are being gestated all the time in our daily lives? It was with this in mind that I decided to stick to the question: What other faces of the problem do the circumstances of this crime show us? Under what other perspectives can we understand the connivance of a set of organizations that allow this to continue to happen? Here, I’m referring to the fact that this black man was beaten to death by a security guard and a military policeman at the grocery store these guys worked for.

      -EXTRA BARRA DA TIJUCA.RJ-

      Studying in recent years what the contemporary transformations in the supermarket segment have been and their impacts on work, when analyzing the type of work organization and the management strategies that have been disseminated, especially by the large transnational retailers, I am convinced that this This fact is not mere chance, but the result of a confluence of factors that reinforce and legitimize the deepest foundations of racism.

      These organizations have increasingly adopted policies of setting goals with individual pressure and exposing results in a public, vexatious and often humiliating way. In the case of the North American chain Walmart, the largest company in terms of revenue in the world¹, practices like this, often called “motivational”, generated numerous lawsuits in the Brazilian Labor Court. Although, in many cases, an attempt is made to exclusively blame the individual (manager or superior who practiced such act), when we look at the work management policy of these companies, it is evident that the logic that underlies the maintenance of profit margins at any cost really means “at any cost”. That is, even if this cost is the lives of its workers, among whom not all seem to have the same value, depending on sex, gender, race, ethnicity, etc. The tone of the denunciation of one of these processes gives the dimension of what, unfortunately, is commonplace: “The head of the checkout front used to comment that ‘this could only be a color thing’ and that it would remove ‘all the little blacks from the checkout front’. , close the quotation marks. In addition to making prejudiced gestures”².

      This type of harassment and crime, for the most part, are not reported, as the reports I heard during the research point out. There are rare cases like Shana Ragland, who became known for the video in which she resigns from the company, denouncing the harassment and racism of managers and other workers in a Walmart store in the United States³. I have also never witnessed a report in which managers who harassed and humiliated their subordinates had any kind of punishment from the company. On the contrary: in the face of a case of abuse of authority and sexual harassment, after the action of a group of women, the top of different levels of the supermarket management, all men, saw fit to transfer the harassing individual to another place of work. . These and other stories only reaffirm what one of my interviewees, supermarket worker, said, based on his experience, about how the company deals with these practices: “if I’m working, I’ll serve. Regardless of the bullshit I do. That the company already has a legal to save, to be acting. So, if the store I’m running is making a profit, it doesn’t matter what nonsense I do”.

      It is in this scenario that, not for nothing, many interviewees said that working in supermarkets is a type of slave labor regime: unpaid overtime, the denial of basic rights (such as being exempted from going to the bathroom), the disposability of those who present illnesses or limitations and the recurring practices of harassment and humiliation. In a country ravaged by unemployment and the lack of alternatives for less precarious jobs, we perpetuate our slavery heritage in a much more vivid way than is supposed, and which is evident in the workers’ own perception.

      So, if this is the experience of the direct employees of these supermarket chains, what can be said about the activity performed by those who provide services that were “outsourced”? If these companies do not implement a policy of respect for life and the most fundamental human rights among those under their direct responsibility, what can be expected from outsourced services? Isn’t this “exemption” precisely one of the reasons that makes outsourcing “attractive” to these large companies?

      Just over three months ago, in a supermarket belonging to the same Carrefour chain, in Recife, Moisés Dias died suddenly while working as a food product promoter⁴. His body was covered with umbrellas and the store continued to operate. The terrifying image of the photo that circulated on social networks already stamped the prevalence of completely inhuman work relationships. Moisés was employed as a sales promoter, one of the most significant occupations in the sector, but which is also part of this outsourcing process, that is, in which part of the activities previously carried out by supermarket employees became the responsibility of suppliers or contracted by labor intermediation companies.

      In the dynamics of outsourcing, just like the suppliers of products to supermarkets, private security companies also know that it is the “contracting company” that defines the policy and establishes the requirements of the service to be provided. It is the so-called main company, in this case, the direction of the supermarket, which defines the type of service, the focus of the approach and the guidelines on how it should be carried out. I don’t mean to say that Beto was murdered at the behest of the supermarket. However, in a segment where the profit margin is small and it is due to the large amount of products sold, the obsession with reducing “losses” means a free pass for a set of violations. I remember that during the research with cases of the Superior Labor Court, the denunciations of a search made in workers’ belongings and closets without their knowledge and that were understood as the right of the employer caught my attention. This same “loss prevention” policy at Walmart in the US kept hair products for blacks separate and locked in their stores⁵.

      Carrefour’s criminal policy of “turning a blind eye” to these practices has already been shown in several other episodes. Perhaps Beto’s murder would be just another one if there wasn’t a video to show that there is no possible explanation that justifies the brutal act of those security guards and the connivance of those who witnessed it. In 2009, Januário, a black man, was beaten by security guards from a third-party company at a Carrefour store in Osasco after being accused of trying to steal his own car. At the time, the supermarket management removed the security person responsible for the aggression⁶. Now, with the social mobilization and repercussion of the most recent case, added to the similarities with so many other cases of murder by police forces that sparked uprisings in the US this year,

      In view of this, if we combine these policies of retail chains with the logic of organization and training of private security companies, permeated in various ways by the performance of public agents of the military structure, what we have are practices that have been sustained for decades: of approach and embarrassment of black clients, offensive and violent actions, reproduction of prejudices and violations of rights of all kinds. It is in this articulation that “turning a blind eye” on the part of the supermarket is part of the management’s conduct when what really matters is having the “expected results” in return. As a result, a management directive easily becomes a free pass to commit crimes and atrocities of all kinds. This is because, as in many other cases,

      If this is a policy adopted for your own employees, what can you expect from action in the face of those who do not fit the “customer” profile? Racism in these approaches is already known by far. Who has never seen a black man being watched or approached by supermarket security? It is no coincidence that the criterion is the same used by our police forces. Without going into the discussion about security policy and the structure of these private security companies, I would like to point out that the “type of service” offered by these companies corresponds to what is demanded of them, after all, as we have known for decades, “who pays the band, choose the music”.

      CARREFOUR

      Therefore, without minimizing the set of other necessary measures and the complex of relationships that brought us here, it is unacceptable that the State does not have mechanisms to hold these organizations accountable. It is evident that social pressure has generated erosion in the image of these brands, which financially impacts these corporations, but this is temporary. By not buying from Carrefour, we will buy from another chain that may have practices as or more condescending with racism and violations of rights of all kinds. That alone is not enough.

      By allowing the continuity of a government that denies the existence of racism and condemns the legitimate and necessary revolt of a society that can no longer live with the extermination of its black, poor, indigenous population… we are saying that yes, we can accept that there are others. “Betos” as long as they are not “ours”. It is not possible to advance in the fight against racism under a government that not only destroys the basic rights of its population and their access to justice, but also systematically acts to deny them the right to exist.

      The pronouncement of some of Carrefour⁸’s major suppliers is at least symbolically important, but it still puts us far from a business model that puts life above profits. It is also relevant that the retailer of French origin has decided to allocate 25 million to a fund to combat racism in the country. But, in addition to a strategy that can preserve or recover the image of the largest supermarket chain in the country, what measures will be able to deconstruct the “corporate ideology” and the work management model that perpetuates racism at the very heart of these organizations? How will this fight be expressed in the policy of hiring, training and managing its workers and in the relationship with its consumers, suppliers and service providers?

      As long as there are no convincing answers to these questions, silence is not an option. Black lives matter and our cry will continue to echo until we are heard!

      SOURCE
      RACISM IN ORGANIZATIONS: LIFE AND WORK IN SUPERMARKETS | UFES Conjuncture Group
      CONJUNCTURE STUDY GROUP UFES
      UFES Conjuncture Group
      Posted by FRT OFFICIAL at 00:00 2 comments:
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      Tags: carrefour , pao de acucar group , sendas group , Patrícia Rocha Lemos , RACISM IN ORGANIZATIONS: LIFE AND WORK IN SUPERMARKETS , supermarkets , Unicamp , WALMART
      Tuesday, June 14, 2022
      ANTI INDIGENOUS FOUNDATION * FRT
      ANTI INDIGENOUS FOUNDATION

      ACCESS AND READ FREE
      Anti-Indian Foundation / Inesc Ina
      ***
      Posted by FRT OFFICIAL at 1:47 PM No comments:
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      Labels: BOLSONARO ASSASSINO , BOLSONARO ENEMY OF THE INDIGENOUS , anti-indigenous foundation , indigenous peoples
      Be angry! / Stéphane Hessel / France
      BE ANGRY

      Be angry!

      (Stephane Hessel)

      “My long life has given me a number of reasons to be indignant.”

      The writer is Stéphane Hessel, 93, hero of the French Resistance, survivor of Nazi concentration camps and one of the drafters of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. It is with the moral authority of a nonconformist resister and a visionary fighter that Stéphane Hessel alerts us, in this brief manifesto, to the fact that there are as many and just as serious reasons for indignation today as there were at the time when National Socialism threatened the free world. If we look, we will certainly find reasons for indignation: the growing gap between the very poor and the very rich, the state of the planet, the disrespect for emigrants and human rights, the intolerable dictatorship of the financial markets, social injustice, among many others. Let us accept the challenge of Stéphane Hessel,

      Stéphane Hessel was born on October 20, 1917 in Berlin, but moved to France at the age of eight and acquired French nationality in 1937. A member of the resistance and deported during the Second World War, and later French ambassador, Hessel, a man of Left and convinced Europeanist, he was known for defending human rights, the right to asylum, immigrants and the rights of Palestinians.

      He wrote many works, but it was the small book “Indignai-vos!, published in 2010 and in which he defended the spirit of resistance, that earned him worldwide fame.

      Stéphane Hessel passed away in February 2013, aged 95.

      ACCESS AND READ FREE
      Indignai Vos / Stéphane Hessel – France
      ***
      Posted by FRT OFFICIAL at 12:07 pm No comments:
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      Labels: France , Be angry! , pacifism , critical thinking , peaceful resistance , Stéphane Hessel
      Guns for reservists signal Bolsonaro’s “Capitólio” * ALEX SOLNIK / SP
      Guns for reservists signal Bolsonaro’s “Capitólio”

      ALEX SOLNIK

      Two news items point to the possibility that Bolsonaro will try to promote an insurrection in the country if he loses the elections.

      The first is the decision by the Military Police of Rio de Janeiro to distribute pistols and three magazines to up to 10,000 reserve police, announced yesterday, out of the blue. No more, no less.

      *The administrative process ran on a cashier’s note. It started on May 18.*

      But why distribute weapons to reservists? Secrecy. The documents are under “restricted access”. It’s because?

      *The PM command mentions the article of the Access to Information Law that prohibits access to documents that may “compromise intelligence activities, as well as investigation or inspection in progress, related to the prevention or repression of information”*.

      Nothing more than this. A deafening silence.

      *They will distribute weapons for reasons of “intelligence”, “prevention” and “investigation” without stating the reason*. Which leaves me – and any well-informed person – with a flea behind my ear. Ten thousand people without police uniforms will circulate armed in the streets of Rio de Janeiro.

      On the same day, that is, yesterday, we learned that a few days ago, at a dinner at the home of the STF minister, Cármen Lúcia, the president of the STF, Luiz Fux, and seven senators, Fernando Bezerra Coelho, former leader of the in the Senate said that Bolsonaro’s ability to set the country on fire should not be underestimated.

      Another, Tasso Jereissati, advised Fux to talk to the military leadership to neutralize Bolsonaro’s plans.

      Renan Calheiros, Kátia Abreu, Randolfe Rodrigues, Marcelo Castro and Eduardo Braga supported Tasso’s suggestion.

      Bolsonaro’s “Capitólio” may have a different script than Trump’s.

      *As soon as their defeat is announced, the reservists of the PM in Rio take to the streets to protest, alleging fraud in the electronic voting machines.*

      They promote violent protests, which spread through the PMs across the country, demanding the annulment of the result.

      The government decrees a state of emergency, the army is obliged to repress the protests, which could put the troop and perhaps some commanders in a choice for Sofia: repress the PM reservists or join the protest?

      Hence, dialogue between the president of the STF and the commander of the Armed Forces is imperative, which must remain cohesive against a Bolsonarist insurrection that is looming on the horizon.

      And the distribution of weapons to PM reservists must be curbed.

      ….

      Posted by FRT OFFICIAL at 00:00 No comments:
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      Tags : ALEX SOLNIX , Guns for reservists signal Bolsonaro’s “Capitólio” , bolsonarismo , coup , militia , militarism

      https://frenterevolucionariadostrabalhadores.blogspot.com/search?updated-max=2022-06-16T00:00:00-03:00&max-results=99

      1. Monday, June 13, 2022
        DEFENDING THE ENVIRONMENT IN BRAZIL IS A LIFE RISK * Adão Alves dos Santos / SP
        DEFENDING THE ENVIRONMENT IN BRAZIL IS A LIFE RISK

        (CHRONICLES TO UNBURN OUT TOMO DCCLXXVI)

        Unfortunately, the issue is not recent, but in a country with continental dimensions, conflicts over land tenure always claim lives, almost always of those without land and, when those who have land die, the dead are small landowners or traditional peoples.

        If almost all the conflicts are in the North and Center-West regions, however, deaths and aggressions occur in other regions, among so many conflicts, the invasion of vacant lands of the union by large landowners is not highlighted in the mainstream media, while the occupations of unproductive lands, these are always printed and broadcast with respiratory frequency. It would be curious, but needless to say, that the largest donations to help the venerable come precisely from the agricultural production of these areas occupied by the MST, while agriculture exports, the MST helps.

        But the fact that brought us to this reflection is the murder of an environmentalist from UFSC, at the door of his residence. I would even reinforce the importance of militancy for preservation, but I believe that everyone already knows that they breathe air and that when it is not breathable we get sick, at the very least, I still believe that everyone knows that plants have the ability to renew the air.

        Adão Alves dos Santos / SP

        ANNEXES

        *

        *

        *

        *

        *

        *

        ***
        Posted by OFFICIAL FRT at 00:00 1 comment:
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        Tags : adao alves dos santos , environmentalism , chronicle , DEFENDING THE ENVIRONMENT IN BRAZIL , IT IS A RISK OF LIFE , literature , class struggle
        HERE COMES THE SCREAM OF THE EMPLOYED * Maria Araújo / Brasil de Fatomg
        HERE COMES THE SCREAM OF THE EMPLOYED

        About 9 thousand people in Belo Horizonte live on the streets. The number, raised by the Citizenship Poles, a project linked to the Faculty of Law of the Federal University of Minas Gerais (UFMG), in December 2021, exceeds the capacity of shelter and gathering places in the city. According to the Municipality of Belo Horizonte (PBH), there are about a thousand vacancies in public facilities to accommodate this population.

        With the arrival of winter, Claudenice Rodrigues Lopes, social scientist and coordinator of the Pastoral de Rua da Arquidiocese de Belo Horizonte, worries about the lack of vacancies and the difficulty of attending to the homeless. “The number of vacancies is far below the number of people living on the streets and, in most cases, the condition and quality of care do not allow for a reception that guarantees autonomy, care and protection”, she evaluates.

        In the opinion of Wellington Migliari, a researcher at UFMG who works with legal studies and data at the Brazilian Observatory of Public Policies with the Homeless Population, the expansion of shelter spaces and assistance to pay rent, in addition to reducing bureaucracy to access the welcoming spaces, are urgent measures to change this reality. “The municipality has 600 daily reception spaces in the form of transit houses, with food, facilities for personal hygiene, personal guards and overnight stays. That number, however, is much lower than necessary,” he explains.

        According to data from the Cadastro Único (CadÚnico), of the total population living on the streets, 84% declare themselves to be black, among black or mixed race, 87% are between 18 and 59 years old, and 91% live in conditions of extreme poverty. poverty. According to Wellington, these data are important because they demonstrate the country’s reality. “We need to understand housing as a long-term strategic measure to break with models of income concentration, structural racism and poverty”, she points out.

        Public policies and struggle for decent housing

        In agreement with Wellington, Claudenice, coordinator of Pastoral de Rua, reaffirms that shelters are not the solution for those who live on the streets, as they are emergency and temporary measures. For her, there must be a confluence of public policies, which permeate housing, employment and the right to the city.

        “One program that has worked is the Bolsa Moradia, which has been a possible way to ensure protection, care and organization and is the result of the struggle of this population. In addition, there are also urban occupations, which are legitimate ways to fight for this right,” he says.

        However, for Claudenice, the policy is still insufficient to meet the population’s demand.

        According to the Belo Horizonte City Hall, in 2018 a qualification and classification process was instituted for the Bolsa Moradia program. At the time, 684 families or individuals were qualified. Between 2019 and 2020, 76 new families were inserted and in 2021 another 424 families, totaling 500 insertions in the period. Still, according to the prefecture, the expectation is that all classified and qualified remaining will be summoned later this year to access the benefit.

        A lot of home without people and a lot of people without a home

        Belo Horizonte, like most Brazilian capitals, has a high rate of properties and vacant lots. According to the Brazilian Observatory of Public Policies with the Homeless Population, in the city there are more than 64 thousand vacant homes, 17 thousand vacant lots and 323 areas that are zoned. These zoned areas are territories that must be destined to the implantation of enterprises of social interest, composed of empty lands and existing buildings, underutilized or not used.

        “We live in a city where the number of idle properties is much higher than the number of people without homes. If there was a political commitment, the possibility of investments is real to change this reality, so that people can conquer conditions to overcome life on the streets”, comments Claudenice.

        ***
        Posted by OFFICIAL FRT at 00:00 25 comments:
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        Tags : brasil de factomg , homeless , zero eviction , maria araujo , housing , homeless , O CRY DOS ESPEJADOS COMES HERE
        Sunday, June 12, 2022
        BOÇALIDADE DO EVIL * Eliane Brum / SP
        BUZZLE OF EVIL

        “I ask a kind of poetic license from the philosopher Hannah Arendt, to play with the complex concept that she so brilliantly created and call this step further “the stupidity of evil”. Not banality, but stupidity.

        Arendt, for those who don’t remember, reached “the banality of evil” when she witnessed the trial of Nazi Adolf Eichmann in Jerusalem and realized that he was not a monster with a deformed brain, nor did he demonstrate a personal and deep hatred for Jews, nor nor was he torn apart in matters of good and evil. Eichmann was a disappointingly small man who believed that he had only followed the rules of the state and obeyed the law in force in playing his part in the murder of millions of human beings.

        Eichmann would be just another bureaucrat carrying out orders he didn’t think to question. The banality of evil is installed in the absence of thought.

        The stupidity of evil, one of the possible explanations for the current moment, is a phenomenon generated by the internet experience.

        Or at least connected to it.

        Since social networks opened the possibility for each one to freely express, let’s say, their “deeper self”, their “most intrinsic truth”, we discovered the extension of the human cloaca.

        A fundamental pillar of coexistence was broken there, one that Nelson Rodrigues warned in one of his sharpest phrases:

        “If everyone knew what the other was doing within four walls, no one would greet each other”.

        What happened was that we discovered not only what each one does within four walls, but also what happens between the two ears of each one. We discover what each one really thinks without any mediation or brakes.

        And we discovered that intimate and everyday barbarism was always there, here, beyond what we could suppose, in dimensions of reality that only fiction had covered until then.

        We discovered, for example, that that friendly neighbor with whom we exchanged polite pleasantries in the elevator advocates the lynching of homosexuals. And that even the most restrained are capable of exercising their cruelty and dressing it up as freedom of expression.

        In posts and comments on social networks, their authors make clear their pride in their hatred and often also in their ignorance.

        They often claim the status of “good citizens” as a justification for committing all kinds of evil, as well as for freely exercising their racism, their collection of prejudices and their abysmal intolerance of any difference.

        It was like a charm in reverse – or a disenchantment. The image returned by that mirror is obscene beyond imagination.

        By freeing the individual from his social bonds, what appeared was far worse than the most pessimistic investigation of the human soul. As anyone who follows website comments and social media posts knows well, it’s terrifying what people are able to say to one another, and in doing so, it’s even more terrifying what they say about themselves. Like Hannah Arendt’s Eichmann, none of these are some kind of monster, which would make everything easier, but only ordinarily human.

        We still have a lot to investigate about how the internet, one of the few things that really deserve to be called revolutionary, has transformed our lives and our way of thinking and the way we see ourselves.

        But I think the effect of what the internet has taken from humanity by allowing each individual to show themselves without masks is underestimated: the illusion about themselves. This illusion was expensive, and it played a role – or many – in both individual and collective expression. I think that a very deep hole was dug there, still to be uncovered better. (…) We have already taken a step beyond banality. Our time is that of stupidity.”

        *_Eliane Brum_, journalist.*

        Posted by FRT OFFICIAL at 00:00 34 comments:
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        Tags : BOCALIDADE , BOÇALIDADE DO MAL , boçalnaridade , bolçalnaro , Eliane Brum , outside bolsonaro , MALDADE , nazibolsonarismo
        LULA+ALCKMIN 2022 * POPULAR COMMITTEE OF LULA LIVRE FIGHTS OF ES/SOCIAL MOVEMENTS
        OPEN LETTER TO THE NATIONAL AND STATE EXECUTIVE OF THE WORKERS’ PARTY

        THE PRICE YOU WILL PAY IS TOO HIGH

        Since the government of Vitor Buaiz, ​​the Espírito Santo left has not had the chance to compete in such a vigorous and united way for the state government.

        The parties, for decades, organized themselves around the important candidacies that were launched. However, they were not always able to achieve the unity and excitement necessary for the militancy of the Espírito Santo left.
        Senator Fabiano Contarato has already demonstrated that he has this profile. Excites. Produces a unit never seen before. The left perceives in its candidacy the power and the possibility of building a new Espírito Santo.

        Fighters and social fighters, workers and workers, blacks and blacks, indigenous and LGBTQUIA+ populations, from the countryside and the city, the youths, who want to lead the future of the State, see the Senator’s candidacy as necessary. Not only because it can unite all social movements, but because it can reverse the capital-centered development project that has governed this State for 500 years. A NEW PROJECT with a new face and new policies, centered on people, on life in all its potential.

        Enough of ES in Action by Renato Casa Grande, Paulo Hartung and others who just explore ES. Enough of privatization. Enough of disrespect for the environment. Enough of closing schools, especially those in the countryside. Enough with the extermination of black youth. Enough with femicide. Enough, fundamentally, with the inability to face social inequalities.

        The National and State leadership of the PT does not have the right to silence our voice. Moro was received by the governor as an “important” candidate for the presidency. The PSB candidate participated in a live with Ciro Gomes. There are, in the coalition that he set up, at least three parties from the base of the fascist who runs Brazil and others known for their physiologism. Who will lead LULA’s campaign in ES?

        We want the “double” that will guarantee the resumption of democracy. No fascism, no hesitation. With the workers, the workers and the social movements: Lula president and Contarato governor.

        PEOPLE’S COMMITTEE FOR LULA LIVRE DO ES
        SOCIAL MOVEMENTS
        Posted by FRT OFFICIAL at 00:00 No comments:
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        Tags : coalition , brazil election , fabiano contarato , lula , lulaalckmin 2022
        Saturday, June 11, 2022
        HOUSING GRANT AND PARLIAMENTARY VOTE * Revolutionary Workers’ Front / FRT
        HOUSING GRILLING AND PARLIAMENTARY VOTE

        SEE THE NAMES OF DEPUTIES IN RIO DE JANEIRO AND THE PARTIES OF THOSE WHO VOTED SO BANK OWNERS CAN TAKE OVER THE HOUSE OF THE INDEBTED.

        Rio de Janeiro

        Alessandro Molon (PSB) – NO

        Altineu Cortes (PL)

        Aureo Ribeiro (Solidarity) – YES

        Benedita da Silva (PT) – NO

        Carlos Jordy (PL) – YES

        Chico D’Angelo (PDT) – NO

        Chiquinho Brazão (Union) – YES

        Chris Tonietto (PL) – YES

        Clarissa Garotinho (União) – YES

        Daniel Silveira (PTB) – YES

        Daniela Waguinho (Union) – YES

        David Miranda (PDT)

        Del Antônio Furtado (Union) – YES

        Dr. Luiz Antonio Jr (PP)

        Felício Laterça (PP) – YES

        Gelson Azevedo (PL) – YES

        Glauber Braga (PSOL) – NO

        Gurgel (PL) – YES

        Gutemberg Reis (MDB) – YES

        Helio Lopes (PL) – YES

        Hugo Leal (PSD) – YES

        Jandira Feghali (PCdoB)

        Jones Moura (PSD) – YES

        Jorge Braz (Republicans) – YES

        Juninho do Pneu (União) – YES

        Lourival Gomes (PP) – YES

        Luiz Lima (PL) – YES

        Luiz Antônio Corrêa (PP) – YES

        Major Fabiana (PL) – YES

        Marcelo Calero (PSD) – YES

        Marcelo Freixo (PSB) – NO

        Márcio Labre (PL) – YES

        Marcos Soares (Union)

        Otoni de Paula (MDB)

        Paulo Ganime (New) – YES

        Paulo Ramos (PDT) – NO

        Pedro Augusto (PP)

        Pedro Paulo (PSD) – NO

        Professor Joziel (Patriot) – YES

        Ricardo da Carol (PDT)

        Rosangela Gomes (Republicans)

        Soraya Santos (PL) – YES

        Sosthenes Cavalcante (PL)

        Talíria Petrone (PSOL) – NO

        MARIELE FRANCO DIED FOR THIS

        *
        Posted by FRT OFFICIAL at 23:47 No comments:
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        Tags : zero eviction , land grabbing , HOUSING GRILAGE AND PARLIAMENTARY VOTE , urban land grabbing , mariele franco , militia , prevarication
        PRISON INDUSTRY * Nicole Mitchell Ribeiro da Silva / Osvaldo leon – FRT
        PRISON INDUSTRY

        In the United States, prisons are a gigantic capitalist business: those who exploit prison labor accumulate surplus value at stratospheric levels. This is one of the reasons for the colossal American prison system.

        In Tennessee they passed a law criminalizing the homeless. Penalties have been toughened against 2020 anti-racist camps. With this new law, camping on public roads will be classified as a serious crime, punishable by 6 years in prison and loss of voting rights.

        The law, which takes effect on July 1, will also make it a crime to camp along highways, under bridges, on overpasses or inside overpasses.

        In the United States, there are millions of people and families forced to live badly on the streets, in tents, faced with the impossibility of finding affordable housing in a system in which housing is a commodity and not an inalienable right. Capital feeds fascism.

        SOURCES
        t.me/capitalismoesbarbarie
        https://cutt.ly/pJIyKJu
        OSVALDO LEON/VE

        US Prison Work: “It’s Not a Justice System, It’s a Business”

        Nicole Mitchell Ribeiro da Silva*1

        summary

        1. Introduction. 2. Historical Origins of Penitentiary Work. 3. Institutionalized Racism: Connection between Prison and Slavery. 4. The Privatization of Prisons.

        5. It’s Not a Justice System, It’s a Business. 6. Conclusions. References.

        Summary

        In the United States of America, a new form of slavery appears, duly authorized by the legal system, involving those who are serving time in an industrial prison complex, since a large part of the private prison system exploits inmates as if they were slaves. Apparently, American slavery was never abolished, it just moved to the modern prison system, fueling, mainly, the mass incarceration of black citizens, as racism is institutionalized and reflected in the selectivity of the American prison system. In Brazil, projects on the privatization of prisons are advancing. Thus, it seems feasible, useful and even necessary to discuss the topic.

        Abstract

        In the United States, a new form of slavery exists, authorized by the legal system, for those serving time in an industrial penitentiary complex, since much of the private prison system exploits detainees as if they were slaves. American slavery, it seems, has never been abolished; it has only changed to the modern prison system, ultimately fueling mainly the mass incarceration of black citizens, since racism is institutionalized and reflected in the selectivity of the US prison system. In Brazil, projects are being advanced for the privatization of prisons. Thus, it seems viable, useful and even necessary to discuss the topic.

        Keywords: Modern slavery. American prison system. Prison-industrial complex. Industrial prison complex. Privatization of the prison system. Institutionalized racism. 13th Amendment.

        * Postgraduate degree in Public and Private Law from the Higher Institute of the Public Ministry (Amperj).

        Servant of the Public Ministry of the State of Rio de Janeiro.

        Keywords: Modern slavery. US prison system. Prison-industrial complex. Industrial penitentiary complex. Privatization of the penitentiary system. Institutionalized racism. 13th Amendment.

        1. Introduction

        It is used to think that the outcome of the Civil War represented, in the United States, the end of slavery. That’s because the 13th Amendment to the Constitution, passed in January 1865, outlawed slavery, freeing millions of black slaves. The same amendment, however, reserved slavery as a punishment for crime. It can be said, therefore, that the detainees came to be considered property of the State.

        As a result, several organizations dedicated to the protection of human rights have condemned what can be called a “new form of inhuman exploitation of work”. Today, a population of up to 2 million prisoners, mostly black and poor, legally provide services to large industrial corporations in exchange for paltry values.

        The text of the 13th Amendment reads:

        section 1

        There shall be, in the United States or anywhere subject to its jurisdiction, neither slavery nor forced labor, except as a punishment for a crime for which the defendant has been duly convicted.

        Section 2

        Congress shall have the power to enforce this article by means of the necessary laws.

        From reading the amendment, it does not seem too much to conclude that American slavery was not abolished, it was just transferred to the modern prison system, in which economic interests encourage mass incarceration, notably of blacks. The fundamental relationship between punishment and economic interests is translated into the terms “industrial penitentiary complex” or “prison-industrial complex”. These are expressions that denote the overlapping and converging interests of government and industry in mass incarceration. This system uses surveillance, policing and imprisonment as solutions to economic, social and political problems.

        Now, the word prison is not difficult to understand: it is a place where freedom, movement and access to basically everything are restricted, in general, as punishment for committing a crime. But for those who have already been incarcerated, being in prison is much more than that. Prisons, for the most part, are places where dignity, privacy and control are handed over to guards, correctional officers and administrators, and where isolation and boredom can take away sanity.

        For in the United States, a country where more than two million people are detained, these prisons are also big business.1

        2. Historical Origins of Penitentiary Work

        Prison work in the United States has its roots in slavery. After the Civil War of 1861-1865, a system of contracting inmates was introduced to continue the tradition of slavery. Freed slaves were accused of petty crimes or, simply, of not fulfilling their commitments and, once incarcerated, they were hired to harvest cotton, work in mines and build railroads.

        Historically, prisons have been used for a variety of purposes. The most common was to incarcerate criminals. But the prisons also served to hold political dissidents, the mentally ill, prisoners of war and even people who didn’t pay their debts. In the centuries In the 18th and 19th centuries, people who could not pay their debts were often imprisoned or forced to perform forced labor. Time spent in prison or working was an alternative way to pay off debts.

        In this context, penitentiary work was installed, especially for blacks, for the benefit of the industry.

        3. Institutionalized Racism: Connection between Prison and Slavery

        The racism that permeates life in American society is reflected in the selectivity of its prison system. There are many similarities between the industrial prison complexes of the United States and the slavery systems of that country, and it is not difficult to see that the American prison population is, to an incredibly disproportionate degree, African American.

        Already in the century In the 18th century, freed black individuals began to be arrested for petty crimes, such as vagrancy, or any other banal reason and without posing a danger to society. Hence the idea of ​​putting prisoners to work for the State. As previously mentioned, according to the US Constitution, the former slave and now detainee can and must be subjected to forced labor.

        Black-skinned people of African descent make up 13% of the American population, but are six times more likely to be incarcerated than lighter-skinned people. Blacks and Hispanics make up 58% of the prison population, which means a disproportionate number of black people forced to work (many of whom have committed non-violent drug-related crimes).2

        1 The prison population in the US was 2,145,100 in 2016, according to a publication by the World Prison Brief (Institute for Criminal Policy Research). Available at: .
        2 These and other data can be obtained from: .

        Abolitionist movements understand the phenomenon of mass incarceration in North America as a class injustice, perpetrated against the working classes and driven by racism, given the evident selectivity of the prison system.

        Jeffrey Mark Goldberg’s documentary,3 entitled “Angola for Life: Rehabilitation and Reform Inside the Louisiana State Penitentiary”, shows images of prison work on a plantation in the southern United States. And, as stated in the documentary, slavery and racial oppression persist.

        4. The Privatization of Prisons

        With the privatization of the prison system, companies manage the prisons, which they do, naturally, with the intention of making a profit. Large companies, through agreements, are hired by the government as contractors to design, build and manage prisons. In consideration, the government pays the company an amount per individual arrested. Thus, the more inmates there are, the more money companies receive.

        The growth of prison privatization began in the 1980s and reached its peak in the 1990s. In 2000, as this system – the punishment industry –

        – became one of the top employers in the United States, and as private security corporations traded profits with human freedom, the analogies between slavery and prison grew.

        The entire American penitentiary industrial complex is thus profit-oriented. In addition to the gain from private prisons according to the number of inmates held by them, many companies also make profits from prison labor, which could certainly be considered slave labor, as some inmates receive a few cents per hour of work. .

        The logical conclusion is that the private employment of prisoners for work promotes incentives to incarcerate people. The figures show that the United States arrests more people than any other country: half a million more than China, which has a population five times as large. The United States thus holds 25% of the world’s prison population, but only 5% of the inhabitants of the globe. American prisons depend on the income they produce, and corporations that profit from this system encourage the imposition of longer sentences in order to expand their workforce.

        The prison labor system takes advantage of an extremely vulnerable workforce that is unable to defend itself, form a union, fight for their workers’ rights or seek legal protection to combat potential labor abuses.

        Prisoners are prohibited from unionizing or fighting for better wages and decent working conditions, making them the ideal group to serve as a hand.

        3 Jeffrey Mark Goldberg is an American journalist and editor-in-chief of “The Atlantic” magazine.

        of cheap work. Despite working effectively, they are not considered employed by the American justice system, not having access to minimum labor rights, which is especially advantageous for companies, which do not have to pay any benefit, fair consideration or protection. And if detainees refuse to work, they will be placed in solitary confinement and may receive other punishments, all with the legitimate backing of the criminal justice system. In addition, despite earning little or nothing for their work, inmates also have deductions and fees that come out of their meager earnings. Up to eighty percent of prisoners’ salaries are earmarked for taxes and deductions.

        Private prisons also receive a guaranteed amount of money for each prisoner regardless of what it costs to keep each one. In them, inmates can have their sentences reduced for good behavior, but for any small infraction, they get thirty days added, which means more days in prison, more days of work and more profits for the prison industry.

        5. It’s Not a Justice System, It’s a Business

        In this system, incarcerated individuals are rightfully treated as government property. If any detainee refuses to be rented or transferred as property, he will suffer consequences that violate fundamental rights, similar to ancient slavery. Meanwhile, private corporations, in agreement with the US government, which exploit criminal labor to produce goods and services, profit millions of dollars a year.

        The industrial prison complex is thus concerned with profiting from inmates, even though it labels this system a “job training program”. However, detainees are taught a skill set not as a means of reform, but rather for the purpose of exploitation for maximum profit.

        Even as the US crime rate dropped, the country’s prison population rose. In 1983 and 1984, two private correction companies formed one after the other. Between 1990 and 2009, the number of prisoners working as slaves in private prisons increased surprisingly.

        This is one of the fastest growing businesses in the United States and its investors are on Wall Street. The profits are so good that there is a new business growing: the importation of inmates with long sentences, that is, the worst criminals are disputed by private corporations, which exploit their cheap labor, all legally.

        6. Conclusions

        Slavery and mass imprisonment have a long historical relationship in the United States. That country’s penitentiary system can be described as a totalizing institution, which represents modern systems of domination and social control, apparently resocializing ex-criminals through work.

        The network that links prisons, investment companies, police, courts and the bail/fine system is called the prison-industrial complex. The name is similar to the military-industrial complex, a term used to characterize the interconnected banks, military and oil industries, contractors, corporate lobbyists and professional soldiers who benefit from war and repression.

        Nearly all American prisons, whether federal, state, county, and county government, allow large corporations to generate high profits. Prison bonds provide a lucrative return for large capitalist investors, and inmates are traded from state to state on the basis of a lucrative payment arrangement.

        Large US multinationals enjoy some of the lowest labor rates in the world and resell finished goods, weapons for example, to the US government at the highest profit rates. Major corporations that benefit from inmate labor in private prisons include household names such as Motorola, Compaq, Honeywell, Microsoft, Revlon, Chevron, TWA, Victoria’s Secret and Eddie Bauer.

        In the North American industrial penitentiary complex, there is no care with the resocialization of prisoners or with justice. In this system, the basic humanity of individuals is violated as was done in slavery in the past, but in a different way, more veiled and legitimized by the 13th Amendment.

        In Brazil, there are projects providing for the privatization of prisons. It is therefore useful and timely to discuss the topic. Research and debates on this matter can help us to move in the right direction, valuing, above all, human rights and dignity.

        References

        CORREA, Alessandra. Why the US decided to stop using private prisons. Available at: . Accessed on: 23 Feb. 2017.
        DUVERNAY, Ava. 13th. 2016 documentary directed by Ava DuVernay and written by DuVernay and Spencer Averick. (Netflix). Available at: .
        GILMORE, Kim. Slavery and Prison – Understanding the Connections. Available in:
        . Accessed on: 23 Feb. 2017.
        LUSENHOP, Jessica. The controversial experience of prisons in the USA that charge for the stay of prisoners. Available at: . Accessed on: 23 Feb. 2017.
        MORENO, Gisele Pompilio. 13th: from slave to criminal in an amendment. Available at: . Accessed on: 28 Feb. 2017.
        STARR, Terrell Jermaine. US prison population: a new slavery? Available at: . Accessed on: 23 Feb. 2017.
        50FORFREEDOM. Modern slavery: myths and facts. Available in:
        . Accessed on: 23 Feb. 2017

        MORE PRISON INDUSTRY
        Prison Industry: Slavery in Modern Capitalism, Part 1 – USA. | Invisible Quilombo

        ***
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        Tags: slavery , capitalist exploitation , CARCERÁRIA INDUSTRY , Nicole Mitchell Ribeiro da Silva , osvaldo leon , private prisons , rational mc , slave labor

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        Friday, June 10, 2022
        RUPTURE LETTER WITH PSOL * Collective of activists and social movements
        RUPTURE LETTER WITH PSOL

        KNOW
        LETTER OF RUPTURE WITH PSOL – Letter of collective articulation for a break with the Socialism and Liberty Party – PSOL
        ***
        Posted by FRT OFFICIAL at 2:40 PM No comments:
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        Tags: LETTER OF RUPTURE WITH PSOL , politics , PSOL , splits , rupture
        WORKERS’ SUMMIT OF THE AMERICAS * Workers Revolutionary Front / FRT
        SUMMIT OF WORKERS OF THE AMERICAS

        ACCESS AND CHECK
        SUMMIT OF WORKERS OF THE AMERICAS
        SUMMIT OF WORKERS OF THE AMERICAS

        The Workers’ Summit of the Americas is organized to counteract the Summit of the Americas hosted by the US Department of State in Los Angeles, California. Our conference is a place where countries that are besieged by the US (Venezuela, Nicaragua and Cuba) and that were prevented from participating in the Summit of the Americas will participate.

        This Summit will create a permanent forum of workers for solidarity and articulation of anti-imperialist, anti-colonial and anti-patriarchal struggles in the Americas: Latin America, the Caribbean and North America. See More information

        Posted by FRT OFFICIAL at 1:34 PM 105 comments:
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        Tags: latin america , anti- imperialism , WORKERS’ SUMMIT OF THE AMERICAS , class struggle
        COMBATIVE RAP POPULAR COLLECTION * Wander Florêncio / SP
        COMBATIVE RAP POPULAR COLLECTION

        The “Popular Collection: RAP COMBATIVO” is an unofficial compilation with songs by several Brazilian artists of anti-capitalist rap organized by the collective LUTE, which distributed free CDs of the compilation in 2018 in its base centers.

        tracks:
        01 – Revolutionary Infantry – Our History
        02 – Popular Version – People Who Suffer
        03 – Our Voice & Red Menace – No Front
        04 – MC Carol – Awarded Delation
        05 – Ktarse – Insurgents
        06 – Northeast Clan – All Hatred to Bourgeoisie
        07 – The Levant – Anti-Media Empire
        08 – Racionais MC’s – Marighella
        09 – Red Slang – The Immortal
        10 – Red Menace – Workers-Peasant Alliance
        11 – Red Slang – Fighting is necessary
        12 – Karol Conka & MC Carol – 100% Feminist
        13 – Ktarse – We Are Revenge
        14 – Red Ghosts – Go Ghosts
        15 – Red Menace – The Combative Scream
        16 – Black Flag – Black Flag
        17 – Weapon of Criticism – Take a Ride
        18 – O Levante, Davi Perez & Rachel Barros – Ring of Our Art, Stage of Our Fight

        Download at:
        https://mega.nz/#F!FdcXDKTD! aaNPhSV9uKVQt2ZrecXNgg
        ***
        Posted by FRT OFFICIAL at 12:02 PM No comments:
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        Tags : COLLETANEA POPULAR RAP COMBATIVO , fight , music , rap , wander florencio
        THE ULTRALIBERAL ADJUSTMENT EMBURATES BRAZIL AND AGGRAVATES OUR SOCIAL CRISIS * THE WEAPON OF CRITICISM
        THE ULTRALIBERAL ADJUSTMENT EMBURATES BRAZIL AND AGGRAVATES OUR SOCIAL CRISIS

        THE CRITICAL WEAPON

        Wherever you look, the Brazilian conjuncture presents a deterioration of the economic and social scenario for the working masses. In the structural conditions of a dependent and subordinate capitalism, the ultraliberal adjustment worsens the living conditions of the people and makes barbarism and violence a natural part of everyday life.

        The Brazilian bourgeoisie associated with imperialism has nothing to complain about. Insensitive to the sufferings of the people, the government of the genocidal and surrendering Captain follows impassively the ultra-liberal reform agenda that serves to make the rich richer and richer. The new chapter of this saga is the assault on public property through privatizations, which has Eletrobrás as a new target. The Central Bank, with its autonomy decreed, has already been captured by the parasites of the financial system. And the complete privatization of Petrobras, the great “dream of consumption” of the Brazilian and international bourgeoisie, remains its most ambitious goal. Capital requires increasingly deteriorating living conditions to continue its process of accumulation. The profit of publicly traded companies, in the first quarter of this year,

        The revelry of the bourgeoisie only takes place at the cost of the mega-exploitation of the people. According to IBGE data released in May, the unemployment rate in the first quarter of this year was 11.1%. When analyzing the data by segment, the rates are above the national average among women (13.7%), among blacks (13.3%), among browns (12.9%) and among young people aged 18 years and over. to 24 years (22.8%). The underutilization rate stood at 23.2%. This deterioration in the labor market is reflected in the real income of workers, calculated at R$2,548.00, 8.7% lower than in the first quarter of 2021, when the value reached R$2,789.00. The proportion of workers earning up to 1 minimum wage jumped, from 2012 to 2021, from 33.07% of the employed population to 36.72%. This drop in real income is compounded by inflation, which further deteriorates the already deteriorating purchasing power of wages. Only food, with 13%, and managed prices such as diesel, with 22.6%, accumulate higher increases than general inflation.

        With precarious jobs, deteriorated income and public policies captured by the interests of big capital, the poorest segments of the working class suffer from the impacts of the ultraliberal adjustment in all its extension. An example is the right to housing, which, subordinated to the interests of real estate capital, has expelled the low-income layers of the proletariat to live in risky areas. It is not, therefore, heavy rains that are responsible for these deaths, but capitalism. This year, floods and landslides have killed hundreds of people across the country. In Petrópolis alone there were more than 230 deaths. In greater São Paulo, 34 people died. And now, in Recife, the landslides have already killed, until the moment we close this note, 90 people.

        The permanent policy of ultra-liberal adjustment, which is nothing more than a class war between the bourgeoisie against the people, intensifies the authoritarian and anti-popular tendencies of the Brazilian State. Incited by the government of the genocidal Captain, the repressive apparatus of the State acts in a policy of considering the people as the main enemy. The ultra-liberal adjustment, to be applied, requires a high degree of state violence against the people. In Rio de Janeiro, on May 24, in the community of Vila Cruzeiro, a combined action between the State Civil Police and the Federal Highway Police killed 23 people. According to the Human Rights Commission of the OAB/RJ, there are clear signs of execution. Among the dead, at least 16 had no arrest warrants issued. And to end a week in which the keynote was the massacre of our people, on May 25, members of the Federal Highway Police in the city of Umbaúba/SE, killed Genivaldo de Jesus Santos by asphyxiation by tear gas, inside a vehicle. The horror scene was recorded by popular people and soon spread across the country. It didn’t take long and soon there was a video of a PRF instructor teaching new members this torture technique in class.

        With so much misfortune and violence committed by the bourgeoisie and the State against the people, the country was supposed to be on fire. However, influenced by state and private ideological apparatuses, in addition to decades of a majority policy on the left that reduced politics to voting, what we are witnessing is the people resigning themselves and naturalizing this situation, as if all the miseries that affect us made up our cultural scene. Politically educated to be passive, the people would be left to see the course of events as inevitable and impossible to change.

        It is up to us communists to carry out the Herculean task of showing that another world is possible. That nothing is impossible to change. And that the change of course of our country requires that the people come to the fight, break with the immobility and take control of the destiny of Brazil in their hands

        ***

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        Labels: brazil , conjuncture , militias , narcostate , THE ULTRALIBERAL ADJUSTMENT EMBURAC BRAZIL AND AGGRAVATES OUR SOCIAL CRISIS , THE WEAPON OF CRITICISM
        RISK OF ANAL SEX FOR WOMEN * Poranduba Brasiliensis
        RISK OF ANAL SEX FOR WOMEN

        Everyone knows that I don’t get involved in polemics, even more, in times of “my body, my rules”, but, when the subject is important, I am forced to get involved, even where I’m not called.

        Here’s an account, based on “true facts.”

        A woman goes to her gynecologist and tells him that her husband has developed a strong penchant for anal sex and has come to consult about the risks that such a practice can entail.

        The doctor asks:

        – You like to do?

        The woman replies:

        – Well, yes, actually it’s a pleasure to enjoy and not think about other things.

        The doctor asks:

        – Do you feel any irritation or injury?

        The woman replies:

        – No, no, almost not.

        The gynecologist continues:

        – So I don’t see any reason for you to refrain from doing it always, of course we’ll have to take precautions so you don’t get pregnant.

        The woman shudders and exclaims in disbelief.

        – As!! Getting pregnant by anal sex?

        Then the doctor continued

        – Of course, my lady!

        How do you think they were designed:

        BOLSONARO, Sérgio Moro, General Morão, Eduardo Bolsonaro, Aécio Neves, Collor, Michel Temer, Sarney, Rodrigo Maia, Deltan Dallagon, João Doria, Damares, Abraham Weintraub and other motherfuckers out there.

        These were not calved, they were all shit.

        Who read until the end of an up, and scream #FORA BOLSONARO out loud.

        ***
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        Tags : aecio neves , bolsonaro , CAUSO , corrupt , Poranduba Brasiliensis , RISK OF ANAL SEX FOR WOMEN , rodrigo maia , anal sex
        Thursday, June 9, 2022
        CRIMINALIZATION OF THE “HOLDER” * Insurgente.org
        CRIMINALIZATION OF THE “HOLDER”

        The state of Tennessee, one of the most conservative of the American regime, passed a law that directly attacks the homeless. In this location, penalties for staying overnight in a tent on public roads had already been tightened in response to the anti-racist camps and protests that took place in 2020. Now, with this new rule, camping on public property will be considered a serious crime and anyone who does will face 6 years imprisonment and the loss of the right to vote.

        The law will come into force on July 1 and is aimed especially against a population group: the homeless, all those homeless who are forced to live in a tent on the public road. The law will also make it a crime to camp along highways, under bridges, overpasses or inside an underpass.

        In recent years, homeless communities have proliferated in the US: millions of people and families gather in tents or makeshift huts and shacks, where they keep all their belongings, faced with the impossibility of finding affordable housing.

        The law encountered significant opposition in the state, including many churches that publicly opposed its passage, but nevertheless went ahead. The social crisis deepens in the first world power, and as they bring the planet closer to a full-scale war, in their domestic politics they move more and more towards fascism.

        SOURCE
        INSURGENT.ORG
        USA. A law against the homeless is passed: up to six years in prison and the loss of the right to vote for sleeping on the street – insurgente.org . your leftist diary
        *
        Posted by FRT OFFICIAL at 00:00 36 comments:
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        Tags: CRIMINALIZATION OF “HOLDER” , zero eviction , right to housing , insurgente.org , housing , homeless
        WHAT HAPPENED TO MY BRAZIL * Poranduba Brasiliensis
        WHAT HAPPENED TO MY BRAZIL

        “ONE NIGHT, WHEN ENTERING MY CLASSROOM, I SAW ON A WORLD MAP, OUR BRAZIL CRYING”!

        What happened, my Brazilian Brazil? I asked him! And he, stretching in his splendid cradle, spread out and green over South America, answered crying, with his Amazonian tears: I am suffering. Look what they’re doing to me… Before, my woods had more flowers and my breast more loves. My people were heroic and their cries resounding. The sun of freedom was brighter and shone in the sky at all times. Where is freedom, where are the strong arms? I was the beloved homeland, idolized. There was peace in the future and glories in the past.

        None of my children ran away from the fight. I was the adored land and of the children of this soil was the gentle mother.

        I was a giant by nature itself, which today devastates and burns, without any man of courage who, on the placid banks of some little stream, has the courage to scream louder to free me…

        ***
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        Tags : CAUSO , literary contest , chronicle , O QUE HOUVE MEU BRASIL , Poranduba Brasiliensis , writing
        Wednesday, June 8, 2022
        New tricks for new blows * MUNIZ SODRÉ / SP
        New tricks for new blows

        MUNIZ SODRÉ / SP

        For Dussel, evangelicals would be the new US weapon for coups in Latin America

        An expressive interlocutor of contemporary European philosophers, the Argentine-Mexican Enrique Dussel is one of the greatest living thinkers in Latin America.

        Extensive for a summary, his work could, however, be characterized as a reinterpretation of the Gospels from the points of view of what he generically calls “the poor”, that is, not only those destitute of goods, but also those who were placed on the margins of the constitutive decisions of history. Dussel now states, in very clear terms, a politically delicate hypothesis: evangelicals would be the new US weapon for coups d’état in Latin America.

        This would come from a new kind of look at the dependent Latin American periphery after the failure of attempts at American domination in the Middle East. An example of the change would have been given in Bolivia with the overthrow of Evo Morales.

        Despite having overcome historical poverty rates through progressive governments, the country has also awakened to other aspirations, which, for Dussel, converge to a change in subjectivity: “We move to consumerist subjectivity, which believes that certain right-wing projects could solve your new aspirations”.

        For certain emerging sectors, it is not just an increase in income, but a rearrangement of social consciousness, whose ideological lines show affinity with the biblical-evangelical interpretations of North American sects.

        Thus, in the Andean countries, ancestral traditions (Aymaras, Incas), which still have enormous popular strength among indigenous and cholas, should be rigorously replaced by a kind of neoliberal reinterpretation of Christianity. The same can of course be said of Afro or indigenous traditions present in almost all Latin American regions.

        Every religion is composed of individual faith and culture, its collective part, which can hypertrophy, affecting or neutralizing the former as if it were a mere protocol of adherence to dogmas. This has already happened and is happening today in the phenomenon of the dissemination of fundamentalist sects, whose background is a mental ecology permeated by the financial logic implicit in the “theology of prosperity”. In practice, an aggregation of stimuli from corporate marketing, self-help literature, and pseudoscientific indoctrination concerning both acquiring wealth and managing one’s personal life, all backed up by the cult’s protocols.

        This model outlines the variations of the passage to a new historical subject of capital, in which the so-called religion (more neural mobilization and conduct than faith) ensures the prediction of behavior in the popular classes. In short, a “soft” totalitarianism.

        Muniz Sodré
        Sociologist, professor emeritus at UFRJ, author, among other works, of “A Sociedade Incivil” and “Pensar Nagô”.
        (FSP 4.06.2021)
        *
        Posted by FRT OFFICIAL at 00:00 55 comments:
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        Tags : bolsonarismo , enrique dussel , fascism , coup , mediatization , militarism , MUNIZ SODRÉ , nazism , New tricks for new coups , SP
        THE PARABLE OF THE RUSSIAN JEW * Poranduba Brasiliensis
        THE PARABLE OF THE RUSSIAN JEW

        A *Russian Jew* was finally allowed to emigrate to Israel.

        *At Moscow airport,* customs find a statue of Lenin in your luggage “What is this?”

        The man replied, “What is this? Wrong question, comrade. You should have asked: Who is he? This is Comrade Lenin. He laid the foundations of socialism and created the future and prosperity of the Russian people. I am taking with me as a memory of our dear hero.”

        The Russian customs official let him go without further inspection.

        *At Tel Aviv airport*, the Israeli customs officer also asked our Russian friend:

        “What is it?”

        He replied, “What is this? Wrong question, sir. You should be asking, ‘Who is it?’ This is Lenin, the bastard who made me, a Jew, leave Russia. I take this statue with me so I can curse him every day.”

        Israeli customs official says: “I apologize sir, you are cleared to go”

        Settling into his new home, he placed the statue on a table. To celebrate his immigration, he invites friends and relatives to dinner.

        One of his friends asked, “Who is it?”

        He replied, “My dear friend, ‘Who is this’ is a wrong question. You should have asked: What is this?

        That’s ten kilos of solid gold that I managed to bring with me without paying customs and taxes. ”

        Moral of the story:

        *Politics is when you can say the same shit in different ways to deceive different audiences, to allow you to look good in every way*.

        ***

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        Tags : PARABOLA OF THE RUSSIAN JEW , stories , Jews , PARABOLA , politics , Poranduba Brasiliensis , russians
        Tuesday, June 7, 2022
        Cuban Note on Biden Summit * Cuban Civil Society Forum – Cuba
        FINAL DECLARATION

        3rd FORUM OF CUBAN CIVIL SOCIETY AND SOCIAL ACTORS ‘THINKING AMERICAS’

        The actors and social organizations of Cuban civil society, authentic representatives of the Cuban people, gathered to express our positions on the central theme of the 9th Summit of the Americas, “Building a sustainable, resilient and equitable future”, and the issues to be addressed in this forum. :

        I. Emphatically condemns the exclusion of Cuban civil society organizations from participating in the virtual and face-to-face formats of the Civil Society Forum at the 9th Summit of the Americas, refusing to register, despite the comprehensive request for registration presented by their representatives and social actors. Combined with the admission of a mere handful of social actors, this demonstrates the double standards and discriminatory and undemocratic policies that prevail among summit organizers.

        II. They regret that the decision of the United States as host country to exclude Cuban civil society organizations and social actors violates the principles of respect for the sovereignty and self-determination of peoples and of non-interference in their internal affairs, principles fully supported by Cuban civil society.

        III. Denounce the US government’s refusal to process, at its embassy in Havana, the visas of the few social actors that the organizers of the parallel forums have approved for face-to-face participation in the 9th Summit. This decision tramples on the United States’ obligations as a host country, shows its contempt for regional public opinion – which defends the inclusive nature of the event – and highlights the essence of Washington’s hostile and interventionist policy against Cuba, with the failed aim of overthrowing the system. political, economic and social that we Cubans have decided, in full exercise of our self-determination.

        IV. We reject the elaboration of an apocryphal “Plan for Health and Resistance” that would exclude the contribution that Cuba can make to this document, based on the authority it has acquired in such matters. The cooperation in the field of public health provided to numerous countries in the region, the most recent example being that offered in the fight against the COVID-19 pandemic, is a clear demonstration of the political will of the Cuban State, with the active participation of civil and social organizations

        , to increase the resilience of public health systems in Cuba and in the countries in which this type of South-South cooperation has been staged.

        V._ We reaffirm that digital transformation is urgent and strategic for the countries of the region, not only because of its effects on the economy and improvement of people’s quality of life, but also because of what digital technologies and their critical, ethical and humanistic use mean. for the prospects of a sustainable, resilient and equitable future and in the struggle to safeguard independence, sovereignty and the full exercise of human rights.

        SAW. Call for access to infrastructure and platforms that allow knowledge sharing and facilitate cooperation in the formulation and implementation of public policies in the field of digital transformation.

        VII. Condemn the use of information technologies to wage a media war against Cuba and subvert the political, economic and social system constitutionally chosen by our people, represented by Cuban civil society organizations and the social actors participating in the Forum.

        VIII. Demand an inclusive and genuinely democratic format for the summits, in which the views of civil society representatives from all countries on the issues debated are heard; we are totally against the organizers’ attempts to impose concepts and examples alien to societies, peculiarities and essence of Our America.

        IX. We commit to continue our active participation in building a sustainable, resilient and equitable future at the national, regional and global levels, including the participation of members of Cuban civil society in cooperation initiatives with other countries in our region.

        X._ We reaffirm our commitment to the implementation of the National Program for Economic and Social Development (“PNDES 2030”), its coordination with the 2030 Agenda and the fulfillment of its sustainable development goals, despite the devastating effects of the genocidal and multidimensional blockade imposed by successive US administrations on the Cuban economy. country, has intensified to extreme degrees during the COVID-19 pandemic.

        XI. Demand an end to the criminal blockade, which undermines the essence of the principle of equity and justice in social policies; constitutes a massive, flagrant and systematic violation of the human rights of the entire population of the country; affects the functioning of Cuban civil society organizations and the policies applied by the Cuban State, with the participation of civil society organizations, with a view to building a sustainable, resilient and equitable future.

        XII. To express our gratitude for the solidarity and support received from civil society organizations in the region, which defended the inclusive nature of the Summit.

        XIII. We deplore that Cuba’s exclusion from the Summit is part of the aggressive policies and smear campaigns of the media aimed at our country, aimed at subverting the political, economic and social system that the Cuban population, also represented in civil society organizations and social actors present in the Forum, decided for himself.

        XIV. We reaffirm our right to continue socialist development in our beloved homeland and we reaffirm our decision to continue building a sustainable, resilient and equitable future for all and for the benefit of all. Likewise, we reiterate the unshakable confidence on the part of civil society organizations and social actors participating in the Forum, that a better world, which we know is possible, can be achieved.

        Havana, May 23, 2022
        “Year 64 of the Revolution”
        *
        Posted by FRT OFFICIAL at 10:25 am 9 comments:
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        Tags: latin america , anti- imperialism , cuba , Cuban Civil Society Forum , Cuban note on the Biden summit , Cuban revolution
        The Eagle That Thought It Was A Chicken * Frei Leonardo Boff / RJ
        The Eagle That Thought It Was A Chicken

        Once upon a time there was a peasant who went to the neighboring forest to catch a bird and keep it in his house. He managed to catch a baby eagle. I put him in the chicken coop with the chickens. He ate corn and chicken feed. Though the eagle was the king/queen of all birds.
        After five years, this man received a visit from a naturalist at his home. As they strolled through the garden, the naturalist said:
        – That bird is not a chicken. It’s an eagle.
        “Indeed,” said the peasant. It’s eagle. But I raised like a chicken.
        She is no longer an eagle. It turned into a chicken like the others, despite its nearly three-meter-long wings.
        “No,” replied the naturalist. She is and will always be an eagle. For she has an eagle’s heart. This heart will one day fly to the heights.
        “No, no,” insisted the peasant. She became a chicken and will never fly like an eagle.
        So they decided to do a test. The naturalist took the eagle, raised it high and defying it said:
        – since you are indeed an eagle, since you belong to the sky and not the earth, so spread your wings and fly! The eagle landed on the outstretched arm of the naturalist. He looked around absently. He saw the hens below, picking at grain. And he jumped up to them.

        The peasant commented:

        – I told you, she turned into a simple chicken!

        “No,” the naturalist insisted again. She is an eagle.

        And an eagle will always be an eagle. Let’s try it again tomorrow.

        The next day, the naturalist went up with the eagle to the roof of the house. Whispered to him:

        – Eagle, since you are an eagle, spread your wings and fly!

        But when the eagle saw the chickens below, scratching the ground, he jumped up and went to them.

        The peasant smiled and returned to the charge:

        – I told you, she turned into a chicken!

        “No,” replied the naturalist firmly. She is an eagle, she will always have an eagle’s heart. Let’s try it one last time. Tomorrow I will make it fly.

        The next day, the naturalist and the peasant rose very early. They took the eagle, took it outside the city, away from the houses of men, on top of a mountain. The rising sun gilded the peak of the mountains. The naturalist lifted the eagle up high and ordered him:

        – Eagle, since you are an eagle, since you belong to the sky and not to the earth, spread your wings and fly!

        The eagle looked around. I trembled like to experience new life. But it didn’t fly. Then the naturalist held it tightly, right towards the sun, so that his eyes could fill with the sunlight and the vastness of the horizon.

        At that moment, she spread her powerful wings, cawed with the typical kau-kau of eagles and rose, sovereign, over herself. And she began to fly, to fly higher, to fly higher and higher. She flew… she flew… until she merged with the blue of the sky…

        MyBeloJardim.com readers!

        We were created in the image and likeness of God! But there were people who made us think as if the roost and living among the hens were our destiny, to act like everyone on the roost, to live and see the world as perch inhabitants. And many of us still think we are effectively chickens on a perch or pigsty.

        But we are eagles. Therefore, beloved readers, let us open our wings and minds and fly. Let’s fly like eagles. Let’s think like eagles. Let’s fly for our Dreams. Let’s fly and fight for our Ideas, Ideals, Vision and Goals that we are going to achieve in this life.

        – Let us never be satisfied with the grains that we throw at our feet to scratch.

        – We will never be waiting “while our kitty has the skin and bones”. No, it is not.

        – We will never be satisfied with what we already are or have achieved, but we will change, transform and innovate by continually renewing our minds.

        So we will discover what is the perfect and complete will of Our Lord and God JESUS ​​for our lives, therefore, it defeats never to be in God’s plans for our lives!!!

        (Leonardo Boff)

        Posted by FRT OFFICIAL at 00:00 14 comments:
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        Tags: The Eagle That Thought It Was A Chicken , chronic , Frei Leonardo Boff , PARABOLA , Poranduba Brasiliensis
        RUBBER IN PONTA DO PAU * Poranduba Brasiliensis
        RUBBER IN PONTA DO PAU

        In line for the bus were a lady and all 10 of her children.

        Next to them was a middle-aged man with one stilt.

        The bus arrived, the kids got on first and took all the empty seats.

        The gentleman and the lady entered and stood.

        At the bus start, the man with the wooden leg, with visible

        difficulty, he lost his balance backwards, and the noise was

        unmistakable:

        OCD… OCD… OCD… OCD…

        When the bus braked, the same thing happened, now forward:

        OCD… OCD… OCD… OCD…

        On the run, again:

        OCD… OCD… OCD… OCD…

        And so it was, several times.

        At a given moment, already bothered by the noise and, at the same

        time, trying to be kind, the mother of the 10 children said to one-legged:

        – Excuse me, but I would like to make a suggestion to you… Why

        don’t you put a rubber on the end of the stick? for sure will

        reduce the noise and bother everyone less.

        Immediately, the one-legged replied:

        – Thank you for the suggestion, but if you had also put a

        little rubber on the end of the stick, a few years ago, we would all be

        seated, in a good one!!

        MINISTRY OF HEALTH WARNING:

        “ALWAYS USE RUBBER ON PONTA DO PAU”

        Posted by FRT OFFICIAL at 00:00 49 comments:
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        Tags : BORRACHINHA NA PONTA DO PAU , condom , CAUSO , sex education , Poranduba Brasiliensis , condom
        Monday, June 6, 2022
        DEFEAT NAZISM HERE OR IN COLOMBIA IS ONE FIGHT * Revista Ópera
        DEFEAT NAZISM HERE OR IN COLOMBIA IS ONE FIGHT

        OPERA MAGAZINE
        Colombia: on the outskirts of Bogotá, young people fight “to the last vote” against the right – Revista Opera

        Colombia: On the outskirts of Bogotá, young people fight “to the last vote” against the right.

        Leaders in Ciudad Bolívar, the poorest neighborhood in the Colombian capital, are working to reverse abstentions: “Four years with a figure like Hernández, we will have a terrible war”.

        By Vanessa Martina Silva, Felipe Bianchi, Leonardo Wexell Severo and Caio Teixeira
        *
        Posted by FRT OFFICIAL at 00:00 57 comments:
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        Marcadores: brasil nazismo, colombia, eleicao, imperialismo, milicias, militarismo, narcogoverno, paramilitarismo, revista opera

        https://frenterevolucionariadostrabalhadores.blogspot.com/search?updated-max=2022-06-11T00:00:00-03:00&max-results=99&start=11&by-date=false

        1. BOLSONARO LADRÃO * Poranduba Brasiliensis
          BOLSONARO THIEF

          When God made the world, for men to prosper, he decided to give them only (02) two virtues.

          So:

          – To the *Swiss*, he made them Scholars and Law-Abiding.

          – To the *English*, Organized and Punctual.

          – To *Argentines*, Boring and Arrogant.

          – To *Japanese*, Workers and Disciplined.

          – To *Italians*, Happy and Romantic.

          – To the *French*, Cults and Fine.

          – To *Brazilians*, Intelligent, Honest and Bolsonaristas.

          The Angel wrote it down, but immediately afterwards, full of humility and fear, asked:

          – Sir, all the peoples of the world were given (02) two virtues, however, the Brazilians were given (03) three! Will this not make them proud in relation to the other peoples of the earth?

          – Very well observed, good Angel! exclaimed the Lord.

          – This is true!

          – However, know that Brazilians, people of my heart, will never be able to use more than two simultaneously, only (02) two like other peoples.

          – Thus, the *Brazilian* who is Bolsonarista and Honest, cannot be Intelligent.

          – Whatever is Bolsonarista and Intelligent, cannot be Honest.

          – And what is Intelligent and Honest, cannot be Bolsonarista.!!!!!!

          *Words of the Lord!!!*

          Posted by FRT OFFICIAL at 00:00 53 comments:
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          Tags : bolsonaro genocida , bolsonaro genocida , bolsonaro nazi , CAUSO , chronic , Poranduba Brasiliensis
          Sunday, June 5, 2022
          TIBIRA DO MARANHÃO * Maria Eugênia Gonçalves / Revista Híbrida
          TIBIRA DO MARANHÃO

          the Indian who was the first victim of homophobia in Brazil
          Tibira do Maranhão, the Indian who was the first victim of homophobia in Brazil
          MARIA EUGENIA GONÇALVES

          In the book “Viagem ao Norte do Brasil, made in the years 1613 and 1614”, the French missionary Yves d’Évreux, from the Capuchin Order, narrates the execution of a Tupinambá Indian who had his waist tied to the mouth of a cannon installed in the Fort of São Luís do Maranhão. When the French and rival natives present launched fire, half of his body fell ashore and the rest disappeared into the sea. This cruel report is the first detailed record of homophobia in Brazilian territory, practiced against an Indian known as Tibira do Maranhão.

          Tibira, a Tupi term used to designate those who did not fit into Western standards of sexuality, was persecuted and tortured under d’Évreux’s ordinance for the practice of “sodomy” and for, according to him, appearing “on the outside more of a man”, but being “hermaphrodite” and having a “woman’s voice”. Although he tried to escape, the Indian was captured and executed in a public square.

          *
          Posted by FRT OFFICIAL at 12:17 pm 37 comments:
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          Tags: Maria Eugênia Gonçalves , indigenous peoples , Revista Híbrida , sexuality , TIBIRA DO MARANHÃO
          Urgent Zero Eviction in Cities and Countryside * Kelli Mafort / MST
          Urgent zero eviction
          in cities and in the countryside

          Article recalls that half a million people could be evicted from June in Brazil
          By Kelli Mafort*
          From the MST Page
          Why is Zero Eviction urgent in cities and countryside? – MST

          Zero Eviction is an urgent call to a serious problem in Brazil: living, working, eating and living is a class privilege. Living conditions have worsened drastically for the poorest. A survey released in 2021 shows that in the last 12 months, among the poorest 20%, 75% said they had run out of money to buy food, according to the Gallup Institute; And the projection for food inflation for 2022, according to MB Associados, should reach 12%. Regarding housing, around 6 million people are homeless, as the housing deficit is on the rise, as pointed out by the João Pinheiro Foundation Study .

          In the Constitution, life is above private property and not the other way around, but in times of destruction of our fragile democracy, the Magna law is being shredded, especially in the chapters that concern basic human rights that are described there, but little guaranteed. in real life.

          But what can actually guarantee rights? It is increasingly evident that only popular struggle and pressure from society are capable of putting life above any other interest, which is why we need to forcefully lift the right to food, housing, land and work.

          Eviction Zero is a campaign articulated by urban and rural popular movements against removals and repossessions that was launched in June 2020, and during the pandemic it achieved important achievements: ADPF nº 828 (Arguição de Descumprimento de Preceito Fundamental) of the STF – Federal Supreme Court that suspended urban and rural evictions during the pandemic and for a determined period, and the Zero Eviction Law , despite the exclusion of rural ones due to an unscrupulous move by the FPA – Parliamentary Front for Agriculture. In addition, through campaign mobilization, several Zero Eviction laws were passed in states such as Rio Grande do Norte and Pernambuco.

          Another important support for the argument for the Zero Eviction Campaign comes from Resolution No. 10 of the CNDH – National Human Rights Council and Recommendation No. 90 of the CNJ – National Council of Justice.

          But now we face another serious threat: at least 500,000 people will be landless and homeless from July 1st, which exacerbates the alarming social situation in the country, which currently has around 500,000 people living in a situation of street, according to the National Movement of the Street Population (this number is an empirical estimate, since the last official data is from IPEA – Institute of Applied Economic Research, which indicated 221,869 people living on the streets, in March 2020, which worsened during the pandemic). The street population historically suffers from the neglect of the lack of specific social policies and from the violence of the State, which is a constant.

          On June 30, 2022, the period of validity of ADPF 828 of the STF expires and from that date onwards the evictions must occur in an avalanche effect, since several requests for repossession were rejected due to the existence of such a measure by the Supreme Court. According to the Zero Eviction Campaign, at least 14,600 people involved in repossession processes were directly protected by ADPF 828.

          It is important to remember that ADPF 828 was initially filed in May 2021 by the PSOL – Socialism and Liberty Party, followed by several entities of the Zero Eviction Campaign that joined as amicus curie. Sensitive to the sanitary situation in the country, the STF determined the suspension of urban and rural evictions until December 03, and with strong mobilization of society, this deadline was extended until March 31, 2022; there was a new mobilization, which ended up sensitizing the STF to extend until June 30, the period of validity of the ADPF.

          The main argument for the extension of ADPF 828, which was adopted until then by the STF, is the existence of the Covid-19 pandemic and its health impacts on the most vulnerable in society. The STF was supported by the ESPIN – Public Health Emergency of National Importance, which established parameters for the adoption of measures in view of the severity of the pandemic. However, on May 22, the Bolsonaro government announced the end of the Sanitary Emergency .

          But the pandemic is not over. Infection cases remain high and, despite the decrease in the number of deaths thanks to vaccine protection, we still have a high weekly average of deaths, which is very worrying and can never be normalized.

          In addition to the health aspect, it is necessary to take into account the social and economic impacts that the pandemic has left, especially on the lives of the poorest, in addition to a worsening of living conditions due to other factors such as unemployment, rising food prices, rent, cooking gas and fuel. That is why it is essential to adopt a transition period for the post-pandemic period, and to postpone the adoption of extreme measures of reintegration of possession as much as possible, as we know, evictions are inhuman, at any time.
          Who can avoid the eviction of half a million people in June?

          Despite the validity of ADPF 828 until June 30, truth be told, evictions are happening. This is due to several isolated or combined factors: evictions carried out by police or militia forces, illegally, without a court order; repossessions issued by judges of first or second instance who ignore ADPF 828 (and often these evictions occur so quickly that there is no time for appeal by popular lawyers, in these situations, eviction as a fait accompli stands out); and finally, occupations that took place after March 20, 2020, a period determined by the STF as a legal framework for priority protection of ADPF 828.

          It is important to remember that occupations carried out after this date cannot be evicted in any way, as the conditions that indicate how the exceptionality of the reintegration of possession must occur must be observed, involving a prior conciliation hearing, respect for human rights, among other factors. .

          Therefore, an eviction situation that did not stop during the pandemic can be aggravated with the end of the validity of ADPF 828, and if we add the 500 thousand people who can be evicted, to the 500 thousand people who are already homeless, we can have 1 million Brazilians in a situation of extreme gravity and risk.

          At the moment, the ones who can avoid this situation are the STF ministers, as the most immediate decision that can avoid mass eviction is the extension of ADPF 828. In addition to the Supreme, there is an initiative for a new zero eviction bill , as the previous Zero Eviction Law expired on December 31, 2021, but it is worth remembering that the process of processing a bill is slow, and must be approved by the House, the Senate and sanctioned by the president.

          We continue to mobilize in our camps, agrarian reform settlements, along with the movements fighting for popular housing and their various occupations, so that the eviction of our families is avoided, which will mean more hunger and violence.

          We know that the fight for Zero Eviction has the character of resistance, but in addition, we demand that a broad agrarian reform and urban reform be carried out in the country, to fulfill the essential human right to land, housing, food and work.

          ***
          Posted by FRT OFFICIAL at 00:00 14 comments:
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          Tags: citizenship , zero eviction , Urgent zero eviction in cities and countryside , right to housing , right to life , human rights , frt , Kelli Mafort , mst

          https://frenterevolucionariadostrabalhadores.blogspot.com/search?updated-max=2022-06-11T00:00:00-03:00&max-results=99&start=11&by-date=false

          Saturday, June 4, 2022
          Battle of the flock of green chickens 10/07/1934 * Poranduba Brasiliensis
          Battle of the flock of green chickens 10/07/1934

          85 years ago, on October 7, 1934, a major conflict between workers and anti-fascist protesters against militants of the Brazilian Integralist Action (AIB) took to the streets of the central region of São Paulo in the episode that became known as ‘Battle of Praça da Sé’. , or ‘Revoada dos Galinhas Verdes’. The term ‘Galinhas Verdes’ was used to describe the members of the AIB, a cartoonish Brazilian organization inspired by fascism that rose up strongly in Italy and Germany, led by Plínio Salgado (1895-1975).

          At the time, the Integralists had scheduled a large rally for the two-year anniversary of the Integralist Manifesto, which, according to historical sources, would have 5,000 people. Upon learning of the public demonstration that the fascists intended to make, the anti-fascists of São Paulo (among them communists, anarchists, unionists and other progressives) decided to organize themselves to carry out a grandiose counter-demonstration. Practically the entire São Paulo left took part in the fight, which ended with seven dead (three integralists, two police officers, a civil guard and a young communist).

          The communist killed was Décio Pinto de Oliveira, a law student, who was shot in the back of the head. For a long time, Décio was a symbol of the anti-fascist struggle in Brazil, even more so in those years that preceded the Spanish Civil War and the Second World War.
          ….
          Posted by FRT OFFICIAL at 00:00 29 comments:
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          Tags: Battle of the flight of green chickens 10/07/1934 , bolsonarismo , fascism , history of Brazil
          Friday, June 3, 2022
          BOLSONARO COMMANDS HOUSING GRILLING * Movimento Pautas Populares / MPP
          BOLSONARO COMMANDS GRILLING TO HOUSING

          MORE INFORMATION HERE
          Chamber approves Bolsonaro’s bill that allows foreclosure of houses | Policy

          What was sad has now become tragic: the housing problem is getting worse every day in Brazil. Until now, the last property of a family could not be pledged to pay debt, and this was guaranteed by law. Only property financed by the CEF could be returned in the event of default by the buyer. But the other banks could not do that.

          In other words, not even the hard-won housing, Brazilians have more rights, thanks to the government of the militias. But look, this has always been a chronic problem in Brazil. The housing deficit is a calamity, and as much as Brazilian society has always tried to achieve a state policy in relation to housing, the real estate industry, allied to the banking system, has always used corruption to destroy the few proposals that arrive at parliament. Any proposal for a housing project that appears in a city council, soon appears its “warrants” to organize the blockade, either in their own interests or for the benefit of economic groups.

          In this way, the housing movement is always blocked by repression from within society, driven by interests that are enemies of workers, who most need public policies aimed at the base of society.

          This is what we see now, with the approval of PL 4188, a true assault on a sacred asset for the safety of families, especially the most needy family.

          Faced with this, we workers cannot stand idly by waiting for support or solidarity from heaven. We need to unite in our cooperatives, unions for popular housing, centers of popular struggles, etc. and march towards the conquest of our rights. It’s no use waiting for parliamentarians, parties, let alone electoral leaders-cables from anyone. Our achievements are the fruit of our struggles. There is no need to stay behind the electoral calendar, hoping that after the elections something will change. Our needs are urgent. Those who are paying rent cannot wait for an election or for any politician. And, whatever the government, let’s fight to conquer our roof!

          IF LIVING IS A PRIVILEGE, OCCUPYING IS A RIGHT!
          HOUSING IS NOT MERCHANDISE!!
          WITH A FIGHT, WITH CLAIM, THE HOUSE COMES OUT IN MARRA!!!
          Posted by FRT OFFICIAL at 07:35 66 comments:
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          Tags : bolsonaro commands housing squatters , bolsonaro squatters , revolutionary front of workers , squatters , housing , popular agendas movement , pl 4188
          LETTER TO RETIRED ELDERLY AND PENSIONERS * Workers Revolutionary Front / FRT
          LETTER TO RETIRED ELDERLY AND PENSIONERS

          (THE DEATH OF A TRUE LIBRARY
          CHRONICLES TO UNBURN OUT TOMO DCCLXVIII)

          For someone with clear signs of psychopathy, which the unwary call a myth and still elected him as president, the death of an elderly person is treated with the cancellation of a CPF and, the consequent savings of a retirement, if the president had studied a little economic philosophy, would know that the resources made available by the government, in the form of social benefits, go immediately to consumption, and in it, half goes directly to the public coffers as a tax, but before returning, it circulates a few times.

          We also know how recent is the registration of knowledge for technological societies, since traditional societies have not yet developed the ability to register to immortalize their knowledge, so the elderly are true living libraries, when an elderly person dies, they are lost. much more than a relative, the knowledge of a culture is actually lost.

          Do not think, however, that these living libraries are just a gift of traditional societies, grandparents, often illiterate, were able to archive not only stories, but also recipes, true cultural treasures.

          Unfortunately, our criticism of mismanagement is not limited to the misfortunes of the phrases of a dispresident unprepared for the position, but by political choice, the dispresident gives many signs of omission in dealing with the pandemic, in the elaboration of sanitary barriers, and these omission ended up leading to hundreds if not thousands of indigenous and quilombola elderly people died.

          The despresident’s missions not only caused the economic downturn due to the non-circulation of resources, both the depresident and his voters must be held responsible for the disappearance of this knowledge.

          There are countless crimes in the arrest of the Dilma government by the crybaby playboy, potentiated by the judge and inventor of evidence, by the PowerPoint prosecutor, by the PIG, by religious conservatism and many other sectors that, consciously or not, led to the election of the nameless.

          Adão Alves dos Santos, SP

          ***
          THE WORKER’S STRUGGLE FOR RETIREMENT

          THE WORKER’S STRUGGLE FOR RETIREMENT * Marcos Freitas / João Muniz / Brasil de Fato

          My people of this country
          listen to this story
          I will declaim for you
          Of an inglorious battle
          The Fight of the King of Lies
          That triggers your wrath
          in a persecutory way

          Against the people who work
          go to read early
          The peasant and the worker
          For the stride not afraid
          But also, wants to rest.
          At the end of life, rest
          With rights and without secrecy

          After the king of lies
          Want to fool everyone
          Saying that the pension
          It’s in a bottomless pot
          And what if you don’t sacrifice
          The trend is getting worse
          Go chip, you, me and Raimundo!

          Says the deficit is big
          What needs to be fixed
          If not from now on
          Nobody will be retiring
          Welfare will go bankrupt
          the money will disappear
          That’s why it needs to be renewed!

          A New Pension
          For the good of this nation
          that will be a good thing
          for the entire population
          that will modernize
          capitalize everything
          This being the solution

          a little sacrifice
          for everyone to face
          Capetalizing everything
          everyone will win
          you collect your money
          handing over to the banker
          Then retire!

          But when I see it
          I get suspicious soon
          if it was really good
          everyone was stuck
          From the ministers to the general
          In an equal will
          To see everything improve

          But why the generals
          Judges and Ministers
          They took theirs off the line
          Of this sinister business
          pushing everything to us
          Without pity and with speed
          Here is this record

          a beautiful conversation
          of those bitch bitches
          Oh plague reenactment
          What else looks like an artist
          And in that verbiage
          want to leave us delighted
          Northeast, North and South.

          But my friend my people
          Don’t fall for this conversation
          It’s Lucifer thing
          And this is the tread
          Pro mode then screw us
          And we don’t retire
          The liar is in a hurry.

          she is surplus
          This our pension
          The bankers and the liar
          Are blind from conscience
          To take our right
          My people only have one way
          It’s losing patience.

          they want to encourage
          the capitalization
          Social Security
          unlink
          for private pension
          like that comrade
          Nobody retires.

          That bitch is a liar
          wanting to deceive
          Saying that such a blunt
          someone needs to cover
          And the bill goes to the people
          So I say it again
          no one will retire

          Why doesn’t he charge
          The debt of banks and companies
          who owe many millions
          Of that I’m sure
          Companies owe
          But they don’t pay, I keep watching.
          It’s a great naughtiness!

          Who is already retired
          will also harm
          Because they will separate the salary
          time to readjust
          The result is like this
          When the salary goes up

          The room is where it is
          And the one who is young
          please pay attention
          will never retire
          come on my brother
          Well to retire
          you will have to work
          forty years straight

          Ehhhhh
          forty years straight
          you will have to work
          Capitalizing the bank
          If you want to retire
          And forty years from now,
          If something breaks in the plans,
          Will the bank refund?

          My people, there’s only way
          let’s all come together
          For the strength of the people together
          Make evil crumble
          everyone fighting
          the enemy defeating
          So we can smile!

          Only the people on the street
          united in resistance
          that awoke in everyone
          true conscience
          To have security
          live really well
          And a fair pension.

          *Marcos Freitas – Server, Nurse and Poet and João Muniz – Farmer, Pedagogue and Poet.

          MORE ELDERLY RETIRED AND PENSIONERS
          Bolsonaro abandons retirees and pensioners if he chooses to readjust food aid – CONDSEF
          Posted by FRT OFFICIAL at 04:43 80 comments:
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          Tags : adao alves dos santos , retired , letter to retirees and pensioners , citizenship , chronicle , disabled , elderly , joao muniz , cordel literature , marcos freitas , pensioner , poetry , social security
          THE DOLL OF FRANZ KAFKA * Franz Kafka
          FRANZ KAFKA’S DOLL

          At the age of 40, Franz Kafka (1883-1924) who was never married and had no children, was walking through a park in Berlin when he met a young woman who was crying because she had lost her favorite doll. She and Kafka searched for the doll to no avail.

          Kafka told her to meet there the next day and they would come back for her.

          The next day, when they still hadn’t found the doll, Kafka gave the girl a letter “written” by the doll that said, “Please don’t cry. I took a trip to see the world. I’ll write you about my adventures.”

          So began a story that continued until the end of Kafka’s life.

          During the encounters, Kafka read the doll’s carefully written letters with adventures and conversations that the girl found adorable.

          Finally, Kafka brought him the doll (he bought one) that had returned to Berlin.

          “It doesn’t look anything like my doll,” said the girl.

          Kafka handed her another letter in which the doll wrote: “my travels have changed me.” the girl hugged the new doll and brought her home happily.

          A year later, Kafka died.

          Many years later, the adult girl found a letter inside the doll. In the little letter signed by Kafka, it said:

          “Why did Queiroz deposit 89,000 in Michele’s account?”

          ***

          Posted by FRT OFFICIAL at 00:00 62 comments:
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          Tags : THE DOLL OF FRANZ KAFKA , CAUSO , chronicle , fabricio queiroz , Franz Kafka , jair bolsonaro , michele bolsonaro , Poranduba Brasiliensis
          Thursday, June 2, 2022
          Forbidden To Forget Rosa Fonseca * Workers Revolutionary Front / FRT
          FORBIDDEN TO FORGET ROSA FONSECA

          THE ROSE

          Harold Barbosa. EC

          ROSA FONSECA BY MARIA LUIZA FONTENELE
          ROSA FONSECA * By Maria Luiza Fontenele – Fortaleza / CE by RADIO VOZ LIBERTÁRIA
          *
          Yesterday, 6/1/22, I was at Rosa’s wake. A lot of emotion, reunion with old comrades of militancy and the shared pain.

          ROSA FONSECA

          I am increasingly convinced that social networks serve the project of ongoing destruction and barbarism (capitalism) and that there are no neutral technologies. As Assange, imprisoned until today for having done his work as a journalist, said, “the internet is a threat to human civilization”.

          Even knowing all this, I will use this space to once again remember Rosa. Memories that I will not sort. I will not review. The text can be truncated, even wrong. But today is what I want to share.

          I fell in love with Rosa from the first time I saw her. Not in person, but in a poster of his electoral campaign for the PT, still in 1986. As I recall, the photos of the other candidates were the typical photos of campaign “santinhos”. Rosa’s is the one in the post, or a similar one. She was different.

          Anyone who came from a generation that, like me, grew up in the shadow of the dictatorship, and that, while still young, rebelled against the injustices of the world, had and still has in Rosa an immense reference.

          Her name appears in the book Brasil Não Mais, which I read before I met her. Being tortured, they showed another militant what she went through to terrify him. For me and for many of that generation, she was almost a legend.

          She was a woman of great courage, who, at a very young age, challenged the minister and henchman of the dictatorship, Jarbas Passarinho, on a television program. That’s why she suffered imprisonment and torture.

          With the militancy, starting around 88 or 89, I got to know her better.

          At five o’clock in the morning, on any day during this period, announced Paulo Oliveira (spokesperson not only for the Verdes Mares System): Rosa Fonseca was arrested at the door of Esmaltec. Another ordinary day.

          But Rosa was not just the militant. It was the teacher, who, even in an electoral campaign, and with an activism that did not know the time or place, insisted on not failing to teach the “pets”, (her students in a municipal school, if I am not mistaken, the Estado de Alagoas , in Pirambu).

          She was one of the few activists, if not the only one, in the group that today is Crítica Radical, who played the guitar. She knew how to strum “that one” (the way we asked) and “that other one”. That one was “Ponta do Lápis”, by Rodger Rogério. That other one, I don’t remember.

          As Zé Maria Tabosa reminded me yesterday, during a conversation at the wake (and today Érico Firmo in his column), she does not appear in the official photo of the inauguration of her only term as councilor. Just before the solemn hour of the photo, she left the session to join the struggle of a community that was being evicted by the PM.

          It was the Quixada woman, who, in the midst of meetings to analyze the situation, used phrases such as “things are in flux”. Laughter and bewilderment. She had an infectious laugh.

          She was the scholar, if I’m not mistaken, a master in the field of education, and who, still in the 1990s, together with the Sindiute board, promoted a Meeting/Congress with educators and students to debate the harmful effects of neoliberalism that was already being announced. still tenuously.

          She was the cheerful and bohemian figure, when the time dedicated to militancy allowed her to be. She loved a caipirinha. I remember a walk together with Jonas Pinheiro and Professor Vicente, at dawn, through the streets of Rio de Janeiro, singing a samba by Assis Valente (Striped shirt). CNTE congress time.

          He had immense patience (in certain circumstances). I once brokered an “interview” of her with some young students from a school run by nuns here in Fortaleza. She was for a school project, a scavenger hunt. The most clueless, she asked the first question: is it true that her nipples were cut during the torture? The answer began with a loud laugh.

          He was the person known to everyone and everywhere in this Stronghold. In 2019, I participated in a protest march alluding to the case of Juan Santos. Juan was 14 years old and was killed by a PM shot while he was celebrating with friends in a square in Fortaleza. There was Crítica Radical with his sound car. Suddenly, two ladies (I think the boy’s mother and grandmother) approach crying, hug each other with Rosa, and so they continue until the end of the march.

          She was the activist who did not measure the size of the challenges. That she did not bend to capitalism and that she saw in the rupture and in the radical criticism the way out of the crisis and human emancipation. That since I met her, she has always had a lot of affection and care for her family. And her family went far beyond blood relatives. She was the sister of Célia Zanneti, Jorge Paiva, Maria Luíza. From many, many of us.

          In a poem, Mário de Andrade said it was three hundred and fifty. Rose, maybe more. There wasn’t just one Rose. She was many. It goes on. I remember here an excerpt from Canção do Tamoio, which was one of his favorite quotes:

          “Do not cry, my son;

          Don’t cry, that life

          It’s a close fight:

          To live is to fight.

          Life is combat

          May the weak slaughter,

          May the strong, the brave

          It can only exalt.”

          Rosa Fonseca, present! Today and always!

          TODAY WE ARE LESS THAN YESTERDAY
          this first of june
          Two thousand and twenty-two
          There was a watershed
          There is a before and an after.
          In the land we came from
          There was a sad incidence
          From our dear Rose
          We feel the sad absence
          Earth of which we are made,
          That teaches us to sprout
          Teach us to provide for ourselves
          Teach us to emancipate
          give us the ability
          In the flowering stage,
          To find the meaning
          For this existence of ours
          Why in reality
          let’s make a difference
          thinking about what you do
          doing what you think
          How you beautified the world
          a very fragrant flower
          exhaling their essences
          With the scent of Rose
          Ephemeral passing rose
          In everything he did he was happy
          Made its return to earth
          our mother our mother
          Oh! dear companion
          Rosa Fonseca present
          very important tasks
          You did it quickly,
          emancipatory tasks
          that you were entrusted
          Complied still leaving
          our referrals
          To us who are still here
          It is to fulfill the agreement
          until the end of time
          What is designated.
          We thank you Rose
          for your great help
          To do our part
          To see if this world changes
          From this carnal phase
          until another evolved
          the beatitudes
          To Critica and Ciclovida

          MANOEL INÁCIO NASCIMENTO – CE

          Today,
          a Rose threw herself into the wind,
          towards the immensity of the skies ,
          a red arrow
          beam of red-hot light
          that went to join the stars.
          A Rose who did so much and with so much fervor
          when she walked among us,
          that it will never be possible to tear her
          from our hearts.
          And whenever,
          in any part of the world,
          a song of freedom is sung,
          when a courageous cry is heard
          against oppression
          , when tender poetry screams at the time of history
          a utopia
          in the voice of a child…
          It will be She, our Rose , ever!
          which manifests itself
          in its humanity
          in its humility
          in its courage.

          MACÁRIO EPITHATIO – CE

          BIOGRAPHIC PROFILE
          Farewell to Rosa da Fonsêca: story of a resistant

          | Ceará | Teacher and former councilor, Rosa da Fonsêca died yesterday, in Fortaleza. Rosa was a central character in the fight for amnesty and resistance to the dictatorship

          Henrique Araújo

          When she turned 60, still in 2009, Rosa da Fonsêca prepared a party open to the public, in a mixture of celebration and political act. More than a decade later, Rosa says goodbye, after passing away from ovarian cancer.

          The wake at the Ethernus Funeral Home, from 8 am to 3 pm, will be open to anyone who wants to participate in the ceremony, as perhaps Rosa wished. Burial is scheduled for 16:00 at the Parque da Paz cemetery.

          At the age of 73, the activist, former councilor and teacher at the municipal school in Fortaleza had been battling the disease for a few years. Admitted to Hospital São Carlos, she remained firm in the hope of doubling the disease, as she had done with other obstacles that crossed her life. And there weren’t a few.

          Founder of the group Crítica Radical, Rosa was arrested by the Brazilian military dictatorship in 1971, at the age of 22. Then a student of Social Sciences at the Federal University of Ceará (UFC) and linked to the organization Ação Popular, he took the first steps there in a trajectory of resistance against arbitrariness, playing a central role in the struggle for amnesty and for the organization of women’s movements and categories. In Ceara.

          Since then, she has been a councilor and has held management positions in union entities, but she has become notable even as a tireless activist and staunch supporter of an emancipatory conception of life and the exercise of politics.

          Outside institutional life, and alongside his friends Jorge Paiva, Célia Zanetti and Maria Luiza Fontenele, companions at all times, he created a rural community from which he intended to lay the foundations of a new sociability, averse to the regime of capital and in whose horizon was possible an alternative to the hegemonic model, which, according to her, would lead the planet to collapse.

          In this trench, she abdicated herself in favor of the cause, as on her 60th birthday, when she gave gifts and asked those who intended to honor her to, if possible, contribute in some way so that Crítica Radical could have financial sustainability.

          That was Rosa Maria Ferreira da Fonsêca, born on April 24, 1949, in Quixadá, daughter of Portuguese Manoel Rodrigues Fonsêca and Maria Rocilda, from Ceará, sister of eight – six women and two men -, friend of many and always willing to profile alongside the most vulnerable.

          Author of Rosa’s biographical profile, published in 2017 by Edições Demócrito Rocha, the journalist and editor of O POVO Érico Firmo writes that, “even the greatest enemies will recognize in her someone who has always been moved by deep conviction in what she believes, without ever put personal ambitions ahead”.

          “This detachment and Rosa’s lack of personal ambitions,” he added, “allied with her commitment to causes and convictions, have no parallel in Ceará’s politics.”

          During this Wednesday, June 1st, this recognition was expressed in words expressed by politicians from the most varied fields of the ideological spectrum.

          State Governor Izolda Cela (PDT) lamented the loss. “Woman of struggle, she was a representative of trade union movements and always guided her actions for equal rights to the most needy. Besides, she challenged the Military Dictatorship with great bravery”, she wrote.

          Former Abolition titleholder, Camilo Santana (PT) recorded “immense regret at the news of Rosa da Fonseca’s death”, emphasizing that the activist and teacher “was an example of struggle and resistance, having faced, with her courage, the Military Dictatorship , the most difficult period of our Brazil”.

          Federal deputy for the PT, José Guimarães said that “Rosa’s death fills my heart with sadness” and that “the former councilor was a warrior” who dedicated her life “to the fight for social justice and was on the front line against the dictatorship “, leaving a legacy “inscribed in the annals of Ceará’s revolutionary history”.

          Former mayor of Fortaleza, Roberto Cláudio (PDT), acknowledged that “Rosate da Fonsêca’s life story is synonymous with a permanent commitment to the defense of her people” and that the activist was “a woman of fiber who challenged dictatorial regimes and who, like few others, knew how to turn the political struggle into a priesthood of great faith”.

          Also federal deputy, Captain Wagner (União Brasil) recalled having “the honor and beautiful experience of living with Rosa da Fonseca”, with whom, “regardless of political positions”, he always had a good relationship, “to the point that I won a apartment in a raffle promoted by her”. He then wished spiritual comfort to Rosa’s family.

          In the biographical essay that I signed about Rosa da Fonsêca for the Terra Bárbara collection, by Edições Demócrito Rocha, I wrote that hardly anyone in the political history of Ceará made so much noise with so little institutional action. When we talk about Rosa, we mention “the former councilor”. Just a former councilor?

          Yes, it is common for fellow journalists to ask about other positions. Wasn’t she a deputy? Not. He was president of CUT Ceará, but Rosa’s size definitely does not fit in the positions she held. She didn’t like institutions—she’s an emancipator. The role she has is not because of this or that position.

          So much so that, in this solitary term, she is not in the official inauguration photo. Because, during the ceremony, she learned that a community was being expelled from the houses and left the session to go to the place.

          Without a mandate, on January 10, 1988 O POVO described her: “The most controversial woman in Ceará”. She was one of the most uncomfortable opponents of Juraci Magalhães, of Ciro Gomes.

          On Tasso Jereissati, O POVO also quoted that same January 10: “The simple allusion to his name is capable of disconcerting Governor Tasso Jereissati”.

          She broke with the PCdoB and was expelled from the PT. She acted against the military dictatorship and wanted to be part of the armed struggle. As she didn’t have the aptitude to take up arms, she decided to study nursing — she dropped out when she got to practical classes, in anatomy, and saw that it wasn’t for her.

          He was in the organization of the fight for amnesty, until the occupation of Cocó, in 2013, when he gave Cid Gomes headaches. She coordinated the first protest of “Fora, Collor”, in Juazeiro do Norte, which made the former president say he had “that purple thing”. Rosa did that and more.

          Even the most disaffected will recognize in her someone who was always moved by deep conviction in what she believes, without ever putting personal ambitions ahead. This was shown when she resigned from the position of public tax auditor at the State Treasury Department (Sefaz) to be a teacher in the public school in Fortaleza. It was in this way, as a teacher, that Rosa was identified, more than as a former councilor.

          This detachment and Rosa’s lack of personal ambitions, combined with commitment to causes and convictions, have no parallel in Ceará’s politics. (Érico Firmo)

          Well, Rosa, thank you for the example left here. And it’s not because you left that, overnight, you became the best person in the world. Not. We are pains and delights. Thankfully, we wrote a lot about their dreams and collectives and protests. We could even resist, because we never came close to his generous radicalism to change the world, but we reported. Me, Regina Ribeiro, Érico Firmo, Guálter George, Erivaldo Carvalho, Felipe Araújo and other journalists from O POVO.

          Lastly, I hoped to meet you on the 73rd anniversary of your necessary existence, about three weeks ago. It didn’t happen, of course, because you were a bit of a bird because of your bad health.

          Too bad we won’t find each other around here or in that “paradise” anymore, I stopped believing in men and women who only perpetuate the history of the “winners” and still support barbaric politicians.

          But look, I have an inordinate satisfaction to have had the chance to try to learn from you. Speech and practice. You were consistent in sweetness and beating.

          I remember the occupation of Cocó and you in front of Cid Gomes (PDT), governor at the time. It was dialogic as far as proselytizing broke the acceptable. It was just the cutting of castanets, exotic and invasive species. However, the radical foundation was to be able to legalize the Park and expand awareness of the need for a tree, as well, to have the right to the City.

          There are other stories about you, many. The best of them was that you continued to be Rosa. (Demitri Tulio)

          In May 2017, Rosa da Fonsêca had her biography released by the publishing house Demócrito Rocha, within the Terra Bárbara Collection.

          The work was written by journalist Érico Firmo, executive editor of O POVO’s Policy section.

          “The book is, in essence, a reportage. From Rosa, but that ends up going beyond her. It is impossible to talk about Rosa without talking about the dictatorship, the amnesty, the reorganization of parties, unions, the CUT. From the beginnings of organizations of women in Ceará. The governments he opposed, Tasso Jereissati, Ciro Gomes and many others. It’s impossible not to talk about his group, not to talk about Maria Luiza, Jorge Paiva, Crítica Radical”, explained Firmo at the time.

          The Terra Bárbara Collection, published by Edições Demócrito Rocha, puts on the shelves the biographical profiles of local personalities.

          Figures such as Moacir Lopes, Fausto Nilo, Chico Anysio, Dona Mocinha, Mário Gomes and Ednardo have already been biographed.

          The aim is to unravel lesser known aspects of the lives of characters who were born or chose the State as their home. The collection appeared in the early 2000s and, every year, new titles are released.

          Érico Firmo says he has made an effort to make a book “honest and true about who Rosa is”.

          In addition, the publication expresses the controversies that mark the existence of the biography.

          “The clashes are the keynote of her trajectory and I understand that it would not be true to approach her story without bringing these clashes and the contradictions in which she was involved and is involved”, points out Firmo. (Carlos Holanda and Demitri Túlio)

          https://mais.opovo.com.br/jornal/politica/2022/06/10247594-o-adeus-a-rosa-da-fonseca-historia-de-uma-resistente.html

          MORE ROSA FONSECA
          (20+) Rosa Fonsêca | Facebook
          &
          THE PEOPLE
          Rosa da Fonseca dies at age 73 in Fortaleza, victim of ovarian cancer
          &
          COLLABORATED: RONALDO ROGÉRIO
          ***
          Posted by FRT OFFICIAL at 2:26 PM No comments:
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          Tags: A ROSA , carlos holanda , radical critique , dimitri tulio , epitacio macario , haroldo barbosa , manoel inacio natal , maria luiza Fontenele , marxism , the people , forbidden to forget rosa fonseca , ronaldo rogerio
          SERTANEJO UNIVERSITÁRIO IS A PRODUCT OF THE DARKEST SIDE OF AGRIBUSINESS * Tiago Cardoso / Célio Turino
          THE UNIVERSITY SERTANEJO IS A PRODUCT OF THE DARKEST SIDE OF AGRIBUSINESS

          *The hegemony of the university sertanejo in the current Brazilian music scene is not the product of the talent* of the singers of the aforementioned musical genre, *but of an economic structure* behind these singers.

          The sertanejo emerged in Brazil in the mid-twentieth century, where its artists sang the hardships and lamentations of the countryside and rural life. With the process of urbanization in the country as a result of industrial development, traditional country music underwent a gradual transformation and already in the 1990s, urban romanticism supplanted the beauty and purity of the authentic countryman of the countryside.

          However, *what boosted the university sertanejo was the millionaire investment by agribusiness, which wanted to create the image of the good man and the countryside that sustains the city*, when, *in fact, 75% of the food that reaches the tables of Brazilians they come from family farming*, that is, from a small plot of land. *Agribusiness is basically focused on exports*, which is well known and public knowledge.

          The film “The Sons of Francisco”, which portrays the heroic saga of the country duo Zezé di Camargo, wanted to convey the image of the meritocracy of life in the countryside, making people believe that the phone calls of a father who cared for his children on the radio provoked your success. Millions of people have seen this movie on movie screens. However, this is only in the cinema, it does not match reality.

          What happens in the music industry is the infamous “jabá”, which is a sum of money that producers pay to broadcast their music. * The manager of the controversial singer Anita declared in an interview that went viral that, while she tries to pay a “jabá” to play the songs of her artists on a radio, agribusiness has already bought them *. The result is that, in 2021, *of the ten most played songs on the spotify music app, nine were university sertanejos*, with their songs *sung in the same timbre and with the same lyrics: ballad, drunkenness and betrayal*.

          Furthermore, there is a very strong agribusiness lobby in national politics. To give you an idea, in 2014, JBS sponsored the campaign of 11 political parties and the ruralist bench made 24 of the 27 elected senators.

          This is what you read. There is no rock, funk, pagoda, etc., but *there is a ruralist bench, which has the university sertanejo as its soundtrack*.

          All this produces a cultural industry, the infamous “modinha”. It’s not an organic, natural hit, it’s produced.

          How do you think that any country duo, nowadays, already has buses, jets and thousands of followers on their social networks right at the beginning of their careers? Fruit of your talents? Not. Fruit of heavy investment by agribusiness, which sees in the university sertanejo *a way of alienating people with sugary and depoliticized letters, while violating environmental legislation, expanding the agricultural frontier, invading indigenous lands, promoting mining and murdering native peoples *. Do you think country singers are bolsonaristas by chance?

          And what we see today is the end of the authentic sertanejo, of the music that portrayed country life, giving way to urban music, increasingly pop and with riffs that remind more of a mediocre pop rock.

          In addition, agribusiness buys space in the media (agro is pop, remember?), they promote livestock fairs, where they promote country duos of “good guys”, and agroshows, where they give visibility to country singers. More than that, they buy TV stations and put their music in soap operas. When could an artist of another genre have this privilege? A samba singer from the hills, a rocker from a garage band? As much as they have superior talent, they will not be able to break the surface of the music industry.

          *Although they are overwhelmingly reactionary and “opposite” to the controversy and unknown (including by them), they are the singers who receive the most public funds, since, as it turned out, they are known to receive money from small municipalities* that are equivalent to the annual budget of their health and education portfolios.

          For all the reasons explained above, it is an unequal struggle with the other genres, not for talent, which few have, but for the extraordinary investment of agribusiness.

          More than that, the *university agribusiness/sertanejo duo is promoting a slaughter of culture*, since the traditional festivals of the Northeastern São João are taken over by these duos, while forró loses space, just to cite an example. It is no different in other traditional festivals that have nothing to do with the genre, such as Carnival.

          I hope that with what has come to light, this assault on culture and taxpayer money, the mask of these false moralists and pseudo-singers will be removed so that we can expose the dirt behind this success.

          Particularly, I don’t listen to these singers, because I know that each click represents a part of the cultural slaughter and the devastation of the environment.

          *Tiago Cardoso, Geographer.*

          LEONARDO BOFF

          About the diversion of public resources for millionaires’ fees in shows by Sertanejos/Agropop singers.

          1) Millionaire megachets are not common either in the world of rodeos (when in private sponsorship) or big music stars. At most, R$ 500/600 thousand and that involves the entire production team of the show (band, technicians, dancers, copyright and support staff). As a parameter: in contracts with public authorities, at Virada Cultural in São Paulo, for example, the maximum amount in cache is R$ 300 thousand (which is already quite high); New Year’s Eve concerts in cities like Rio de Janeiro also don’t pay much more; in Micaretas and São João, perhaps some very famous ones receive R$ 500/600 thousand, but they are rare; Special group samba schools in Rio de Janeiro received R$1.5 million for the 2022 carnival (note, the fee is for an entire samba school).

          2) That is, there are tricks, there is embezzlement of public funds, there is corruption in these million-dollar caches. Even for artistic contracts, the law requires the public power to be guided by the principle of economy, in addition to morality, legality, publicity and impersonality. There’s a political cartel/Bolsonarista/sertanejo in this Megacachês story. Public Ministry, Audit Courts and municipal, state and national legislatures need to investigate. Crime is in your eyes! The National Congress needs to open #CPIdosSertanejos now! It is necessary to cross seams and trace the money’s path to verify how much of the value of these fees may have been “returned” to the sponsors. This is a diversion pipeline on the order of hundreds of millions of reais!

          c) apart from the immorality of these values, especially in small municipalities, where the population lacks basic services.

          d) But the deviation does not stop there. In 2019, BNDES granted a loan of R$ 320 million to a newly constituted company (one month before the loan was released). Purpose? Manage careers of country singers. A scandal! Of this amount, R$ 200 million went to a single country singer! Any doubt that this loan was totally irregular? No Bank releases such an amount for a company incorporated a month earlier.

          As a parameter, the Aldir Blanc law, which preserved between 430/450 thousand jobs in the productive chain of culture (IPEA data), in 4,700 municipalities, had a total contribution of R$ 3 billion. This after a broad mobilization, involving tens of thousands of people and near unanimity in Congress. It is not possible for a single company to receive more than 10% of this amount! This loan needs to be investigated a lot.

          e) One more parameter. These same sertanejos who keep talking bad about the Rouanet law are appropriating public money through absurd amounts, draining resources from schools and health, especially small municipalities, where inspection goes unnoticed. Caches of up to BRL 1.2 million! Do you know how much the government fixed the ceiling for artistic cachet via the Rouanet law? R$ 3 thousand (exactly). It must be for this reason that these Bolsonarista artists hate the Rouanet law so much, after all, in a single show they pocket 400 times greater value. Even before the government set the ceiling at R$3,000, the maximum amount that the Rouanet law authorized for artistic fees was R$45,000. One more parameter for comparison: the amount the company received is equivalent to 25% of all the amount collected by the Rouanet Law throughout Brazil (approximately R$ 1.2 billion).

          The Rouanet law serves more than 4,000 projects across the country, most of them free to the public, benefiting tens of thousands of companies and guaranteeing hundreds of thousands of jobs in the arts and culture production chain. For approval of a project, the law requires: detailed project; justification; description and work schedule; explanation of the benefited public; social and accessibility counterpart; detailed budget, with standard values ​​and ceiling values; expert technical opinion; collegiate approval (CNIC); attracting sponsorship from private companies (which also analyze the project); accountability; detailed analysis of accounts for final settlement.

          Meanwhile, these exploiting artists and manipulators of the fans continue to make a gun sign with their hand, preaching hate and lies and declaring themselves good citizens, defenders of “God, Fatherland and Family”, at the same time that they enrich themselves with public money. In the end, they are nothing more than opportunists and dishonest, who dishonor the tradition of Brazilian music from scratch.

          Coelium Turin

          former Secretary of Cultural Citizenship at the Ministry of Culture, and creator of the Pontos de Cultura program

          https://www.facebook.com/100000495891300/posts/6055981494428320/?d=n

          ZECA BALEIRO PUTS HIS DICK IN THE MAMATEIROS

          DICK IN THE BREASTFEEDERS

          *
          Posted by FRT OFFICIAL at 00:00 80 comments:
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          Tags : agribusiness , corruption , gustavo lima , culture incentive law , rouanet law , THE UNIVERSITY COUNTRYSIDE IS A PRODUCT OF THE DARKEST SIDE OF AGRIBUSINESS , university countryman

          https://frenterevolucionariadostrabalhadores.blogspot.com/search?updated-max=2022-06-05T00:00:00-03:00&max-results=99&start=27&by-date=false

  4. Monday, June 20, 2022
    GENERAL STRIKE AGAINST NEOLIBERALISM: ECUADOR * Faculty of Economic Sciences of the Central University of Ecuador / UCE
    GENERAL STRIKE AGAINST NEOLIBERALISM:

    ECUADOR

    COMMUNICATION FROM TEACHERS OF THE FACULTY OF ECONOMIC SCIENCES OF THE UNIVERSIDADE CENTRAL DO ECUADOR

    The undersigned, faculty, staff and workers of the Faculty of Economic Sciences of the University

    Central Ecuador, given the very delicate situation that our country is going through, they are expressed below:

    We recognize the demands and suffocation of workers, students, peasant sectors and social groups that are mobilizing in the context of an Ecuadorian society crossed by deep gaps and inequalities. This can be unequivocally supported by, for example, three important elements:

    i. Economic reactivation policies have not been effective. The country has one of the lowest growth rates in the region (2.6% according to ECLAC). Economic stagnation is related to unemployment indicators. For March 2022, this indicator stood at 4.8%, just a decrease of 0.1% compared to the same indicator in March 2021 (4.9%).

    ii. The multidimensional poverty rate, which includes deficiencies in education, social security, health, water, food, habitat or housing, affects approximately seven in ten people in rural areas and almost one in four in urban areas.

    iii. From June 2021 to May 2022, the input price index for producers relative to the final goods price index for producers surpassed, for the first time in six years, the difference of 8% (US$ 113.6 vs. $104.1). In other words, producers work at a loss.

    In short, we are witnessing a post-pandemic context that is already complicated, but even more serious for the majority of the Ecuadorian population and vulnerable sectors.

    In view of the ineffectiveness of state institutions, in this context, we recognize protests as a legitimate mechanism of social construction in search of better options for the present and the future. In this scenario, we claim the public university as an institution that promotes a broad, peaceful and active dialogue in search and defense of the interests of the most vulnerable and vulnerable sectors of Ecuadorian society, recognizing in it its deep vocation of service and unavoidable historical condition. always on the side of the less fortunate.

    We condemn any act of individual or collective violence, whether explicit or covert, especially from those institutions or instances that are, in theory, called upon to guarantee the constitutional rights of all. We therefore appeal to the public university to open its doors and actively engage in a dynamic of dialogue and the finding of collective solutions to protect the most depressed sectors of Ecuadorian society that, today more than ever, require attention.

    Alvaro Ricardo | Baez Jonathan | Diego carrion | From Torre Juan | Duke Cara | Espinoza Bryan | Wilson Flores | Francisco Gachet | Patrick Holenstein | Jhonny Jimenez | Jose Cajas | Jumbo Daisy | Manosalvas Giovanni | Montesdeoca Lourdes | Orozco Christian | Pazmino Gustavo | Pugue Luis | Rosales Francisco | Rosero Robertho | Sanches Jose | Sanches Ana | Zambrano Miguel

    Professors at the Faculty of Economic Sciences Universidad Central de Ecuador

    *
    at June 20, 2022 No comments:
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    Tags: latin america , ecuador , general strike , general strike against neoliberalis ecuador , GUILHERMO LASSO , neoliberalism
    CHALLENGES AFTER GUSTAVO PETRO’S VICTORY * Fernando Rivero / VEN
    * CHALLENGES AFTER GUSTAVO PETRO’S WIN*

    by Fernando Rivero
    MSc. in Philosophy of War

    @friveroosuna

    1. *Some data from Colombia.*

    According to the National Administrative Department of Statistics (DANE), in 2020 Colombia suffered from poverty of 42.5%, which puts it in more than 21 million people. In 2020, according to DANE, the official organ of the Colombian State, 2.78 million people entered the condition of extreme poverty. Bogotá, despite being the capital of the country, 3.3 million people live in poverty. In 2020, according to the World Bank’s GINI Index, Colombia is the second most unequal country in Latin America and the Caribbean. The concentration of land ownership is profoundly uneven, leaving Colombia’s most fertile lands in the hands of a few. *Colombia is an unjust society that requires major economic and social transformations*.

    2. *Southern Command military satellite*.

    The uribismo allowed the installation of multiple US military bases on the ground of New Grenada, the operations of the US Security Forces Assistance Brigade (SFAB), turned Colombia into a NATO Global Partner and recently awarded it the ignominious status of US non-NATO ally of Important Importance, a matter protected by the US-Colombia Strategic Alliance Act of 2022. *President Petro will have to face the role imposed on the New Grenadas in the Pentagon’s military planning*.

    3. *The Armed Forces of Colombia*.

    The Colombian military institution was forged in the National Security Doctrine and trained, in the past, at the Pentagon’s School of the Americas. Colombia suffered, during decades of social and armed conflict, the mark of an Armed Force that applied state terrorism. Today, the Colombian military institution is inspired by the Damascus Doctrine, adjusts to NATO’s interoperability standards, is trained for a regular war against its neighbors assuming the role of Abel against Cain and, above all, serves as an instrument for the preservation of neoliberal capitalism. *The Armed Forces of Colombia are a challenge to the changes that most in Colombia crave.*

    4. *Colombia internationally.*

    Latin America and the Caribbean are experiencing political changes that mark the beginning of a new era. The recent Summit of the Americas in Los Angeles proves this. There is no doubt that the State Department defines the foreign policy of the Casa de Nariño. In the 21st century, the different governments of Colombia have served as a containment dam in the face of the emergence of progressive or revolutionary governments, as well as an instrument to attack organizations such as CELAC, UNASUR, ALBA, etc. *President Petro will face a historic dilemma in the collision between the Monroe Doctrine and the Bolivarian Ideology. Latin America and the Caribbean expect a lot from the Historic Pact government.*

    5. *A suggestion for those who dream of a fairer world*.

    President Gustavo Petro faces major challenges. Majorities in Colombia yearn for change and demand social justice. Those who believe in life, from Colombia and other latitudes, radiate hope with the triumph of Gustavo Petro. They expect changes, although they understand that socialism in Colombia is still a long way off. *However, the role of the Bolivarians must consist of accompanying the Colombian people in their struggle for the transformation of their society, in the advance towards New Colombia, in the construction of total peace with all insurgent organizations and in the re-encounter with the emancipatory ideology of Simón Bolivar Undoubtedly, as Bolívar said, “America is the Hope of the Universe” and in this hope Colombia is fundamental*.

    *By Fernando Rivero*

    *Master’s degree. in Philosophy of War*

    @friveroosuna

    Venezuela

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    Tags: latin america , colombia , CHALLENGES AFTER GUSTAVO PETRO’S VICTORY , election , Fernando Rivero , GUSTAVO PETRO , politics
    Peru: Abimael Guzmán died, but the causes of Sendero’s emergence are still valid * La Haine
    Peru: Abimael Guzmán died, but the causes of Sendero’s emergence are still valid

    It is not surprising that the information has focused on the “crimes” of the Sendero, ignoring the massive human rights violations committed by the military and the state. maximum security prison where he had been serving life imprisonment since 1992, his death announced the day before the 29th anniversary of his capture. 12, 1992, and triggered reactions across the Peruvian political arc.

    “The terrorist leader Abimael Guzmán, responsible for the loss of countless lives of our compatriots, has died. Our condemnation of terrorism is firm and unshakable. Only in democracy will we build a Peru of justice and development for our people,” said President Pedro Castillo.

    The Minister of Economy and Finance, Pedro Francke, stated that “his death will not erase his crimes” and urged to build “a fairer country, in democracy and with peace”, or the deputy of the ruling force of Free Peru, Betssy Chávez, who asked to instill in the new generations to work for “Peru only in democracy and never in extremism”.

    These reactions by the government that condemns Guzmán take place in the midst of a campaign by the right-wing opposition, political and media, which accuses Castillo and some of his ministers of having a certain proximity to political heirs of the walk, grouped in the Movement for Amnesty and Fundamental Rights ( Movadef), who asked for an amnesty for Guzmán. The government categorically rejected this link.

    The president of the Congress, María del Carmen Alva Prieto, in turn, expressed solidarity with the victims [but only those of Sendero; he did not mention the tens of thousands of victims of state terrorism]. «The testimonies of orphans, widows (who also lost children) and all those who saw someone die at the hands of Sendero Luminoso tore our souls apart. I think of them, the victims of terrorism, to whom we still owe a lot.”

    From the extreme right Força Popular, the force of former presidential candidate Keiko Fujimori, deputy Nano Guerra demanded “details of his death” from the government. Although from all political sectors the leader of Sendero Luminoso was described as “a bloodthirsty terrorist”, “a genocidal” and other similar expressions, a debate opened about what to do with his body.

    There are proposals to cremate his body and throw his ashes into the sea, remembering what happened to Osama Bin Laden, to prevent his grave from becoming a pilgrimage site for walkers. “What corresponds is to bury him as quickly and discreetly as possible so that there is no expression of support or anger. The processing must be done as quickly as possible,” said Jorge Montoya of the far-right force Renovación Popular.

    Instead, former Interior Minister (2003-2004) Fernando Rospigliosi said Guzmán should be cremated and his ashes thrown into the sea. “By no means should there be a funeral like any normal person, nor should his grave be turned into a sort of pilgrimage site for terrorists,” he argued.

    The guerrilla leader and former university professor of philosophy, who had suffered health problems in July, spent his last 29 years in prison, convicted of having been the mastermind of one of the bloodiest conflicts in Latin America, with more than 70,000 dead. and disappeared in two decades – from 1980 to 2000, most in the hands of the military -, according to data from the Truth and Reconciliation Commission.

    The prison authority said in a statement that Guzmán’s death took place “on Saturday, September 11, at approximately 6:40 a.m., at the Maximum Security Detention Center at the Naval Base of Callao (…) due to complications in his state of health.” .

    Guzmán’s wife, who was number two on Sendero Luminoso, is being held in the Virgen de Fátima prison in Lima, sentenced to life in prison for terrorism, the same charge that weighed on her husband. “The Navy informed his wife Elena Yparraguirre of the death,” said the lawyer for the guerrilla leader Alfredo Crespo, adding: “She asked the authorities to hand over the remains.”

    A little of history

    The guerrilla leader – described as a Maoist – led one of the most popular organizations in Latin America. Guzmán, a former university professor of philosophy who used wigs, glasses, pipes and other disguises to live in hiding for many years, belonged to a bourgeois Peruvian family.

    Before becoming a leader of Sendero Luminoso, he formed the “Red Flag” group and made a series of trips to China, the former Soviet Union and Albania to seek support and funding, as well as to receive military training.

    Born on December 3, 1934 in the department of Arequipa in southern Peru, Guzmán, who was internationally considered the “Fourth Sword of Marxism” after Karl Marx, Lenin and Mao, was captured on September 12, 1992 during the regime of former President Alberto Fujimori (1990-2000).

    In the early 1980s, he founded the Partido Comunista del Peru-Caminho Luminoso (PCC-SL), with which he intended to seize power through arms.

    Guzmán reached the forefront of politics when, in the early 1960s, he abandoned his chair of philosophy at the San Cristóbal de Huamanga University in Ayacucho, one of the poorest regions of Peru. From there he created and promoted his party, whose task was to “build communism along the luminous path of José Carlos Mariátegui”, one of the greatest Marxist intellectuals in Latin America and creator of the Socialist Party of Peru.

    The so-called “great leap forward” began in 1979, when he went underground and announced that the conditions were ripe for a Cambodian-style rural-urban revolution. On May 17, 1980, he exchanged books for popular violence, when Sendero started the fight by burning ballot boxes in an Andean city on the eve of the election that ended 12 years of military dictatorship.

    The revolutionary war, which began in Ayacucho, spread across most of the country, with car bomb attacks, sabotage of the electricity grid to cause blackouts in Lima and other cities, executions of officials and businessmen, and punishment of peasant communities. their presence, because they were more afraid of military repression.

    The military, supported by right-wing governments, continued its usual practice of kidnapping, torture, disappearances, extrajudicial executions and mass murders of peasants. They murdered peasants they accused of not supporting them.

    The CVR describes this period as “the most intense, extensive and prolonged episode of violence in all republican history”. Most of the victims were civilians unrelated to the conflict, 75% of the dead were Quechua-speaking indigenous people.

    After his arrest, he was detained at the Callao naval base prison and sentenced to life imprisonment in 2006. Exactly three years ago, he received a second life sentence for the death of 25 people in an attack on July 16, 1992 in Miraflores, a wealthy area of ​​Lima. Before the arrest and convictions, Guzmán was hiding in the home of the dancer Maritza Garrido Lecca, as her home was home to a ballet academy, which was ideal to avoid attracting the attention of the authorities.

    In those years there was much speculation about the whereabouts of the leader of Sendero Luminoso, also called “Comrade or President Gonzalo”. In fact, it was unknown whether he was alive or dead; or if he had fled abroad. When the police discovered where he was hiding, they searched him and found him on the second floor with his wife and two other leaders of the fundamentalist group.

    Days after the capture of the leader of Sendero Luminoso, the government of Alberto Fujimori and his security adviser Montesinos put on a grotesque show, featuring him in a horizontally striped black and white prison outfit inside a cage to be filmed and photographed.

    With its leader imprisoned in the naval prison where he died on Saturday, Sendero quickly collapsed. Guzmán called on his followers to lay down their arms. Only one column remains that operates in an area of ​​wild coca cultivation.

    According to the Final Report of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission (CVR), presented at the end of August 2003, it is estimated that between 1980 and 2000, almost 70,000 people were killed due to the fight between that guerrilla and the Peruvian State. The grotesquely biased report noted that Sendero Luminoso was responsible for more than 31,331 deaths, 54% of all documented victims. In addition, in these two decades of political violence, some 21,793 people have disappeared due to state actions, according to Peru’s National Registry of Disappeared and Graves, and economic damage, however, has reached about $28 billion, the TRC concluded.

    The rise of the Sendero

    One of the causes for the emergence of Sendero Luminoso was the economic crisis that hit Peru in those years (and continues to do so), whose most visible consequences were concentrated in rural areas, dominated by enormous social inequality. Although the leaders of Sendero Luminoso publicly admitted their defeat in the armed struggle, they never regretted it.

    It is not surprising that all the information has focused on Sendero’s “crimes”, ignoring the massive human rights violations committed by the military and the State, which various sectors seek to hide or justify.

    Although Abimael Guzmán died and Sendero Luminoso was defeated for a long time, the conditions of exclusion and poverty in which Sendero Luminoso violence erupted continue to exist. But the media and powerful groups prefer not to talk about it.

    SOURCE
    Peru: Abimael Guzmán died, but the causes of Sendero’s emergence are still valid
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    1. Sunday, June 19, 2022
      GEOPOLITICA DE LA LIBERACION * JULIO ESCALONA
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      JULIO ESCALONA
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      THE STATE OF COUNTERINSURGENCE * RUY MAURO MARINI – Org Marxists
      THE STATE OF COUNTERINSURGENCE

      RUY MAURO MARINI

      I will start from the observation that we are going through a counterrevolutionary period in Latin America, so that, once this period is characterized, we can investigate to what extent it affects the State. In fact, with the State as it is, the concentrated force of society, the synthesis of the structures and relations of domination that exist there, the validity of a counterrevolutionary process necessarily affects it, affecting its structure and functioning. It is the awareness of this situation that led intellectuals and political forces on the continent to consider the analysis of the counterrevolution, generating discussions about the fascist or non-fascist character of this process.

      Now, it seems to me valid, from a certain point of view, to resort to fascism as a term of reference. Insofar as European fascism also represented a counterrevolutionary period, it provides a point of comparison for analyzing the Latin American situation. However, I believe that — rather than looking for similarities and differences between the Latin American counterrevolutionary process and fascismEuropean — it is preferable to start from the assumption that both constitute particular forms of the bourgeois counter-revolution and try, therefore, to verify in what the specificity that the Latin American counter-revolution assumes consists, especially from the point of view of the State. We will thus be following the teachings of European Marxists, who used, for the analysis of fascism , the point of reference they had in relation to the bourgeois counter-revolution: Bonapartism ., without assuming that they were identical phenomena, instead, they were concerned with establishing the specificity of the fascist process and the forms of domination and state to which it gave rise. If they had not done this, if they had confused the particular forms with the general process that produces them, we would not have today the studies on fascism , which have enriched Marxist political theory and allowed us to approach with more certainty the analysis of the Latin counter-revolution. -American.

      Let us see, therefore, what factors provoked the opening of the counterrevolutionary process in Latin America. We will examine its influence on the structure and functioning of the state, and then reflect on whether the changes it has experienced represent a transitory phenomenon and how they affect revolutionary strategy.
      Three aspects of the Latin American counterrevolution

      In my opinion, Latin American military dictatorships are the result of a process that has three aspects. As we will see later, this process not only generated military dictatorships, but also affected states that did not take this form. In this sense, the first effect of the action of these factors is not so much the Brazilian coup of 1964, as is claimed, but the changes that the Venezuelan State presents from 1959, under the Betancourt government.

      The first aspect of the Latin American counterrevolution is the change in US global strategy, which begins in the late 1950s and early 1960s and is decisively implemented by the Kennedy administration. Its main motivation is the fact that the United States, as the undisputed head of the capitalist field, finds itself facing a series of revolutionary processes in different parts of the world, such as Algeria, Congo, Cuba, Vietnam, which produce different results, but which agitate the world structure of imperialist domination. This is accompanied by a shift in the balance of power between the United States and the Soviet Union, which implies a greater balance between the two. All of this leads to a shift in the US strategic approach from contemplating a massive, global response,

      The new American strategy has several consequences. Among them, modifications at the military level, with an emphasis, for example, on means of mass transport and conventional forces; the creation of special counter-guerrilla-trained corps, such as the Green Berets; and the strengthening of national armies, which McNamara in his book The Essence of Security called “indigenous in uniform”); through training and weapons programs”. But what is more significant, for what interests us here, is the formulation of the doctrine of counterinsurgency, which establishes a line of confrontation with revolutionary movements to be developed at three levels: annihilation, conquest of social bases and institutionalization.

      Three aspects of counterinsurgency doctrine are worth noting. First, it is their own conception of politics: counterinsurgency is the application to political struggle with a military focus. Normally, in bourgeois society, the political struggle has the objective of defeating the opponent, but the opponent continues to exist as a defeated element and can even act as an opposition force. Counterinsurgency, in a perspective similar to that of fascism , sees the adversary as the enemy that must not only be defeated, but annihilated, that is, destroyed, which implies seeing the class struggle as a war and implies, then, the adoption of military tactics and methods of fighting.

      Second, the counterinsurgency considers the revolutionary movement as something alien to the society in which it develops. Consequently, he sees the revolutionary process as subversion caused by enemy infiltration. The revolutionary movement is, then, something like a virus, the agent infiltrated from outside that causes a tumor, a cancer in the social organism, which must be extirpated, that is, eliminated, suppressed, annihilated. Here, too, he approaches fascist doctrine.

      Thirdly, counterinsurgency, in an attempt to restore the health of the infected social organism, that is, of bourgeois society under its parliamentary and liberal political organization, explicitly proposes the restoration of bourgeois democracy, after the period of exception represented by the period of war. . Unlike fascism , counterinsurgency does not, at any time, question the validity of bourgeois democracy, it only raises its limitation or suspension during the campaign of annihilation. Through the reconquest of the social bases, we must therefore go to the institutionalization phase, which is seen as the complete restoration of bourgeois democracy.

      The second aspect of the Latin American counterrevolution is the structural transformation of the creole bourgeoisies, which tends to translate into changes in the dominant political bloc. The objective basis of this phenomenon is the imperialist integration of production systems that takes place in Latin America, or more precisely, the integration of Latin American production systems into the imperialist system, through direct investments of foreign capital, technological subordination and financial penetration. This leads to the emergence, in the course of the fifties and even more of the sixties, to the development of a monopoly bourgeoisie, intimately linked to the imperialist bourgeoisie, especially the North American one.

      Imperialist integration corresponds, together with the super-exploitation of work, to the accentuation of the centralization of capital and the proletarianization of the petty bourgeoisie. For this, it narrows the class struggle and intends to break the alliance scheme adopted until then by the bourgeoisie, both because of the existing contradictions between its monopolist and non-monopolist factions, and because of the struggle that is being waged between the bourgeoisie as a whole. and the petty bourgeoisie, which ends up pushing it to seek alliances with the proletariat and the peasantry.

      The result of this process is the rupture, the abandonment, of what had been the norm in Latin America until then: the populist state, that is, the “State of the entire bourgeoisie”, which favored the process of accumulation of all its fractions. (although these unequally take advantage of the benefits placed within their reach). Instead, a new State is created, which is mainly concerned with the interests of the monopoly fractions, national and foreign, and therefore establishes selective mechanisms to favor their accumulation; the other bourgeois fractions must subordinate themselves to the monopoly bourgeoisie, their development being strictly dependent on the dynamism achieved by monopoly capital, while the petty bourgeoisie, while still being privileged in the class alliance on which the new bourgeois power rests,

      The third aspect of the Latin American counterrevolution is the emergence of the mass movement that the bourgeoisie had to face during the 1960s. This movement had developed since the previous decade: the Bolivian revolution of 1952, the Guatemalan revolution of the period 1944-1954, the radicalization of populist movements in different countries, and had its first climax with the Cuban revolution. This particularly affects the petty-bourgeois intellectual strata, which, as we have seen, went through a period of readjustment in their relations with the bourgeoisie, accentuating their displacement towards the popular camp. The peasant movement gains more and more importance, while a new workers’ movement develops, a product of the new proletariat created by the industrialization of the previous decades. It is, in short,
      The counterrevolutionary processes

      [We will briefly examine how this counter-revolution takes place and where it takes place]. We will see that it cannot be mechanically identified with fascism .even if it is, like him, a specific form of bourgeois counter-revolution and adopts its general characteristic: the use of state terrorism by the victorious faction to subjugate their opponents, from rival factions to, and above all, the working class. Roughly speaking, the Latin American counter-revolution begins with a period of destabilization, during which reactionary forces try to group the bourgeoisie as a whole and sow division, distrust of its forces and leaders in the popular movement; continues through a coup d’état, carried out by the Armed Forces, and is resolved with the establishment of a military dictatorship. The concrete Latin American societies impose their particularities at each of these moments.

      In the preparation phase of the coup, or of the destabilization, fascist characteristics are observed, but these are secondary. Through propaganda, verbal and even physical intimidation, which may involve the use of armed militias, the counterrevolutionary bourgeoisie seeks to demoralize the popular movement and gain strength, adding allies and neutralizing sectors. However, because they are societies based on the super-exploitation of work, in no case are they able to gather enough strength to politically defeat the popular movement, nor do they even reach the structure of a political party. It is interesting to note that where fascist methods of struggle were used most abundantly, that is, in Argentina, sectors of the left deny that a fascist counter-revolution took place. In any case, counterrevolutionary forces never achieve a clear political triumph, but must use force to take over the state and use it to their advantage. State terrorism, as a method of confronting the popular movement, is intensified precisely because this movement is intact and often apparently strong, at the moment when the counter-revolutionary factions manage to completely subordinate the state apparatus, not having suffered a previous process of defeats that at theFascism can express itself, as in Germany, at the electoral level.

      This characteristic of the Latin American counterrevolution derives from the impossibility of the monopoly bourgeoisie to attract significant sectors of the popular movement to its camp. Unlike European fascism , which was able to drag the large petty-bourgeois masses and even bite the proletariat, gaining a certain degree of support among unemployed workers and even active workers, the monopoly bourgeoisie in Latin America cannot claim the true strength of the mass. , which allows him to politically confront, in voices and in the streets, the popular movement. Therefore, the objective is to restore the operating conditions of the State apparatus, even temporarily, in order to be able to act on its behalf.

      This implies resolving bourgeois unity, maintaining the power bloc as before its fracture and restoring, even if only to a limited extent (ie, dividing it) its alliance relations with the petty bourgeoisie. On this basis, the State can enter to resolve the class struggle, through the open intervention of the last instrument of defense of bourgeois power: the Armed Forces. This, then, is the true objective of the policy of destabilization practiced by the bourgeoisie and not, as in fascism , the conquest of a political force superior to that of the revolutionary movement. And that is why we find in the Latin American counterrevolution another peculiar characteristic in relation to fascism .: the ideological discourse in defense of bourgeois democracy, that is, of the bourgeois state, contrary to its denial, as the fascist movements put it.

      It is these specific conditions that lead the Latin American counterrevolution to express itself, ideologically and strategically, in the doctrine of counterinsurgency. By privileging the Armed Forces as the central element of its strategy, the monopoly bourgeoisie is giving this special State apparatus the mission of solving the problem. It is, therefore, moving from the terrain of politics to that of war. To the extent that the Armed Forces are already ideologically prepared, by the doctrine of counterinsurgency, to fulfill this task and to apply a military approach to the political struggle, the counterrevolutionary will of the bourgeoisie and the will to power developed in the Armed Forces are resolved in a single process. These thus go beyond the coup d’état, and proceed to the establishment of the military dictatorship. if,

      But the original duality, expressed by the monopoly bourgeoisie and the Armed Forces, although it finds a first resolution in the coup, is reproduced at a higher level once the counterinsurgency state has been established. The form of military dictatorship that this presupposes only indicates that the Armed Forces have taken over and exercise political power as an institution. It does not reveal the essence of that State, from the point of view of its structure and functioning, nor does it show the fact that the Armed Forces share power there with the monopoly bourgeoisie. To understand this, it is necessary to go beyond the mere formal expression of the State, since whenever we find certain structures, functioning and co-participation between the Armed Forces and monopoly capital, we will be facing a State of counterinsurgency,

      The nature of the counterinsurgent state

      The counterinsurgent state, a product of the Latin American counterrevolution, presents a hypertrophy of the Executive Power, through [its] various organs, in relation to the others. It is not, however, a characteristic that characterizes it in relation to the modern capitalist state. Rather, this distinction must be sought in the existence of two central decision-making branches within the Executive Branch. On the one hand, the military branch, constituted by the General Staff of the Armed Forces, which expresses the military institution at the decision-making level and which is based on the vertical structure typical of the Armed Forces; the National Security Council, the supreme deliberative body, in which the representatives of the military branch are interconnected with the direct representatives of capital; and the bodies of the intelligence service, which inform, guide and prepare the decision-making process. On the other hand, the economic branch, represented by economic ministries, as well as state-owned credit, production and service companies, whose key positions are held by civil and military technocrats. Thus, the National Security Council is the area where both branches converge, intertwine, and it constitutes at the peak, the key organ of the counterinsurgent state.

      This is the real structure of the counterinsurgent state, which establishes the alliance between the Armed Forces and monopoly capital, and where the decision-making process takes place outside the influence of the other institutions that make up the classic bourgeois state, such as the legislature and the judicial power. These can perfectly be maintained under the military dictatorship, as in Brazil, or even set up a civilian regime, as in Venezuela, without affecting the structure and effective functioning of the counterinsurgent state. Let us remember, in this sense, how Venezuela — where the first counterinsurgency test was conducted in Latin America in the early sixties — evolved towards creating its National Security Council and even structuring a National System of Public Companies,

      In short, the counterinsurgency state is the corporate state of the monopoly bourgeoisie and the Armed Forces, regardless of the form assumed by this state, that is, regardless of the current political regime. This state has formal similarities with the fascist state as well as with other types of capitalist state, but its specificity is in its peculiar corporate essence and in the structure and functioning that are generated there. Calling him a fascist does not take us one step closer to understanding his meaning.

      This analysis should not lead to misunderstandings. Civilian and military technocrats, who deal with the management of the State, are nothing more than the political representation of capital and, as such, there is no speculation about their autonomy, beyond what can be done with any political representation before the class. that represents. In other words, it is profoundly erroneous to describe this technocracy as a state bourgeoisie, on the same level as the bourgeois class itself. Likewise, the fusion of the corporate interests of the Armed Forces and the monopoly bourgeoisie should not obscure the fact that the latter represents a strictly capitalist fraction of the bourgeoisie, while the Armed Forces (or, more precisely, the officer corps) is just a body of officials whose economic and political will is strictly that of the class they serve. Finally, It is necessary to bear in mind that, although the State of counterinsurgency is the State of monopoly capital, whose fractions today constitute the blockade in power, the participation of other bourgeois fractions is not excluded, as well as in its economic reproduction, monopoly capital constantly creates conditions of reproduction (and also of destruction) for the other capitalist sectors, which makes it incorrect to suppose that the non-monopolistic bourgeois strata may be interested in the suppression of a State that constitutes the synthesis of the relations of exploitation and domination on which they base their existence. There is no other cause for the failure of the anti-fascist fronts that have been attempted in Latin America and which have always been shocked by the rejection of the non-monopoly bourgeoisie, regardless of the tensions it maintains with the ruling bloc.

      A review of US strategy

      I have tried to establish, up to this point, the causes and nature of the Latin American counterrevolution, as well as the character of the state to which it gave rise. I will now concern myself with the current situation of the counter-revolution, corresponding to a phase of institutionalization and, to some extent, limited democratization, which points to what US State Department theorists have called “viable democracy” and, even more precisely, “governable democracy”. Undoubtedly, this phase brings changes to the counterrevolutionary state, which we will understand better if we analyze the factors that determine this situation. In this analysis, we will continue the same steps taken to examine the origin and crystallization of the counterrevolutionary process in Latin America.

      If we start from the first factor considered: US imperialism, we will immediately confirm that its situation is different from what it was in the sixties. After the economic boom of that period, an economic crisis occurred, with no prospects of a solution in sight. In this context, US hegemony in the capitalist field is no longer indisputable, as it was until then, but is confronted with the pretensions that, in the economic and political sphere, are created by the other imperialist powers, particularly Federal Germany and Japan. The crisis was also reflected in the very interior of American society, causing an ideological and political crisis that, through events such as Watergate, the hippie movement and others, affected the legitimacy of the system of domination.

      On another level, together with a constant reinforcement of the Soviet Union, which managed to maintain the military balance with the United States, there was a remarkable advance of the revolutionary forces in different parts of the world. The critical point of the economic crisis, in the middle of this decade, coincided with the great victories of the revolutionary movement in Africa, particularly Mozambique and Angola and in Asia, with the spectacular defeat of the United States in Vietnam, at the same time as in Europe itself, the Popular forces made significant progress in Portugal, Spain, Italy and Greece, and even in imperialist strongholds such as France.

      In this context, US imperialism had to make adjustments to its strategy, expressed in Carter’s policy. This one took over the government with the explicit purpose of re-establishing the legitimacy of the system of domination within North American society, making use of old myths that are dear to bourgeois ideology in that country, such as that of Human Rights, and measures that try to make the crisis less burden for the different social groups in the country. In the same way, he has had the task of avoiding the economic crisis, reaffirming the North American hegemony in the capitalist field; even if it admits that this hegemony must be shared, according to what was proposed by the Trilateral Commission, the United States intends to remain the governing axis of the relationship of forces to be established between the imperialist powers.

      Finally, US imperialism intends to modify its global strategy, to compensate and avoid the repetition of the failures of the first half of the decade, a modification that follows two main lines. The first is the polarization of relations with the socialist camp, centralizing them in Europe; the second, the deflagration or cooling of the “hot” peripheral zones. For that reason, Carter maintained that Europe is the sword of the West and strove to strain relations between NATO and the Warsaw Pact. While it may eventually lead to war, US imperialism’s aggressive and bellicose policy towards the Soviet Union actually seeks a new balance, based on what former President Ford called “peace with force” for what privileges Europe, whereas the advance of the world revolution in other areas was deteriorating the correlation of forces to its detriment. Consequently, it proposes a policy of cooling down peripheral zones, from measures that try to solve particularly acute problems, such as those that were taken in the Middle East, Panama, etc., to the revision of the doctrine of counterinsurgency, which aims to soften its aspects. more severe and adapt it to the new conditions of the class struggle.

      This is because the counterinsurgency, despite its ability to stop the revolutionary movement in many areas, has suffered severe setbacks, particularly in Vietnam, and has proved incapable, even when it was effective in stopping the revolutionary movement, of securing the conditions for domination. stable policy, as is the case in Latin America. It is also due to the fact that the European imperialist powers, insofar as they are led to assume greater global responsibilities within the scope of shared hegemony, are obliged to consider the strength of the labor movement in their countries, which is opposed to brutal violence and openness that counterinsurgency doctrine used. The use of more subtle counterrevolutionary methods, driven mainly by Federal Germany, produced positive results in the countries of Mediterranean Europe. Let us note, in passing, that the political approach, strictly national, currently taken by European parties, called Eurocommunists, diminishes the capacity of the workers’ movement in these countries to weigh the correlation of forces in the world and provide balance to the field of revolution, as evidenced by the recent reactionary offensive that the French government managed to develop in Africa, based on the electoral defeat of the left in France.

      However, it may be that the main point of the doctrine of counterinsurgency, which is now under analysis, is that which refers to the origin of revolutionary movements. Abandoning the simplistic notion of foreign infiltration, the new theorists of US imperialism, emerging from the Trilateral Commission, such as Huntington, see the problem as a result of decompensation, of the imbalances that affect the state in modern capitalist society, as a result of mass pressures. , in their efforts for better living conditions. This is valid not only for the dependent countries, but for the advanced capitalist countries themselves, which leads them to consider the problem of the “governability of democracy”, which necessarily points to the limitation, to the restriction of the democratic political game itself, to keep it under control.

      For Latin America, the reformulation of the North American strategy resulted in the search for a new policy, not yet fully defined, which, in addition to eliminating points of tension, such as the one referring to the Panama Canal, points to a political institutionalization, able to express itself in a “viable”, that is, restricted, democracy. But this does not only result from the strategic approaches of the United States, but also derives, and mainly, from the new conditions of class struggle that prevail in Latin America.
      Towards a state with four powers?

      In this sense, an important role is played by the diversification of the blockade in power, through the changes that took place within the monopoly bourgeoisie. In countries where this phenomenon is more advanced, such as Brazil, we can see how intra-bourgeois contradictions are no longer guided, as in the past, by divergent interests of the industrial and agrarian bourgeoisie, or of the lower strata of the bourgeoisie in relation to its monopoly sector, but born of divisions arising within big capital, the monopoly bourgeoisie itself.

      Thus, it is possible to see how in Brazil – since, in 1974, the pattern of economic reproduction based on the sumptuous consumer goods industry went into crisis – intra-bourgeois struggles occur between national and foreign fractions (Americans, fundamentally) , linked to this industry, and national and foreign fractions (essentially, Euro-Japanese), which are based on basic industry and capital goods. Today, it is a matter of deciding the direction of the country’s economy, the pattern of reproduction that must follow, and this implies the reallocation of resources, taxes, credit and other advantages, it stimulates the rivalry between these two sectors of big capital, which polarizes the other capitalist groups that are linked to one sector or another. It should be borne in mind that, in these circumstances,

      In any case, the intra-bourgeois contradictions, when exacerbated, demand political space to be able to establish themselves. The rigid centralization of political power, in the hands of the technocratic-military elite, must be more flexible, restore a certain validity to Parliament as a forum for discussion, allow the parties and the press to act, so that the different bourgeois factions can develop their struggle. This does not conflict, moreover, with the requirement that the state continue to have sufficient capacity to keep the mass movement in its place, since the more it is absent from the political scene, the bourgeois fractions have greater freedom of movement. action to carry out their confrontations and negotiations. This is the reason why the bourgeois project of institutionalization does not depart from the formula of “viable”, “governable” democracy. or restricted, proposed by US imperialist theorists. Likewise, when the counterrevolution was unleashed, the big capital project converged towards authoritarian centralism, towards the dictatorial forms proposed by these theorists.

      It is now a question of carrying out a political “opening” that preserves the essentials of the counterinsurgent state. What does this consist of? In the institutionalization of the direct participation of big capital in economic management and in the subordination of state powers to the Armed Forces, through the state bodies that were created, in particular the National Security Council. The first point is, of course, not under discussion for the bourgeoisie. At most, it leads to clashes between its factions to guarantee a greater share in the distribution of the loot that represents the economic branch of the counterinsurgent state. The second is, today, the subject of discussion: in many countries there is talk of a Council of State, as an organ of control of other State apparatuses, in which the Armed Forces would have an important weight; in Brazil,

      Whichever formula is adopted – and it is more likely that it has variants in the different countries of the continent – it is, however, for a State of four powers, or more precisely, for the State of the fourth power, in which the Armed Forces will exercise a role of surveillance, control and direction throughout the state apparatus. This structural and operational characteristic of the State will not be, of course, the result of the subjugation of the State apparatus by the Armed Forces (in addition to the structures of parliamentary democracy that it holds) and the legal order of military origin imposed on political life, in particular national security laws. It should be noted that within the framework of this restricted democracy, but democracy anyway, the word fascismit will even lose the agitating character it has today and will have to be abandoned; but this abandonment will represent the rejection of an incorrect analysis of the current situation, and not its overcoming by a superior analysis and more adequate to the new political conditions that have arisen, which will leave the left and the popular movement disarmed to face them.
      Democracy and Socialism

      However, the bourgeois-imperialist project of institutionalization is also the result of a third factor: the mass movement, against which it stands with the aim of leading to deceit and confusion, but which becomes problematic, unpredictable and threatens it. even with failure (1). In fact, it is indisputable that, slowly, zigzagging, the Latin American mass movement, after a period of ebb, entered since the end of 1976 in a recovery process. More than that, it presents, contrary to what happened until the 1960s, a new characteristic, which until then was exclusive to the most developed countries in the region, such as Argentina, Chile and Uruguay: a clear predominance of the working class in the your breast. One need only look at Central America, Peru, Colombia, to realize that the working class has become, throughout the region, the guiding axis of the working masses of Latin America, who are gradually doubling their leadership and adopting their forms of organization and struggle. At the same time, although its influence remains strong in some countries,

      The action of these great masses, while making the implementation of new formulas of domination more necessary, which can no longer be based on pure and simple violence, complicates the implementation of the bourgeois-imperialist project, insofar as they tend to address the latter with increasing autonomy, pushing for unforeseen concessions as well as expanding and deepening proposed reforms. Still standing on the plane of the economic and democratic struggle, the masses have not yet lost their memory, particularly in their most advanced sectors, of the socialist message that, through action, the Latin American left carried them throughout the 1960s, as well as as in the present decade, which raises the fear of the bourgeoisie and imperialism, forcing them to cling even more to the guarantees offered by the counterinsurgency state. Consequently,

      Consequently, there is no reason to suppose that the democratic struggle waged today by the Latin American masses can be extended indefinitely, allowing, at some point, socialism to take place naturally and peacefully. Everything indicates that the democratic struggle and the socialist struggle will be intertwined for the workers in a single process, a process of difficult and determined confrontation with the bourgeoisie and imperialism.

      *
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      Tags: counter revolution , counterinsurgency , imperialism , US intervention , marxism , Org Marxists , THE STATE OF COUNTERINSURGENCE , RUY MAURO MARINI
      WAR IN TIMES OF CHANGE * Yoel Pérez Marcano/Venezuela
      WAR IN TIMES OF CHANGE

      As the former president of the Republic of Ecuador, economist Rafael Correa, rightly stated, in these times it is not just a change of time, but the advent of a time of profound changes that would attract, in the medium term, (due to the accelerated pace of events) a different reality, but full of uncertainties that require the confluence of wills for deep transformations and awareness of dialogue and negotiation that avoid generating more tensions in the international scenario

      In the process of rupture of the unipolar hegemony imposed by the US governments after the dissolution of its strategic rival: the Soviet Union, and immersed this nascent world hegemony in the systemic crisis of capitalism (which sickened all the structural relations derived and built at the end of the Second World War World. -Imperialist war (in which it was swept away and the USSR was victorious), the world today looks like a ship for the adrift, with a mad helmsman trying to stabilize his ship at the price of sinking others, amidst the agitated waves of the ocean that threaten to overturn and, with it, the entire political, economic, military and cultural burden, not only of this troubled Marine, but of all the generations of his predecessors who bathed this beautiful Blue Planet in blood, misery and depredation.

      human degradation, racism, and political, economic, and military aggression against other nations that have done no harm except for their legitimacy. or right to Sovereignty and Self-Determination.

      All empires succumbed in the midst of their own internal contradictions or by the destructive force of others of the same or greater power, but, it seems to be a law of history, they all resisted their disappearance adapting to the new times or disintegrating. .

      It is not easy to predict what the sad end of the last of the Landlord Class empires will be, but the destructive conventional and nuclear military charge is of such a holocaustic nature that it offers reason to believe that its displacement or ultimate defeat is not possible through use or threat of the use of force, but with what is now beginning to be recognized in 21st century geopolitics as the Economic Factor of War, which affirms as a valid and effective strategy the use of all means of overcoming, neutralizing, controlling and subjugating the economy for the slow but sure defeat of a powerful adversary, forcing it to accept changes in global leadership and assume a new role as a partner or subordinate agent of a new world architecture of hegemonies and balances,with or without vital areas of dominion and zones of influence that would reduce the recurrent possibilities of important war conflicts, disturbing the The new stability of the consensus built and shared by the majority and not, as in Posdam, the result of agreements of force of a circle of power formed by four victorious powers on the fringes of the peoples.

      Avoiding global war, as has been the political and military strategy of the Russian Federation in its Special Military Operation in Ukraine to contain the advance towards its European borders of the warmongering North Atlantic Treaty Organization, NATO and the European Union, is located in the correct direction of avoiding the holocaust, but affirms the global nature of the conflict and the high possibility of nuclear confrontation due to the open political, economic, military and intelligence support of these alliances to the Republic of Ukraine; a country that is not part of these international organizations and whose participation in the conflict is not endorsed by the United Nations Security Council;

      In this Time of Change, the fact that States and peoples are betting on Peace and on a negotiated political solution to conflicts is right and that is where all the responsible forces of the International Community must go, demanding that leaders and their governments temper political passions, deactivate conflicting positions and insist on dialogue as an instrument for solving international disputes because, in short, in such scenarios, no one will be exempt from being affected in their life and well-being.

      Yoel Pérez Marcano/Venezuela

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      Tags: WAR IN TIMES OF CHANGE , world economy , finance , war , imperialism , venezuela , Yoel Pérez Marcano

      https://pcrtbrasil.blogspot.com

      Saturday, June 18, 2022
      PCTB Flags * Communist Party of Brazilian Workers / PCTB
      PCTB FLAGS

      THANKS

      The PCTB wishes to express its thanks and recognition to the effort of Comrade Guilherme Monteiro, university student, polyglot and designer, in contributing to the agitation and propaganda work of the Communist Party of Brazilian Workers.

      OUR THANKS COMRADE GUILHERME MONTEIRO
      at June 18, 2022 No comments:
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      Tags: agitation and propaganda , agitprop , flags , Communist Party of Brazilian Workers , pctb , symbols
      COLOMBIA READY FOR FRAUD AGAINST ALL THE HATE OF IMPERIALISM * Eco Tomas Sanchez / VEN
      COLOMBIA READY FOR FRAUD AGAINST ALL THE HATE OF IMPERIALISM

      Colombia all prepared for a fraud seems to be the Oligarchy’s last chance. According to what is published and the experience of what happened in Mexico in the last four elections, when AMLO stole the elections on some occasions. It all started with what the polls indicated, AMLO won in most of them with a considerable difference and won in the first round, then in the second round, he continued to win in the polls but like the big day of the elections, such the difference was reduced, to the point to arrive with a technical tie and in the elections was surpassed by the opponent.

      Well, in Ecuador it was exactly the same and on the last day of Guillermo Lasso’s victory, no matter how much people didn’t like the bad government led by anti-correista Lenin Moreno or they will keep saying that Lenin Moreno was from Correa, Guillermo Lasso, anti-popular as he was and still is, he was at least an adviser to Moreno, possibly the IMF piece he had in Ecuador to impose a loan on him and then dominate the country, just as he did in Argentina when he bought it from Mauricio Macri, who was a hottie He became a rat, he also went out and lost in the first round, then a technical draw and then the victory, which is the magic, Honduras, by the way, the second round, is a great way to transform an electoral act of the people, into a conspiracy of obscure politicians negotiating and defining who will be the next president, if,unfortunately, the political bosses aspire to win a respectable percentage of votes in the first round to sit down to negotiate them with the three parties, the two that go to the elections and with the Empire (USA).

      That’s how it has been and will continue to be in America, in Europe, France, Italy are great examples of that when you sit down to negotiate votes, give me what I can give you, if you’re on the left or if you’re on the right, it’s the same thing, because they are the same in the end and end up accepting what matters to the US.

      Well, in Colombia you can see and feel, they already do super scientific studies, research that is divided into photos of beautiful colors, bright bars, cakes of everything that comes to mind, by sex, by age, social class, skin color, level socioeconomic status, height, sexual preference and inclination, religion, among others,

      that doesn’t matter, what matters is to fill the eyes of the world, of those outside, to impose a president and not appreciate the trap, I repeat that it’s not for the voters of the country, but for the international community and organizations like the OAS, the EU, the NGOs that defend Human Rights, the Free Press, yes, they pay freely.

      Applying the above, Petro is already technically tied with Hernández, well, a man who brags about his ignorance, who made this election campaign a complete circus, with clowns and all, there he received the support of President Duque, of Álvaro Uribe and Pastrana , yes, with the slogan of JJ Rendón, adviser to Narcos, self-appointed presidents, terrorist commandos and a whole fauna of despicable criminals. The slogan is “Fight against Corruption”, here in Venezuela in the 2015 parliamentary elections, it worked and who won were López, Guaidó, Vecchio, Smolansky, Borges, Ledesma, all rich and living like kings abroad, yes, but they were the champions who would fight against Corruption and stole along with Trump, Duke, Queen Elizabeth, the companies, the gold and the money that Venezuela had abroad, also the presidents of Portugal, Spain, among others, benefited from this expropriation. But hey, we are talking about Colombia, if the slogan “Fight against Corruption” goes against the corrupt, but it is raised by a guy who has open trials and investigations for corruption and the political leaders who support him, are Álvaro Uribe, Duque, Pastrana, Santos among others and who have been presidents for the last 24 years, maybe not those I just mentioned, now the empire and the national and international media point out that the Colombian people and the rest of the world are stupid, ignorant, deficient who have forgotten that there was corruption, a great and formidable corruption in everyone, absolutely in all the governments that support Hernández?

      What will they say, that murdering innocent young people to disguise them as guerrillas and get a military, police promotion Now it’s not corruption anymore or is it that the soldiers who did it want to go to jail? Is murdering leaders and social leaders not corruption and do Duque, Álvaro Uribe, Santos and Pastrana support what he says and promise that he will look for them to put them in jail? Don’t fuck me, with this story that in Colombia they believe that Hernández will fulfill his main promise and that the world has already forgotten them, as the cultivation, production and distribution of cocaine has grown in recent decades and of course it is not corruption , according to the anti-corruption candidate, Rodolfo Hernández, who by the way promises to reduce drug demand by giving drugs, hahaha damn it would be possible to be so stupidly inept to say that, if you don’t realize this barbarism, if some product is free, the demand is growing, you can look anywhere in the world or they will tell us that drugs are like air, free water. Don’t fuck with me, even so, they tell us that “Ernández”, yes, the HDP already stole his “H”, don’t think badly, the Sons of Petro, who will be the ones that Rodolfo Ernández will pursue .

      No way, not even with a thousand polls, if the Petro doesn’t win, it’s because there is fraud and so look for that shit left by PPMujica, called Luis Almagro, and the unnamed US Commissioner for Defense of Rights, Bichallet, they can cover it up, so Petro Wins with 0.666% of difference is garbage to cover fraud, there is no technical tie, study with how much error margin, 2.5 or 3, so Petro is no longer winning, but they are tied now and they still bring us this study as the most accurate and scientific with 7 photos, hahahaha, what absurd shit they read in these groups.

      economy Tomas Sanchez. VEN

      ….

      at June 18, 2022 No comments:
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      Tags: colombia , COLOMBIA READY FOR FRAUD AGAINST ALL THE HATE OF IMPERIALISM , Eco Tomas Sanchez , election , francia marquez , GUSTAVO PETRO , imperialism frauds
      The last summit of Manifesto Monroism * Henrys Lor Mogollon / Venezuela
      The last summit of Manifest Monroism

      By: Henrys Lor Mogollon.

      In hectic times of great technological advances, the advent of the unthinkable adoption of web 3.0, the blockchain, the metaverse, augmented reality, the resounding fall of the NY stock market, the markets bled by the inflationary correction in the USA, the bankruptcy of thousands of companies once again, the setting for the Summit of the Americas was a great circumstantial desolation framed by the arrival of new emancipatory winds to the South of Our America. Another great demonstration of this history is the evolution of opposing forces that debate in a real and unstoppable organic dialectic proposal.

      The Summit of the Americas is over and it is, without a doubt, a lesson for the United States and, at the same time, a hope for the peoples of Our America.

      History brings back dignity in the struggle for the liberation of President Andrés López Obrador, Xiomara Castro de Zelaya, Lucho Arce Catacora, in addition to the excluded nations, but full of dignity, called Cuba: Miguel Díaz Canel, Nicaragua: Daniel Ortega and Venezuela: Commander of Nicolás Maduro Pueblo.

      Hope that manifests itself in winds of true Latin American unity, because no less than 20 countries protested against exclusion. Unity, unity and more unity Bolívar always demanded and so our eternal commander Hugo Chávez… Only then will we be invincible.

      The Monroe Doctrine and the so-called Manifest Destiny are living their last days of existence, that doctrine that some merchant who later became vice president of Chile spoke in the following way, looking at it correctly in the future.

      Lima, March 1822. Mr. José M. Cea, my dear Cea: the newspapers bring good news about the march of the revolution across America. It seems somewhat confirmed that the United States recognizes American independence. While I haven’t spoken to anyone about this, I’ll give my opinion: NA Federation President Mr. Monroe said: It is recognized that America is for them. Be careful not to leave one domination to fall into another! We must pay attention to these gentlemen who very well approve of the work of our defenders of liberation, without having helped us at all: this is the cause of my fear. Why this eagerness on the part of the United States to accredit ministers, delegates and recognize the independence of America, without bothering them at all? What a curious system, my friend! I believe that all this follows a plan agreed in advance; and it would be like this: to conquer America, not by arms, but by influence in all spheres. It will happen, maybe not today; but tomorrow yes It is not advisable to be flattered by those sweets which children are wont to eat with pleasure, without taking care of poisoning.

      Let us locate a point in historical time 1816/1817, the second Guayana Campaign in which the Liberator triumphed along with Manuel Piar and this conquest gave strength to the third Republic. The campaign was a great success for the republicans, it managed to fight several battles to expel all the realists from the region with the same fall in power of a region rich in natural resources and communication facilities that served as a base to launch campaigns in other regions of the Country.

      At that time, the president of the United States is James Monroe, who was the fifth president, the patriotic army and our Liberator in the midst of this conquest had developed one of the most controversial moments of Venezuelan diplomacy for the capture of the schooners Tigre and Libertad. These violated the decree of naval blockade imposed by the Liberator, transporting weapons and ammunition to the Spaniards, in an act of national sovereignty, they were confiscated by instructions from the Liberator, this fact meant the arrival in Angostura of a Consular Attaché of the US government named Juan Bautista Irvine, as well as an epistolary exchange that reflected an intense dispute between him and El Libertador, which lasted from July 29 to October 1, 1818,

      In military response to the dispatch of weapons, the Liberator sent a mission to Ameliach Island with the intention of showing the capacity of our army and the characteristic of independence, he tasked one of his officers, General Gregor MacGregor, to organize an expedition into Spanish . coveted by the US to occupy the Florida peninsula, cut off trade between the US and Spain (the passage of ships that carried weapons and ammunition from the ports of Boston and Havana to royalists in the south of the continent) and lead a pincer movement against the Spanish Caribbean.

      James Monroe in his presidential message to Congress (December 2, 1817) referring to the struggle of South American patriots against Spanish colonialism, stated: “The conflict does not present the aspect of a rebellion or insurrection, but of a war between parties or factions whose forces are balanced and which are viewed without preference”.

      In this sense, it must be understood that the entire intention of the US government was to make its so-called manifest destiny and its expansionist objectives a reality and, on the other hand, the decision of our patriotic army to stand firm in the fight for Francis’ dream of Miranda and leadership of Libertador Simón Bolívar.

      In 1822, President Monroe came to the conclusion that Spain could not recover its American colonies, and on March 8, he sent a message to Congress requesting the allocation of funds to send plenipotentiary ministers to the republics of Chile, La Plata ( present-day Argentina), Gran Colombia Peru and Mexico, recognizing their independence.

      Thus, in his sixth speech to the United States Congress on December 2, 1822, the same one was written by Jhon Quincy Adams who would eventually be his successor.

      The phrase “America for Americans” is an axiom that expresses what is now known as the Monroe Doctrine, which defines US foreign policy.

      These points are:

      1. The inadmissible nature of any European attempt to re-colonize American territory.

      2. The categorical rejection of the monarchical system of organization. It is established in the speech, therefore, that the identity of the hemisphere necessarily involves embracing the republican system and invoking the principle of freedom.

      3. The commitment of non-intervention in European affairs by the United States, as a guarantee of convenience.

      Bolívar, very attentive and always with an eye on the historical beyond, convenes the Amphictyonic Congress of Panama, but the lack of unity and understanding continues to be the negative sign of Our America. Liberator Simón Bolívar takes the glory of having been a consistent fighter against this lack of unity and the opportunity to have brought this struggle to its conclusion at the Amphictyonic Congress of Panama, where the expansionist and hegemonic tendencies of the United States would find their counterpart in the Bolivarian ideal. .

      Liberator, who in 1815 expressed from Jamaica: “How beautiful it would be if the Isthmus of Panama were for us what the Isthmus of Corinth was for the Greeks! ..” Letter from Jamaica…. ” In 1826 he convoked the Amphictyonic Congress of Panama, to create a bloc of Latin American nations that could respond as such to imperialist aggression.

      It is worth remembering here the agenda of the congress:

      1.- Strengthen independence, internal security and non-intervention

      2.- Legal equality between all nations

      3.- Relations between States through a permanent plenipotentiary Congress

      4.- Social reform based on freedom and peace

      It’s incredible, today Today the Americas are torn in this dialectic and any resemblance to the moment is purely coincidental, because the United States divided and developed such an influence that it subjected all of Latin America and beyond to its manifest destiny.

      So, Mr. John Cotton in 1630 said the following:

      No nation has the right to drive out another, but it is by a special design of heaven like the Israelites had, unless the natives acted unjustly against them. In that case, they will have the right to legally wage war against them and subjugate them.

      In 1845, journalist John L. O’Sullivan, published in the Democratic Review of New York, in the July-August edition, stated: “The fulfillment of our manifest destiny is to extend ourselves over the whole continent that has been assigned to us by A. providence, for the development of the great experience of freedom and self-government, is a right like that of a tree to obtain the air and land necessary for the full development of its capacities and the growth that it has as its destiny. the phrase in a column that appeared in the New York Morning News, December 27, 1845, in which O’Sullivan, referring to the dispute with Great Britain over Oregon, stated that: “And this demand is based on the right of our manifest destiny to possess the entire continent that Providence has given us to carry out our great mission of freedom and self-government.

      Based on this assumption, the United States annexed the territories of Texas (1845), California (1848) and invaded Mexico in 1846, in what would become the Mexico-United States war. Mexico, Nevada and parts of Wyoming, Mandas and Oklahoma, a total of 2 million and 100 thousand square kilometers, 55% of the Mexican territory at the time, which was called the “Mexican Cession”. Thus, the United States declared war on Spain, took Puerto Rico and Cuba, all of which was resolved in the Treaty of Paris in 1897.

      Thus, they appropriated it, but also put presidents and governments at ease and in the way they agreed, considering Latin America their backyard.

      In relation to the above, Bill Clinton’s first summit in 1994 launched his ambitious neoliberal project for the region, the FTAA (Free Trade Area of ​​the Americas), but he did not expect that a few years later, starting in 1998, another wave of progressive governments in Latin America that rejected this project and buried it definitively at the IV Summit of the Americas in Mar del Plata (Argentina) in 2005.

      FTAA, FTAA, be damned! , was the refrain with which Hugo Chávez celebrated that funeral

      Recently, in the 21st century, the President of the United States, the billionaire Donald Trump, tries to dust off an old pillar of his country’s policy towards Latin America that seemed buried, the Monroe Doctrine: “Here in the Western Hemisphere, we are committed to in maintaining our independence from the intrusion of expansionist foreign powers.” Trump then told the United Nations General Assembly in New York: “It has been our country’s formal policy since President (James) Monroe that we reject interference by foreign nations in this hemisphere and in our own affairs,” he added. The Latin American countries that have already joined China’s gigantic new Silk Road (and the doubts that this project is mutually beneficial), without specifying which nations he referred to,

      Today, the same manifest plan…

      What is the Alliance of the Americas for Economic Prosperity that Biden proposed for Latin America about?

      During the opening ceremony of the IX Summit of the Americas, held in Los Angeles (California), US President Joe Biden announced his proposal to create the Alliance of the Americas for Economic Prosperity. He said, “I’m announcing a new economic partnership that builds on all the work we’ve done with the region and will guide our commitment going forward,” said the US President at the Microsoft Theater in Los Angeles, where the opening ceremony was held. of the summit.

      This latest summit is what they call the Historic New Deal to promote the recovery and growth of the hemisphere’s economy and offer positive results to workers, according to a press release from the US Department of State. RT.

      From all we understand, it is the supposed lifeline to transform the social disaster and inequality that they themselves have generated in our countries with their policies of blockade, interventionism, hegemonism, really a great lack of respect for the participants, the naked empire and presented worse than a paper tiger, they propose bread and circuses even having solved up there the great social decomposition of so many teenagers and young people killed in public places and schools without being able to do anything, the American Way on Life packed in this recent summit, an already discredited worldview.

      Another interesting thing to mention is the ridiculous proposal to advance a plan for the supposed regularization of the migratory issue in view of the increase in people moving around the continent in search of greater opportunities, with the self-confidence of affirming a visible lie such as supposedly “working for support countries that host large numbers of migrants or refugees who want to make ambitious reforms in line with the goals of the alliance”, promises the Department of State.

      It is impressive the mask with which President Biden appears at the last Monroist Summit in California with issues so critical that not even they themselves were able to resolve on their territory, such as economic, the highest inflation in all history. a decline in financial markets in order to break companies and new decentralized technological ideas causing the so-called Bear Marker that left millions penniless without capital, all generated by the establishment to hit the new cryptocurrency proposals that stand out, even then they got it right to not let it go forward, in doing so they want to guarantee us prosperity. ??

      I believe, without fear of error, that the times of change are really returning in Our America and with more force, the regrettable scenario of the war between Russia and Ukraine has left many cracks open that allow geopolitics to be seen beyond, leaving the United States very weak in the scenario of world power and then wanting to impose the thesis of extracting wealth in our countries to finance the great economic, social and financial crisis that they are suffering and that it is precisely ordinary workers who are most affected, as has happened historically.

      Fortunately, we believe that this summit passed as an inglorious ghost, the worthy progressive presidents affirmed that they are standing and committed to the ideal of unity and emancipation despite imperialist attacks, blockades and threats, this historic moment indicates the moment of the advance and of Venezuela The proposal will continue to be Bolívar and Chávez in the construction of a multipolar world in which the imperialist thesis is uprooted by the visibility of the right of peoples to build their own destinies of freedom, but with equality, insofar as it is a life commitment of our people Commander Nicolas Maduro. Latin America continues walking, this coming Sunday the Bolivarian Colombia will be visible after 60 long years,

      Our America remains steadfast in the battle, these are incredible moments, many do not see it, many do not reveal it, but the peoples are speaking with force, our destiny is the victory over the empire despite a thousand giants, and this year it will be proven that the path traced by the continental revolution, summits no longer serve, this is pure intellectual and political dirt, people have spent more than 20 years reviewing all theses and all formulas at the cost of blood and pain, Monroe continues to die and the Bolivarian ideal rides on and on .

      The destinies of the peoples no longer manifest themselves, everything has changed a lot, they are built in the reality of the countryside and cities and despite the visits, the peoples of Our America continue to resist and take power, it is an immeasurable historical time initiated by Hugo Chávez and Venezuela have the virtue of remaining in the vanguard… We will win!!!

      Yaracuy Venezuela June 13, 2022.
      ….
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      Tags : The last summit of Manifest Monroism , latin america , america for americans , geopolitics , Henrys Lor Mogollon , imperialism , moroism , venezuela

      https://pcrtbrasil.blogspot.com/search?updated-max=2022-06-19T00:00:00-03:00&max-results=100

      1. Friday, June 17, 2022
        The West is a paper tiger for Putin * Rolando Prudencio Briancon Lawyer / Bolivia
        The West is a paper tiger for Putin

        It was Mao Zé Dong who, in a 1956 interview with American journalist Anna Louise Strong, used the phrase to describe US imperialism: “In appearance it is very powerful, but in reality there is nothing to fear; it is a paper tiger. A tiger on the outside is made of paper, unable to withstand wind and rain.”

        Mao considered that “all reactionaries are paper tigers” because they are superficially powerful but prone to overextending themselves, leading to a sudden collapse. In addition, Mao criticized the Soviet “appeasement” against the United States during the Sino-Soviet split, Nikita Khrushchev noting that: “the paper tiger has nuclear teeth”, referring to the former USSR.

        Of course, today that the former Soviet Union does not exist, but it is Russia, led by its president Vladimir Putin, the situation is already changing, since 111 days have passed since the Special Military Operation in Dombas began; and after the United States, together with NATO, formed by the western powers of the European Union, characterized not only by showing its power -especially the United States- but above all because it never takes the lead, and also cynically makes its rise with foreign victories , as happened in the 2nd World Cup, after it was the former USSR that defeated Nazism; is that the western powers meddled in this war; be arming, advising, as well as sending military and also mercenaries to Ukraine.

        Of course, the reported results of the war between Russia against Ukraine, added to Western countries, the EU and its armed wing of NATO; is that not only is the Russian military victory underway, but the counterproductive consequences are already being reaped by these aforementioned actors, who were indirectly involved in the conflict.

        That’s how US President Joe Biden acknowledged the “financial pain” Americans are suffering and pointed the accusing finger at his Russian counterpart Vladimir Putin.

        This is the first time that the soft-spoken American president has blamed Putin for the course of the war, as even before he took it upon himself to offend the Russian president by calling him a “murderer”, a “war criminal”; but this time he has pathetically gone on to blame Putin for the country’s financial crisis under his responsibility.

        “There is no doubt that Vladimir Putin is primarily responsible for the intense financial pain the American people and their families are experiencing,” the president wrote in a letter to Exxon Mobil CEO Darren Woods released Wednesday.

        Indeed, Western sanctions imposed on Russia for its military operation in Ukraine have banned much of Russian oil imports. In this regard, Biden denounced what he called Vladimir Putin’s “war of aggression” and the “global effort to fight it” as the causes of the “interruption of the world’s oil supply” and the increase in its price that affects the US.

        . The New York Times report also points out that: “The US economy is faltering, its inflation is the worst in decades and millions of working families are being affected as rising prices ‘are increasing costs for American consumers’ and of this he also accused his Russian colleague”.

        That’s why Biden also sent similar letters to the presidents of oil companies Chevron, BP America, Shell USA, Phillips 66, Marathon and Valero, urging them to take “immediate” steps to increase production and lower prices. The US president did not hesitate to blame the oil companies for having “made worse” the suffering of the American people with extraordinarily high “refinery profit margins”.

        “In times of war – ipso facto Biden also recognizes that the US is already part of that war – profit margins are well above normal for refineries, which are transferred directly to American families, which is not acceptable. wrote in a letter sent to Exxon Mobil CEO Darren Wood, urging “companies to take immediate steps to increase the supply of gasoline, diesel and other refined products,” he added.

        And if there was no more evidence of the fragile and pathetic attitude of the US pardoning lives, in the midst of this armed conflict, it was the disconcerting decision to have resorted to its arch-antagonist Nicolás Maduro, requesting that the Venezuelan State – which it ironically accused of being “a threat to the United States” – to guarantee the shipment of oil to the United States.

        Justifying this caricatured change in Washington’s position towards Venezuela, this time he resorted once again to the comfortable argument of blaming Putin, pointing out: “There is no doubt that Vladimir Putin is primarily responsible for the intense financial pain that the American people and their families are suffering. Vladimir Putin’s price hike is driving up costs for consumers,” he said.

        On the other hand, the Russian Prime Minister’s response to this hysterical Russophobia was ironic, indicating: “Inflation is already called by my name.” Last week, Putin had already commented on the accusations of his American counterpart. “They call inflation by my name, but we have absolutely nothing to do with it!” said the Russian president. “We’ve never seen anything like Putin’s ‘tax'”, with which Biden tries to blame the Russian president for high inflation rate in the US”.

        Furthermore, he pointed out that the West is shooting itself because of the sanctions imposed on Russia, which affect costs. “They are trying, conditionally, to limit the export of our fertilizers; prices have gone up. They are trying to limit [the sale of] our energy resources; prices have shot up again,” he explained.

        Along these lines, he previously stated that “for absolutely political reasons, for their own ambitions and under pressure from the American chief, European countries are increasingly imposing new sanctions on the oil and gas markets. All this leads to inflation, and instead of Besides admitting their mistakes, they’re looking elsewhere to blame.”

        It is then this image of blaming Russia that once again shows more than the West; pathetically, he is nothing more than a “paper tiger” against Russia, and it remains to be seen what awaits him against China, with whom he has a nascent difference with Taiwan, and who knows very well that he is not just a tiger , but also a dog that barks and doesn’t bite.

        Rolando Prudencio Briancon

        Lawyer / Bolivia

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        Tags: Bolivia , china , strategy , geopolitics , war , imperialism , The West is a paper tiger for Putin , Rolando Prudencio Briancon , russia , usa
        MARIÁTEGUI AND GUEVARA: THE AMAUTA AND THE CHÊ * Hugo Flores del Carpio / PERU
        MARIÁTEGUI AND GUEVARA:

        THE AMAUTA AND THE CHE

        Hugo Flores Del Carpio – PLR

        DOCUMENTARY ABOUT CHÊ GUEVARA

        Coincidences are also part of life and appear in all its facets, including history. And history, sometimes sweet and sometimes bitter, also gives us beautiful coincidences.

        On June 14, 1894, “Amauta” José Carlos Mariátegui, “the greatest Marxist philosopher in Latin America” ​​was born in the city of Moquegua, Peru, as the Argentine philosopher Pablo Feinmann described him.

        In Feinmann’s country, 34 years later, on June 14, 1928, in the city of Rosario, Ernesto Guevara, “Che”, was born, the most romantic revolutionary in the world and perhaps also the most charismatic and beloved. more and the one that leads to action just by thinking about him, just by hearing his name.

        Maybe that’s why life and history made them born on the same date. Two communists who knew how to rise to the top of the revolutionary struggle, each one tracing their own paths, fighting with their own styles and valuing their own achievements.

        Both are Latin Americans who, in their short lives, have fought and given so much with such intensity as if they knew that they didn’t have much time or that they didn’t need more than life has already destined for them. Mariátegui left at 35 and Guevara at 39.

        When the time came, the two jumped to the top of the eternal pedestal of the revolution of the Latin American and Caribbean peoples and the peoples of the world in their struggle for a life without exploited or exploiters.

        José Carlos Mariátegui was called “Amauta” by his people. In Quechua, the language of the Incas, Amauta is the teacher. And a teacher is one who teaches with his way of living and opens new paths to a better life. Mariátegui was a great teacher.

        “Che” is perhaps the most popular Argentine expression and is often used to attract someone’s attention. But it was Guevara who caught the attention of Fidel, Cuba and the world. Cuba immortalized him as “Che” and in “Che” two forces merged: the strength of the Argentine personality and the revolutionary strength of Fidel and Cuba.

        To speak of “Amauta” is to speak of the evolution of Marxist ideas in Latin America, the formation and organization of the revolutionary struggle, the construction of communism in our peoples and the “heroic creation” in each of our realities.

        To speak of “Che” is to speak of revolutionary action… but now! Of faith, impetus, enthusiasm and youthful passion for the struggle to liberate from all forms of oppression. To speak of “Che” is to speak of Fidel, is to speak of Cuba, is to speak of the first revolution that leads us to the construction of the first socialist country in Latin America. To speak of “Che” is to speak of the strength of youth that never dies in the soul of every revolutionary.

        We Latin Americans must be very proud of both personalities. We Latin Americans must feel very proud because in each of our countries true fighters, combatants and leaders have flourished who, at different times, have led the struggles of our peoples for a better life, with respect, justice and truly humane.

        June 14, 1894 and June 14, 1928 are two dates impossible to forget. And in the life and history of our peoples for their true freedom, we have so many dates that must also be impossible to forget, but it seems that sometimes we want to forget some of them.

        None of these dates should be forgotten, we all have to remember them. Remembering them is also promoting the struggles of the present, it is continuing to look to the future that we have to conquer and it is knowing that our place is in the place of people.

        “Amauta” and “Che”… Both were proudly communists!
        Thanks to “Amauta”.
        Thanks to “Che”.
        They will live forever and we will fulfill their dreams.
        DIARY OF CHÊ IN BOLIVIA

        ACCESS AND READ FREE
        Diario Del Che En Bolivia * Ernesto Guevara
        ERNESTO CHÊ GUEVARA
        ***
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        Tags: diario del che en bolivia , ernesto che guevara , guerrilla warfare , Hugo Flores Del Carpio , jose carlos mariategui , MARIÁTEGUI E GUEVARA: THE AMAUTA AND THE CHÊ , peru
        Thursday, June 16, 2022
        FORBIDDEN FORGETTING Georges Ibrahim Abdullah * Coordinator Simão Bolívar/Caracas – Venezuela
        FORBIDDEN TO FORGET

        Georges Ibrahim Abdullah
        Georges Abdallah was born on April 2, 1951, in the city of Al Qoubaiyat in northern Lebanon, is a Lebanese communist militant, known for being the oldest political prisoner in Europe, he joined the Lebanese Armed Revolutionary Factions (LARF) when the group was formed after the discontinuation of the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine-External Maneuvers. He became a leader of the organization and directed its operations from France, where he used the aliases Salih al-Masri and Abdu-Qadir Saadi.

        He was arrested in 1984 and sentenced to life in prison in 1987 for the 1982 murder of Lieutenant Colonel Charles R. Ray, who was a deputy US military attaché, and for the murder of Israeli diplomat Yaakov Bar-Simantov outside his home. in Paris. on 3 April 1982., as well as his involvement in the attempted assassination of former US consul in Strasbourg Robert O. Homme, who survived a shooting on 26 March 1984 after a gun was found in his apartment during a police raid. All of this took place in the context of the 1982 Lebanon War. After his capture, he testified that I do what I do because of the injustice committed against human rights in Palestine.

        The Simón Bolívar Coordination *DEMANDS* freedom for Georges Ibrahim Abdallh imprisoned in France for 38 years.

        Rescuing Historical Memory.

        Up those who fight! ! !

        The only fight that is lost is the one that is abandoned! ! !

        Only the fight will set us free! ! !

        From Venezuela Land of Libertadores 530 years after the beginning of the Anti-imperialist Resistance in America and 212 years after the beginning of our Independence.

        Simão Bolívar Coordinator
        Caracas – Venezuela
        June 2022.
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        Tags : Simon Bolivar Coordinator , larf , lebanon , armed struggle , memory , FORBIDDEN FORGETTING Georges Ibrahim Abdullah , venezuela
        LA SEGUNDA MARQUETALIA * Ivan Marquez – Colombia
        LA SEGUNDA MARQUETALLIA

        ACCESS AND READ FREE
        LA SECUNDA MARQUETALIA – IVAN MARQUEZ – COL
        *
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        Tags: latin america , Colombia , FARC EP , war , guerrilla , Ivan Marquez , LA SEGUNDA MARQUETALLIA
        Is Putin the Pope’s antichrist or is anticommunism catching up again? * Rolando Prudencio Briancon – Lawyer / Bolivia
        Is Putin the Pope’s antichrist or is anticommunism catching up again?

        Is the Catholic Church on a new crusade against an enemy that has been revived as a ghost like communism, which was fought decades ago hand in hand with its predecessor Karol Wojtylia?

        Or what is the message that the Supreme Pontiff Francis I has just given, after the disconcerting statements he made during a dialogue with the directors of the European Cultural Journals of the Society of Jesus, about an allegorical allusion in which he indicated introductory: “There is to escape from the normal pattern of Little Red Riding Hood being good and the wolf being bad.”

        This allegorical allusion was launched by the Pope in relation to the conflict between Russia and Ukraine – implying that Little Red Riding Hood is Russia, and the Big Bad Wolf: the West – pointing out: “Something global is emerging, with very intertwined elements. ” It is this allusion that must be clarified, since it would be a leak, a comment -or a “gossip” that the Pope so much criticizes- that a worried head of state transmitted to him: “how NATO was moving”.

        When Francis asked his confidant why, he replied: “They are barking at Russia’s doors. And they don’t understand that the Russians are imperial and don’t allow any foreign power to get close to them, and he concluded by saying that the situation could lead to to the war. That head of state knew how to read the signs of what was happening”, said Francisco.

        It is already striking that the Pope gives credit to transcendents – gossip in his own words – that do not stop denoting that they have an unspeakable intentionality; even more so in this juncture of reconstitution of a New World Order, since it is reconfigured in a scenario of multipolarity of the hegemony of the nations of the world, after the eclipse of that of the Americans.

        Another example of the slanderous accusation that the Pope alluded to is referring to: “the brutality and ferocity with which this war is waged by the troops, usually mercenary, used by the Russians, which is something monstrous”.

        It is this statement that shows his animosity towards Russia, for all that it represented and still represents, in the face of that, yes!, imperial power of the Americans, and its long history of iniquities that it committed as an empire, after the defeat of Nazism at the hands of of the former USSR; and that dishonestly those who declared themselves victors were the Americans, when it was the former USSR that sacrificed the lives of more than 20 million soldiers to defeat and liberate the world from Nazism.

        And is that, in addition to this denialist attitude of the West about the triumph of the Communist Army of the former USSR over Nazism, what the Pope does not fail to ratify is his animosity against Russia, since he did not refer precisely to Nazi violence against that where pro-Russian minorities in Dombas -Lugansk and Donetsk- were exposed at the hands of Ukrainian neo-Nazis; and this is the truly “monstrous” thing they have been living through.

        It is no secret that since long before the West; and especially the United States has been unleashing a slanderous campaign of demonization against Putin, whom; from war criminal to assassin they have not stopped calling him, and to which today -although in a more elegant way- the Pope seems to have subtly joined, giving the idea, through his anticommunism, that Putin is the antichrist.

        Rolando Prudencio Briancon

        Attorney

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        Tags: anticommunism , counterrevolution , imperialism crusade , nazism , pope francisco anticommunist , Putin is the Pope’s antichrist or anticommunism is approaching again , Rolando Prudencio Briancon
        Networks and populism threaten democracy * Julián de Zubiría Samper / Col
        Networks and populism threaten democracy

        Julian de Zubiria Samper

        “The danger to democracy, peace and education is significantly greater with an uneducated, rude, authoritarian and misogynist man like Rodolfo Hernández” – Julián de Zubiría.

        In Byung-Chul Han’s latest book, the Korean philosopher explains why networks threaten democracies. His argument is clear and brilliant. While democracies were historically associated with the recognition of the other and the debate of ideas, in the current infocracy what predominates is the immediate information that circulates on the networks, the disappearance of the other and the predominance of simplistic opinions that tend to ignore the truth, science and the same reality. It’s a long process that started with mediocracy, which empowered the media as sources of true information.

        Television replaced the debate of ideas with the direct transmission of information and imposed a cult of entertainment and slender bodies. Even so, the most profound change we are experiencing in recent decades. The tsunami of information that boils over the networks has unleashed destructive forces and, thanks to digital platforms, they know our fears, bank accounts, ideologies and beliefs. Personal information is sold as a commodity. Today, “nothing is private,” as the Netflix documentary brilliantly explains.

        The networks explore the need for recognition of the human being and we facilitate their work. That’s why, as Han says, people “put on handcuffs when communicating and producing information.” They feel free, but in reality they are slaves to published information and the manipulation that derives from it. The diverse community is replaced by closed groups that feed back their own ideas and that exclude and attack those who do not identify with them. Critical reading disappears and the public sphere disintegrates by eliminating multiplicity. At the same time, we decide who follows us and who to follow. In doing so, we permanently ratify our ideas. Furthermore, we end up believing that our perception of the world is identical with reality. This causes societies to polarize and the capacity for dialogue to disappear. The epistemologist Humberto Maturana used to say that “by talking we build our reality with the other” and that “that is why we can hurt ourselves or caress ourselves with words”. Undoubtedly, in networks, we almost always get hurt.

        The web is overloaded with immediate information, opinions that lack support and context. Something similar to what happens in traditional schools happens: the excess of fragmented and decontextualized information that children and young people receive does not allow them to think.

        Three important electoral processes of recent times that have taken place in England, the United States and Colombia can illustrate Han’s thesis: Brexit, the triumph of Donald Trump and the rejection of the plebiscite for peace. All three have one essential element in common: the emotional manipulation of the electorate generating fear through the networks. In England, the population was manipulated to be scared by the possible arrival of immigrants and, in this way, vote to leave the European Union. Similarly, in the United States, companies specializing in data management sold the information of millions of users on Facebook so the campaign could bombard the people who were likely to change their vote in favor of Trump with individualized and xenophobic propaganda. This allowed a mythomaniac, misogynist, entrepreneur, egocentric and xenophobic was president of one of the greatest powers on the planet, which seriously endangered the democracy of the United States. One of his most recent and infamous actions came when he pushed for the invasion of the Capitol. He peddled the absurd conspiracy theory that he had been robbed of an alleged electoral victory while trying to get re-elected. Fortunately, Twitter and Facebook closed their personal accounts, but the damage to vigorous American democracy had already been done: the country was fractured, full of distrust in institutions and it will be increasingly difficult to govern until trust in the government is restored. of law. One of his most recent and infamous actions came when he pushed for the invasion of the Capitol. He peddled the absurd conspiracy theory that he had been robbed of an alleged electoral victory while trying to get re-elected. Fortunately, Twitter and Facebook closed their personal accounts, but the damage to vigorous American democracy had already been done: the country was fractured, full of distrust in institutions and it will be increasingly difficult to govern until trust in the government is restored. of law. One of his most recent and infamous actions came when he pushed for the invasion of the Capitol. He peddled the absurd conspiracy theory that he had been robbed of an alleged electoral victory while trying to get re-elected. Fortunately, Twitter and Facebook closed their personal accounts, but the damage to vigorous American democracy had already been done: the country was fractured, full of distrust in institutions and it will be increasingly difficult to govern until trust in the government is restored. of law. full of distrust in institutions and it will be increasingly difficult to govern until trust in government is restored. of law. full of distrust in institutions and it will be increasingly difficult to govern until trust in government is restored. of law.

        In the current election campaign, Rodolfo Hernández is writing a story similar to the one that led the enemies of peace to win the October 2, 2016 plebiscite: emotional manipulation. At that time, the enemies of peace flooded social networks with fake news that sought to generate panic in the population. Today the candidate’s message is more cheerful, youthful and spontaneous, but equally simple, emotional and elemental. He promises to take them all to see the sea. He uses the same language that any citizen would use and repeats what the majority of the population has always said: that this country’s problem is the “robadera”. So it should come as no surprise that he triumphed in exactly the same municipalities where he won the rejection of the plebiscite for peace in 2016. What a coincidence!

        Several of his proposals demonstrate his total incomprehension of society, such as saying that the Eln is going to sign an addendum to the peace agreement with the FARC. He does not devote a single word to initial education, the most important of all; he mistreats and humiliates women with his words, and if as a candidate he stigmatizes and has a hostile attitude towards journalists, can you imagine how he will treat them if elected president?

        If asked what he is going to do to improve education, he replies that he will stop the theft of the PAE. If you ask him about his export promotion program, his answer is that this country has failed to advance its economy because politicians keep stealing. He doesn’t know almost all the issues, but that doesn’t matter because he has an emotional connection with the population. His proposals are very inconsequential and the contempt for democracy and justice is very worrying. As former dean of the Universidad de los Andes, Alejandro Gaviria, put it when he endorsed Gustavo Petro’s candidacy last week, “some of Rodolfo Hernández’s ideas are nothing more than charlatanism.”

        Voters are unaware of the League’s anti-corruption program. It doesn’t matter because in infocracy emotional communication has replaced rational communication. Journalists can ask him about any subject they want because we already know what his answer will be: “the problem in this country is theft.”

        Undoubtedly, the Petro also has serious problems because several of its proposals are unfeasible in the short term and, as salomón Kalmanovitz has pointed out, some of its economic ideas are wrong. Likewise, the campaign has allowed its followers on the networks to promote intolerance and fanaticism. The new voices that are coming to the Historic Pact will be essential to guarantee graduality, plurality and realism in the implementation of the necessary reforms. In any case, the danger to democracy, peace and education is significantly greater with a man as ignorant, rude, authoritarian and misogynist as Rodolfo Hernández. The problem is that it is connected with the culture of the average Colombian, with the national collective unconscious. Even though, it is clear that he lacks the necessary equanimity and is not prepared to rule this country. He’s the Creole Trump.

        Today I would like to remind candidate Rodolfo Hernández of this African proverb: “If women lowered their arms, the sky would fall”.

        Your proposals are as volatile as your emotional stability. That’s why last month they changed their positions on hydraulic fracturing, glyphosate and recreational marijuana. He also lied when he said he had supported peace in Colombia. In this sense, Caracol reproduced on the networks an interview from a few months ago in which he bragged about having voted against the plebiscite. In dialogue with El Tiempo on May 4, he replied that it was necessary to start pilots as soon as possible to implement hydraulic fracturing in the country. For the second round, he changed his position and adopted the opponent’s proposal. Something very similar happened with the glyphosate issue, because he said he would use it. However, two weeks later, he found out that he would give him more votes to reject it and communicated it on the networks. The question we must ask ourselves is whether this way of acting is the way to generate security and stability in the country. It does not seem!

        Han is right: we are living in digital tribes that put democracy at risk. We don’t listen to each other, society has fractured and our perceptions are drifting away from reality. What should not be lost sight of is that democracy is at greater risk with a candidate who does not want to participate in debates because he does not have the arguments to support his theses or the equanimity to respond thoughtfully to journalists’ questions. What’s worse is that this candidate has a better chance of success because the majority of the old political class supports him. It’s simple to explain: the nation would jump into the void by electing him, but the privileged as usual would have no risk if he were elected president. He will no longer levy taxes and will do his best to prevent social reforms in the country from advancing.

        The only thing that is clear is that the best option humanity has to protect democracy is to invest in and improve the quality of its education. In a country with the low and unequal educational quality of Colombia, it is much easier to emotionally manipulate the population, offering miraculous solutions to their problems. Reading and critical thinking are the best antidote to infocracy.

        Alberto Merani had already said: “without quality education there is no freedom or democracy”. Thus, consolidating critical reading and improving the quality of education is the way to build a better world. On June 19th we will know whether we voted for miracle solutions or necessary reforms.

        ….

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        Tags : latin america , Julián de Zubiría Samper , nazifascism , populism , Networks and populism threaten democracy

        https://pcrtbrasil.blogspot.com/search?updated-max=2022-06-19T00:00:00-03:00&max-results=100

        Wednesday, June 15, 2022
        POLITICAL WRITINGS ALN * Communist Party of Brazilian Workers / PCTB
        ALN POLITICAL WRITINGS

        MARIGELLA AND HER POLITICAL CONCEPTIONS
        Marighella Your Political Conceptions
        *
        CARLOS THE HIDDEN FACE OF MARIGELLA
        Carlos, The Hidden Face of Marighella * Edson Teixeira da Silva Junior
        *
        NATIONAL LIBERATING ACTION
        National Liberation Action – ALN
        *
        ALN REVISITED
        Aln Revisited
        &
        OUR COMMANDER MARIGELLA
        Communist Party of Brazilian Workers: OUR COMMANDER: MARIGHELLA VIVE! * TO MARIGELLA
        &
        MARIGELLA FILM
        Communist Party of Brazilian Workers: Eight reasons to see ‘Marighella’ * By Flávia Oliveira / RJ
        &
        POLITICAL THOUGHT CARLOS MARIGHELLA
        Brazilian Workers’ Communist Party: Carlos Marighella’s political thought * Florestan Fernandes / SP
        &
        MARIGELLA THE GUERRILLA
        Communist Party of Brazilian Workers: MARIGHELLA, THE GUERRILLA AND CAPTAIN NASCIMENTO * Solange Cavalcante
        &
        MARIGELLA UNMASKED REFORMISM
        Communist Party of Brazilian Workers: Marighella unmasked reformism * Florestan Fernandes / SP
        &
        MARIA MARIGELLA
        Communist Party of Brazilian Workers: Maria Marighella disputes the future * Sofia Schurig / Jacobin Magazine
        &
        INTERVIEW WITH CARLOS MARIGELLA
        Communist Party of Brazilian Workers: Maria Marighella disputes the future * Sofia Schurig / Jacobin Magazine
        ***
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        Tags : national liberating action , carlos marighella , ALN POLITICAL WRITINGS , marxism , revolution
        A very small remark to my friend Vladimir about the revolt and the blows suffered by Guaidó * Lawyer Inácio Ramírez Romero / Venezuela
        “A very small remark for my friend Vladimir about the uprising and the blows suffered by Guaidó”

        I heard in a video of your program that you now only broadcast on the networks, your categorical criticism against the aggressors of Juan Guaidó in two political activities where the character in question was the central figure raised in two regions of the country.

        There you give Guaidó the treatment of a Democratic leader and you also grant him the legitimate right to politically activate anyone who disagrees with the government and wants to oppose it, under the rules that correspond to a Democratic State.

        At this point, it is not clear to me that this leader that I repeat you treat as a “democratic opponent” has been attacked by PSUV militants or sectors of the government.

        However, I agree, whether or not the aggressors of the guy you victimized are Government militants, no one has the right to go out and punch or sabotage the actions of their opponents or enemies, no matter how “evil, demonic” they are. possessed, a liar, or even a delinquent or criminal” that they are.

        One would have to ask whether Guaidó’s assailants who blew up some chairs marked with “cloaks” on their shoulders, chest and back and some Voluntad Popular militants did so because they felt they had the “right” to do justice on their own. hands and complain from that “democratic leader” each and every one of the crimes committed against hundreds of Venezuelan civilians and soldiers, damage to public facilities such as hospitals, schools, day care centers, ministries, barracks, airports, public squares, police stations, embassies of accredited countries , official vehicles, etc. of which we were objects in the main cities of the country?

        That this series of actions of death and destruction, led by López and Guaidó as leaders of the extreme right and supported by other opposition parties by action or omission, was and remains an uncovered, macabre and genocidal intervention program.

        That is, a terrorist plan designed and financed by the United States with the money that Guaidó and his gang of Citgo bandits, Mononeros, the gold that England has for us, and all the State accounts deposited in Foreign Banks that vary according to with figures offered by the Attorney General to more than 7 billion dollars and other Venezuelan funds.

        Is it not that those necks, bursting chairs and tearing the thin white shirt of the “democratic leader” carried out by some “indignant Venezuelans” of the government or of the very opponents who are on opposite sides, have assumed this attitude of sabotaging and intimidating Guaidó because deep down don’t understand, don’t accept or don’t explain how our Venezuelan Justice is efficient, prompt, transparent and quick to accuse, accuse, prosecute and arrest and put in jail how many assholes and other subjects commit common and savage crimes but inexplicably are dumb, blind and deaf to other criminals who have the privilege of murdering, usurping, stealing, committing disobedience to laws, committing to money laundering, corruption, instigation to commit a crime, aggravated embezzlement, fraudulent use of public funds,conspiracy with a foreign government, terrorism, rebellion, arms trafficking and, if possible, co incurs the crime of traitor to the homeland?

        This endless list of crimes by Juanito Alimaña, as DIOSDADO likes to identify him, was part of the history of crimes that Attorney General Tarek W Saab announced in his memory and account presented on April 7, 2022 before the National Assembly.

        Our friend Saab even informed that against Juan Guaido Márquez and his fake government team there are 23 criminal charges (accusations?), that is, 23 criminal cases for the numerous crimes mentioned above and that as a result of this real competition of crimes they have 59 warrants of prison were served, 21 police raids, 15 apprehensions and 258 blocking and immobilization of accounts and in related actions 209 people were arrested, there are 202 deprived of their liberty, there are 205 accused and only 62 convicted of admitting the facts.

        Now the only, small and gallant detail that was missing from the voluminous report to the Attorney General is that against that leader you continue to describe as “democratic” and assume him as a poor and defenseless victim, not a single prison ticket was and if there because a Control Judge agreed to this, it is a well-kept SECRET.

        In other words, his suffering character who today, after his flight abroad and sudden return, seems to have entered his “waist”, remembering that Venezuela is a democratic state of law and social justice, that there are institutions such as the CNE that must be respected, that there are laws that regulate the activity of political parties, that it is forbidden to appeal to instigation and disobedience to the Laws, that one cannot plan and execute “guarimbas” left and right, and that now the peculiar character seems in his opinion having said “I play land and I don’t play anymore” or rather not “shoot, kill and steal more”, that is, he decided to put aside his contracts with Gideón, with MG Cliver Alcalá, with Cristopher Figuera, with JJ Rondón , with Trump, Bolton,Esper and how much nail bug they wanted to subjugate us for today like a “scout” or polite gentleman and student of some fancy religious congregation of Caracas, appearing with his face well washed, as if he didn’t break a plate nor teach us about being a democrat who never was and to assume himself as a leader who is also not because not even in the opposing factors is recognized as such?

        I’m afraid, Vladimir, that your indignation at the pitas, the chair blows and the shirt rips that Signor Guaidó had to suffer, in my humble opinion, turned out to be really “pale and quite benevolent” if we take into account that much of the Venezuelan population, among whom many opponents wanted not to take away his “courage”, but rather a fair trial and a long prison sentence and ancillary sanctions, such as losing political rights that I NEVER respect, who had no mercy to ask for a brutal economic blockade for of the States, the melted Lima Group and the sepoys of the European Union, and also asks the Yankee Government to invade us with troops of marines,because although we have sadly witnessed popular summary executions (taking justice into their own hands) against innocent people or guilty of theft, rape and minor crimes, unjustified actions from all points of view, against whom we all have people starving and suffering with the father of the military invasion, overthrow and assassination of President Maduro?

        I warn you that if Guaidó had committed the same crimes that he committed here in the United States, he would have been about to be executed with the maximum penalty of death, life imprisonment or they would have him committed to a sanatorium for the insane, it is almost like walking through the doors of the hell narrated by Dante Alliguieri in the Divine Comedy.

        Therefore, it seems to me, Vladimir, that this outraged and probably humanitarian stance of condemning the mistreatment to which Juan Guaidó was subjected does not allow him to “avoid or hide” that this issue is not, was not and will not be a leader DEMOCRATIC, nor will it re-enter the country on an amendment plan or anything that looks brotherly.

        Don’t call yourself a “deception” and believe in “pregnant birds” this character (Guaido) like Leopoldo López, Julio Borges and all that bunch of young gentlemen who turned political activity into a slide to earn money at the expense of the State and deliver our Companies elusive and basic and strategic to the great Capitalist Corporations of the so-called “Deep State” do not believe and will never believe, much less will respect the democratic rules of the game.

        Of course, if you ask me what I would do to prevent those little fights between people that made Juan Guaidó and his minions flee from turning into more serious events that could end in bloodshed with unnecessary and unacceptable casualties, well, I would recommend two. (2) options: 1) Let Guaidó and his fascist team take their “cachachas” and other aromatic herbs and leave with their macundales elsewhere. Of course out of the country. Preferably the United States, because the vassal countries may end up being bothered by their purposes of consummate “terrorists” who will win Gustavo Petro with their Historic Pact; considering that they are good “buchones” with the realero and the fortune in dollars that they stole from us Venezuelans and that also “arrested” the Americans,

        Honestly, that would be my advice, either flee abroad or face the MP; If it is true, as you stated this Monday in your program, that Guaidó is a democratic leader and has the right to be political activism.

        With all due respect, Vladimir, that gentleman lost his political rights from the moment he committed that series of serious crimes in a gang with his parties and other opponents.

        This man, whoever gets out anyway if he wants to do activism will be the penitentiary because what gets out is jail and nothing else, comrade.

        Lawyer Inácio Ramírez Romero / Venezuela

        ANNEXES

        &

        &

        *
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        Labels: “A very small remark to my friend Vladimir about the revolt and the blows suffered by Guaidó” , inacio ramirez romero , juan guaido , mercenary juan guaido , venezuela
        NOTES FOR A HISTORY OF THE WORKERS * MARCO AURÉLIO GARCIA
        NOTES FOR A HISTORY OF WORKERS

        ACCESS AND READ FREE
        Notes-for-a-story-volume-3.pdf
        MARCO AURÉLIO GARCIA
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        Tags : history , class struggle , MARCO AURÉLIO GARCIA , marxism , NOTES FOR A HISTORY OF WORKERS
        RONALDO DUTRA MACHADO * Edileuza Pimenta de Lima
        RONALDO DUTRA MACHADO

        Edileuza Pimenta de Lima

        Flamenguista and Mangueira, born in Rio de Janeiro on August 23, 1948, Ronaldo Dutra Machado was a typical young middle-class carioca in 1964, when there was the civil-military coup that plunged the country into a period of twenty years of censorship, repression , torture and death. A guerrilla of the National Liberation Action, an armed struggle organization whose greatest leader was Carlos Marighella, Ronaldo was arrested, experienced torture in its most brutal form, survived imprisonment, was banished, experienced a long exile, returned to the country and, in his death , already in the supposedly democratic period, he was buried as a pauper, as if he had returned to the old years of lead, as if he were a victim of revenge on the part of the Armed Forces that he had fought in the past.

        Ronaldo was very cultured and from an early age he considered himself on the left. The student demonstrations from 1968 onwards contributed to his definitive engagement in the opposition against the military regime, having participated in the security of many marches, such as the one hundred thousand, in addition to having worked in the organization of the Congress of Ibiúna. During this period, he studied at Colégio Mallet Soares and had a group of friends who organized themselves around a newspaper they called “Verdade”, a tribute to a vehicle with the corresponding name, Pravda, from the USSR. This group was composed of Carlos Eduardo Fayal de Lira, Newton Leão Duarte, Paulo Henrique Oliveira da Rocha Lins, Flávio Molina, Frederico Eduardo Mayr, Jorge Raimundo Júnior, among others, that in a short time became one of the Armed Tactical Groups (GTAs) of the ALN in Rio de Janeiro. According to Newton Leão, in this group “Ronaldo was the vanguard, he was always the articulator, he was a leader bringing that group together”. When the entrance exam came, Newton, for example, went to study Engineering, Fayal, dentistry, each of the group decided to pursue a career and Ronaldo chose History, eventually joining the Fluminense Federal University.

        With an outstanding performance as a guerrilla, Ronaldo was appointed by Marighella himself to coordinate the actions of the ALN in the northeast, especially in Pernambuco, where he was transferred in mid-1969. Although he acted primarily in that state since then, Ronaldo also participated in armed actions in Ceará and again in Rio de Janeiro. He was arrested in Recife in March 1970. The circumstances of his arrest are unusual: Ronaldo told his brother, Alfredo Carlos, better known as Fadola, that he was having lunch in a bar without realizing that the weapons he carried in his back pockets were sample; the owner of the establishment, thinking that Ronaldo was a bandit, called the police; the guerrilla posed as a “handle” for cars until it was discovered that he was carrying a text from Marighella in French.

        More than released, Ronaldo was banned and experienced a long ten-year exile. He first went to Algeria, destination first of the forty, then to Cuba, finally settling in Salvador Allende’s Chile. As an internationalist, Ronaldo joined the Chilean MIR (Movimiento de Izquierda Revolucionario) and was among those who resisted the September 11, 1973 coup, which killed the president of the Popular Unity and sworn in the dictator Pinochet. With the resistance to the coup defeated, Ronaldo jumped the wall of the Panamanian embassy, ​​but, as a tireless revolutionary that he was, he left for Portugal in April 1974 as soon as he received the news of the Carnation Revolution, as he also wanted to be part of this process.

        The year 1974 was when the ALN was at its end and Ronaldo started to rebuild his personal life, even marrying a Portuguese woman, but he never had children. Still in that country, in 1979, Ronaldo was one of the signatories of the Lisbon Charter, which founded the Democratic Labor Party (PDT), and the strong ties he maintained with Leonel Brizola are famous.

        Even considering that he was imprisoned for a short period, Ronaldo was subjected to barbaric tortures, from which he never recovered. In addition to the physical issue, having worsened, due to the pau-de-arara, back problems that he had had since he was little, Ronaldo became a victim of deep depressions, a situation that worsened during this period, at the end of exile, and, when he returned to Brazil, in 1980, he was no longer the same. His family and close friends spent much of the decade trying to help him recover from his ups and downs, which even included a few episodes where he felt he was being stalked. Ronaldo was the new Friar Tito, apparently less dramatic, but just as affected by the tortures, with the difference that he did not intend to take his own life, which, however, he did slowly,

        It is within this framework that his family received with apprehension, in 1993, the news that he wanted to go to Rondônia. At that time, Ronaldo was working at Riotur, but he accepted a job invitation from his former partner, José Calistrato Cardoso Filho, also a former guerrilla fighter, whom he met in Recife. He arrived, with many projects, in Porto Velho, in the month of August, to know the place where he intended to settle down.

        On the afternoon of September 20, Ronaldo Dutra Machado, also known as “Maninho”, fell ill on the street, having probably suffered a heart attack, and was rescued by police officers who took him to a hospital, where he died in the night of the same day. The following morning, his body was sent to the Dom Bosco funeral home, whose employees, analyzing the documents of the recently deceased, saw that his identity card had been issued by the Brazilian Navy (his father, Alfredo Machado, was a sea captain -and-war, having been renovated in 1969).

        So, the funeral home’s action was to communicate the fact to the Captaincy of the Ports of Rondônia, which claims to have contacted the family and, having not found anyone responsible for Ronaldo, ordered them to bury him as a pauper. The illegality, negligence and bad faith of the act committed by the military of the aforementioned Captaincy is evident: he buried as indigent someone who had all his documents, registration of the hotel where he was staying and business cards with the addresses of several people in that region, including Calistrato, plus the fact that the burial was carried out without the body first going through the IML.

        After a few days without knowing his whereabouts, the ex-guerrilla’s family and companions were desperate to find him, until they received the revolting news, which was followed by the correct identification of the body still in Porto Velho. and a rush to the newspapers, in addition to letters sent to military authorities denouncing the absurd situation of which they were victims.
        This story is being told because I became aware of it recently, when I met Ronaldo’s brother, Fadola. The revolt against the military, who, even in a supposedly democratic regime, continue to commit arbitrariness, and the desire and need to do justice, bringing to the memory of the new generations the life and trajectory of this former guerrilla, brought to light the idea of ​​making the of his mortal remains to Rio de Janeiro, accompanied by a ceremony and an act of resistance on August 23, when Ronaldo would have turned 60.

        Once more, however, hidden, if not his body, now his mortal remains. Taking care of the administrative procedures for the transfer, Fadola discovered, unfortunately, that the mortal remains of Ronaldo Dutra Machado were exhumed in 1998, taken to an ossuary where they remained for another three years and, later, to the cemetery, through a judicial authorization, donated them to a medical university. Legally or not, once again it all took place without any warning to the family.

        However, Ronaldo remains among us, for his trajectory, which should never be forgotten. He remains among us for the firm and combative guerrilla he was, definitively imprinting his importance on the history of the National Liberation Action. He remains among us because of the inheritance of his ideas, sown everywhere he went, as his life has always been permeated by Carlos Marighella’s maxim that it is not necessary to ask permission to practice revolutionary acts.

        Ronaldo Dutra Machado, present!

        Edileuza Pimenta de Lima is a historian.
        07-31-2008.
        Be realistic: ask for the impossible (Brazilian Student Movement): Ronaldo Dutra Machado, present! (By Edileuza Pimenta de Lima)
        ***
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        Tags : aln , military dictatorship in Brazil , Edileuza Pimenta de Lima , guerrilla warfare , armed struggle , RONALDO DUTRA MACHADO
        VENEZUELA VÉRTICE DE LA GUERRA DEL SIGLO XXI * GIORDANA GARCIA SOJO / TAROA ZUNIGA SILVA
        VENEZUELA VERTICE OF THE WAR

        DEL SECRET XXI

        ACCESS AND READ FREE
        Venezuela Vortex De La Guerra Del S XXi V 1 0
        GIORDANA GARCIA SOJO / TAROA ZUNIGA SILVA
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        Tags : geopolitics , GIORDANA GARCIA SOJO , war , imperialism , TAROA ZUNIGA SILVA , VENEZUELA VÉRTICE DE LA GUERRA DEL SIGLO XXI
        NATO COUNTER-SUMMIT BASES OUTSIDE * Anti-imperialist Internationalist Front – FIA/Spain
        NATO COUNTER SUMMIT BASES OUTSIDE

        JUNE 24 AND 25 MADRID

        The Coordination of the NATO Non Bases Out State, composed of several platforms and organizations of the Spanish State, signatories of the “Appeal to Mobilization Against the NATO Summit in Madrid, NATO No, Bases Out, for Peace”, announces the realization of NOT a CONTRA -NATO SUMMIT; BASES OUT , an open meeting to discuss all the aspects that the leaders of the different countries that will participate in the meeting of the Summit of Heads of State and Government will try to hide about the true dimension of NATO and the consequences that its plans have for the people and nations of the world and to immense strata of our own population.

        MOTIVATION:

        The celebration of this Counter-Summit is part of a history of popular meetings and mobilizations of rejection that have accompanied all NATO Summits since at least 2008.

        In the current circumstances, the NATO Summit is of extraordinary importance, as it will involve adapting its machinery to the readjustment of capitalism in the deep existential crisis in which it finds itself and whose crudest manifestations are already evident. a new Strategic Concept to secure world domination through the imposition by force against any demonstration of sovereignty or independence, towards all-out war against Russia and China if necessary.

        But it is also necessary to analyze the role played by the Spanish State as a whole, irresponsibly lending itself to this warlike strategy with fascist roots, restricting any capacity for critical thinking and destroying everything that opposes its plans, with the help of a progressive liberal that legitimizes its excesses, while drowning the last strongholds of resistance.

        GOALS:

        Debate and agree on a resolution on NATO, the 2022 Alliance summit in Madrid and US bases in the Spanish state.

        To promote the creation of the NATO State Movement NO BASES OUT, against NATO, the bases and the imperialist logic and its articulation with other movements of a world character.

        Agree an action plan to develop this movement.

        SUBJECTS:

        NATO and Bases; the same imperialist strategy

        The US imperialist strategy of world domination, after the Second World War, was based on the existence of NATO as a supposed defensive alliance and on the establishment of military bases as threatening enclaves in the main strategic points. After the disappearance of the USSR, a wide field of intervention opens up against an omnipresent enemy: terrorism will serve to destabilize rogue governments, as well as to justify their actions. The path remains clear for NATO’s limitless expansion towards world domination, but pockets of resistance are multiplying, especially Russia and China.

        NATO and US imperialism and the European Union

        NATO is much more than a military instrument; its actions in the economic, political, institutional, ideological and social control spheres play an essential role in the formation of the new world order. Imperialism prepares the response to the global crisis of capitalism: crises and conflicts are fueled to reorder the world through war, using the full disciplinary potential of warmongering, with the help of ideological control and war propaganda. It extends to all scenarios of the global south and adds to social control in the class struggle, within the central countries, supported by renewed fascism, a plague of the 21st century. Faced with this, a liberal progressivism condescending to imperialism, brandishing supposed absolute moral values ​​to whiten it.

        Summit 2022 in Madrid; a strategy to reorder the world

        The 2022 Summit responds to imperialism’s need to adapt its coercive capacity to impose the painful measures associated with the Great Reset, capitalism’s commitment to its survival. An essential contribution to the strategy to dominate the world, taking advantage of the synergies between the two programs. The 2030 strategic concept: increased security, rules-based world, technological paradigm, resilience, militarization of society, social control and repression as measures of social discipline. The declaration of Russia and China as enemies of the free world and the new expansion plans towards global NATO. Why the Spanish State was chosen as the seat: Africa as a new scenario.

        The responsibility of the Spanish State

        The geostrategic position as an object of desire: the international recognition of the Franco regime in exchange for the Bases marks the history to date of submission to the interests of the United States, through pacts, treaties and agreements of similar content, to the point of conditioning a transition without democracy and a fictitious democracy without the people. The consequences: we are necessary accomplices in the genocide perpetrated at the grassroots and by NATO; the risks of creating unnecessary enemies for ourselves; military spending skyrockets against a backdrop of poverty and 125% indebtedness. The role of bases and NATO in current conflicts; the case of the Canary Islands as an intervention enclave in Africa. The destruction of collective memory, a decisive step to weaken resistance,

        PROPOSED STRUCTURE:

        Friday, June 24, 6 pm: Opening plenary, presentation, objectives, distribution of works, logistics.

        Saturday, June 25, from 9 am to 2 pm: Debates in 4 separate groups, according to the axes of work; two blocks of two hours

        Saturday, June 25, from 4:00 pm to 6:00 pm: Plenary: towards the constitution of a NATO State Movement No, Bases out; political foundations and organizational tasks; development of an action plan

        Saturday, June 25, 6:30 pm to 8:30 pm: Plenary for conclusions and drafting of the Resolution. Close.

        LOCALIZATION:

        All sessions will take place in the Parish of San Carlos Borromeo, located at Rua Peironcely 2, in the Vallecas district of Madrid (Cercanías Renfe, Entrevías station).

        ASSISTANCE CONFIRMATION:

        Those wishing to participate in the Counter-Summit are encouraged to confirm their presence by emailing [email protected] , indicating the scope of the debate in which they wish to do so.

        Likewise, those who cannot attend, but consider that they have important things to say about these topics, are invited to send their contributions in the form they wish (text, audio, video, presentation…).

        In order to organize the management of spaces and content, we welcome responses by June 19th.

        SOURCE
        FAI – Internationalist Anti-imperialist Front
        ***
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        Tags : warmongering , NATO COUNTER SUMMIT BASES OUT , outside nato , war , imperialism , arms industry , nato

        https://pcrtbrasil.blogspot.com/search?updated-max=2022-06-16T00:00:00-03:00&max-results=100&start=9&by-date=false

        1. Tuesday, June 14, 2022
          Populisms and the new rights * Jefferson Corredor Uyaban
          Populisms and the new rights

          Jefferson Corredor Uyaban
          In recent years, the word populism has regained relevance in political discourse, revealing itself to be a confusing concept present in most debates that take place during the country’s electoral dispute . In this sense, academics recognize that populism brings together several ideas, in which different interpretations of reality that have different origins, ways of representing and projecting themselves in time coexist.

          This phenomenon of indescribable characteristics has reiterative attributes that are manifested in a particular way in each historical context, but that manage to express a worldview that is as indeterminate as it is rooted.

          In a nutshell, populism is constituted as a form of political action, which proclaims that the will of the people is superior to any institutional or class norm, therefore, its discourse aims to fulfill the hopes and gain the confidence of the masses. , based on the promise that your social expectations will be fulfilled in a short period of time.

          Thus, given the impossibility of defining this concept in a concrete way, it is impossible to situate it in a political ideology and assign it a precise social basis.

          However, in the course of the 21st century, Western societies that have experienced repeated economic crises have seen the emergence of the “new right”, which uses populism as a resource. This conceptual approach is developed by the Italian professor Enzo Traverso, to refer to the global phenomenon of “new rights”, which cannot be thought of as a monolithic phenomenon.

          On the contrary, it is a heterogeneous group that in each country has its own traditions, roots, histories and cultures, but despite their diversity they share certain traits -racism, xenophobia, nationalism- that trace a general trend, an example of this is Marine Le Pen in France, Volodymir Zelensky in Ukraine, Silvio Berlusconi in Italy, Donald Trump in the United States, Nayib Bukele in El Salvador and Jair Bolsonaro in Brazil.

          Neoliberal policies are the cause of this global phenomenon, the delegitimization of established elites and institutions is evidenced in the general disapproval of the population, so the “new rights” are presented as a solution that aims to restore the “balance”, their populist discourse consisted of promising the military defeat of the guerrillas and provide security to the citizens.

          Under this logic, Rodolfo Hernández also presents himself as a candidate for the presidency, but the narrative trope of his populist discourse is corruption, despite currently having criminal proceedings against him for In his public and private interventions, the lack of knowledge he has about od different problems that affect the country, so that it does not have a programmatic agenda that allows it to propose clear solutions for society.

          Which is why in his speeches he appeals only to enliven the emotionality of those who hear him. While Gustavo Petro exposes a vast knowledge of Colombia’s historical problems and proposes strategies for change that would gradually overcome them.

          June 8, 2022

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          Tags: extremism , fascism , fundamentalism , Jefferson Corredor Uyaban , imperialism , nazism , new world order , Populisms and the new rights
          Monday, June 13, 2022
          BOLIVAR PENSAMIENTO PRECURSOS DEL ANTIMPERIALISM * Francisco Pividal / Venezuela
          BOLIVAR

          THINKING PRECURSOS OF ANTI-MPERIALISM
          Bolivar Pensamiento Precursor Of Anti-Imperialism * Francisco Pividal
          FRANCISCO PIVIDAL / VENEZUELA
          PDF EDITION
          BOLIVAR-PENSAMIENTO-PRECURSOR-DEL-ANTIMPERIALISM-FRANCISCO-PIVIDAL.pdf
          *
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          Labels: latin america , anti- imperialism , BOLIVAR PENSAMIENTO PRECURSOS DEL ANTIMPERIALISM , Francisco Pividal , venezuela
          THE FUTURE IS PUBLIC * COMMITTEE PUBLIC ENTERPRISES
          THE FUTURE IS PUBLIC

          ACCESS AND READ FREE
          The future is public
          PUBLIC BUSINESS COMMITTEE
          *

          The printed edition of the book O Futuro é Público , produced by the National Committee for the Defense of Public Companies and Fenae based on a study by the Transnational Institute (TNI), is ready and in the process of being distributed. The book gathers information on more than 1,400 successful remunicipalization cases in more than 2,400 cities in 58 countries around the world.

          Due to the pandemic, the delivery of copies to parliamentarians will not take place in person. It will be done virtually and the copy can be sent via Post Office. The objective is to clarify and promote the fight against privatization. The work will also be distributed to union and association leaders, so that they can use the data in seminars, exhibitions and other initiatives in favor of companies and public services.

          In the Portuguese version, the preface is signed by the president of Fenae, Sérgio Takemoto, and the coordinator of the National Committee in Defense of Public Companies, Rita Serrano, who also participates with the article Post-Pandemic State and Public Companies and is a representative of employees. on Caixa’s Board of Directors.

          ***

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          Tags: PUBLIC ENTERPRISES COMMITTEE , THE FUTURE IS PUBLIC , PUBLIC HERITAGE , privatization is bad for Brazil
          BOLSONARO: DYING COUP * Fernando Horta / BRASIL247
          BOLSONARO: DYING COUPISM

          Fernando Horta

          The impeachment of Jair Bolsonaro: for the first time since the infamous interview at the end of the election, given by Rosa Weber and Carmem Lúcia, as president and vice president of the TSE, there is open talk about the impeachment of Bolsonaro’s ticket. In Brasília, it is said that more than the polls that constantly reaffirm the real possibility of Lula’s victory in the first round, the question of impeachment is what has caused the fascist’s hysteria. Yesterday, in an authentic diversionary maneuver, the STF declared that it was “the polls” that were causing Jair’s tantrums. It turns out that there is a real possibility of canceling the plate of the one who is second in the polls.

          How to interpret this possibility? Would it be good or bad for left field? And for democracy? And for the country?

          Of course, one can always talk about the location of the militant and the fan. One who is only responsible for his dreams and desires. It is very normal, in the current situation, to want the worst for an incompetent genocide who has driven the country to starvation again. But the difference between analysis, hunch and desire is the way you select the data, the variables and what you do with it. My wish as a Brazilian is for Jair Bolsonaro to have a “belly reversal” and spend the next 3 months in the bathroom, with stomachaches and intermittent diarrhea. As a historian and analyst, however, I need to point out the danger of the impeachment movement of the Bolsonaro ticket for the 2022 elections.

          In the first place, it seems to me very possible that this is the blow of the liberals. Without any possibility of victory or even any importance, Brazilian elites and liberals are “working overtime” in these elections. Fulfilling the table, in football jargon. In the current situation, neither Tebet nor Ciro have any chance in these elections, and this is an uncomfortable position. In this scenario, the dream of liberals and elites would be an election without Lula and without Bolsonaro. The cost of such a maneuver, however, would be immense. Furthermore, there would be no legitimacy whatsoever in an election in which the TWO main candidates would have been removed on the “carpet”.

          If you can’t take both, it seems clear to me that the second best scenario for liberals would be to take one of them. A scenario that was in force until the STF returned political rights to Lula. Lula was the preferred candidate to be “withdrawn” two years ago. It so happens that through strategic maneuvers President Lula has constantly increased his political capital. Whether for his “tour” in Europe, with the visibility of a statesman, or for his approximations with Alckmin and the “broad front”, the truth is that Lula has shielded himself, increasing the cost of a political-electoral action against him.

          At the same time, Bolsonaro melts daily. Not that this scenario hasn’t been happening since 2018 (and it would have happened in the election if it weren’t for the infamous stab), but in recent years, Bolsonaro no longer has the goodwill of the elites and the media. The protective mattress that the fascist enjoyed between 2018 and 2020 fell apart, and Bolsonaro pays the costs for every idiocy, every violence and every incompetence of his management. The latest polls indicate this with the fascist being associated with “corruption” and “laziness”, and being restricted to his most radical supporters and some nostalgia for the dictatorship.

          In the impossibility of withdrawing Lula from the election, the liberals organize themselves to withdraw Bolsonaro. This movement has two true premises: on the one hand, to continue the stable situation that we have (with Lula gaining political capital and Bolsonaro melting down) the election tends to be resolved in the first round in favor of the PT, for the “good of all and happiness”. general of the nation”.

          On the other hand, a runoff with Lula and someone with LESS rejection than he would revive schizophrenic anti-PTism, and could catalyze an arc of opposition to Lula that could be as broad or broader than the “broad front” of support for the PT. Both premises seem true, and Bolsonaro’s impeachment would be the best chance for a “third way” to move to a second round.

          From a legalistic point of view, Bolsonaro should not even have graduated president. Then he must have about three hundred reasons for impeachment, and a move against Bolsonaro at this point indicates much more of casuistry than law enforcement. After all, he was once co-responsible for the 667,000 deaths from covid and for half of the Brazilian population to be in a state of food insecurity. At this point in the championship, to suggest a punishment for a possible (now?) illegal use of fakenews is a clear demonstration of the use of the rigors of the law for elite political goals.

          On the other hand, from the point of view of the legitimacy of the election, Bolsonaro’s impeachment is terrible. It contaminates not only the 2022 election, but also that of 2026. It would be the third election in a row with “external facts” to the ballot box defining the election paths. The illegality of the candidate with almost 30% of the voting intentions would serve, at this moment, only to make those who attack the legitimacy of the election happy. If Bolsonaro is not defeated at the polls, overwhelmingly, the fascist myth will do its work by 2026, and a representative of the Bolsonaro clan will certainly present himself as an avenging knight fighting for “justice”, four years from now.

          Finally, the movement to impeach the Bolsonaro ticket would completely transform the electoral board that is currently unfavorable to the elites. It would be the possibility of a “new fact” whose conclusions are difficult to predict. From a strategic point of view, however, for the elites and for the liberals, a possibility of change is better than no change in the current scenario. The truth is that, as paradoxical as it may be, Bolsonaro’s impeachment today only serves the interests of the elites. There is no chance that this impeachment will change the policy of the Bolsonaro government (cassation is not impeachment) and, therefore, would not cool social violence and the impoverishment of the people. It would not prevent Bolsonaro from continuing to sell public assets (and perhaps even do so if he threw himself into this objective more forcefully) nor would it make Bolsonaro,

          Leaving the liver and heart aside, the impeachment of the Bolsonaro ticket, at this moment, is the move that the elites, the liberals, and the third way better could think of in an attempt to regain some leading role in the 2022 election. to them. For Bolsonaro, every second between today and the election is important, and for the Lula left, the best thing would be to sleep today and wake up tomorrow on October 2nd. Hope has no patience when it is hungry, but if the bet is on democracy and institutions, Bolsonaro needs to be defeated at the polls, prosecuted and imprisoned for the crimes he committed.

          Neither the barriguístico reversal nor the caganeira help us, today, in the fight against the fascist movement, although I would love to see this happen.

          SOURCES
          BBRASIL 247
          https://www.brasil247.com/blog/a-cassacao-de-jair-bolsonaro
          UOL NEWS
          https://noticias.uol.com.br/colunas/chico-alves/2022/06/12/apelo-de-bolsonaro-a-biden-contra-lula-e-caso-de-impeachment-diz-randolfe. htm

          *
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          Tags : bolsonarismo , BOLSONARO: COUPISM MORIBUNDO , BRASIL247 , fernando horta , genocide , coup , militarism
          SPEECH AT LA NOVENA CUMBRE DE LAS AMERICAS * ALBERTO FERNANDEZ – PRESIDENT OF LA CELAC
          SPEECH AT THE NOVENA CUMBRE DE LAS AMERICAS

          ALBERTO FERNANDEZ, PRESIDENT OF LA CELAC

          Senor President of the United States,

          Señoras y Señores Jefes de Estado y de Gobierno

          Ladies and Gentlemen

          I want to use these words estimating the efforts made in the organization of this Novena Cumbre de las Américas.

          I regret that we were not able to be present all those who should have been, in this context that is so conducive to the debate.
          Today I have to speak on my condition of president for the time of CELAC.

          We are the Community of States of Latin America and the Caribbean.

          There we live together in diversity and respect each other.

          We have different views, but we share similar concerns in this present complex.

          We are concerned that Latin America and the Caribbean have emerged from the pandemic as the most indebted region of the developing world.

          The average weight of the foreign product exceeds 77% of the regional gross product.

          We are concerned about the informality of work, which today exceeds 50%.

          Duel us this kind of “birth lottery” that happens to be born in humble pueblos of our region, vean reduce their life expectancies by 15 years with respect to who were born in accommodated neighborhoods.

          Why do we suffer so many shortages if our land has equipped us to produce food and energy like many regions in the world?

          The answer is found in the global order.

          The central world has established financial rules that are evidently inequitable.

          A few wells concentrate the entrance of millions of human beings who are trapped in the poverty hole.

          From the periphery in which they place us, Latin America and the Caribbean look out on pain and suffering that overtakes hermanos pueblos.

          Cuba supports a blockade of more than six decades imposed during the years of the “Cold War” and Venezuela tolerates another while a pandemic that devastates humanity takes millions of lives with it.

          With measures of this type, it is sought to condition the government, but in los hechos it only regrets los pueblos.

          Definitely hubiésemos dear another Cumbre de las Américas.

          The silence of los absentees challenges us.

          In order for them to be in the future, they would like to be seated for the future, which has to be the host country of the Summit and does not grant the ability to impose an “admission right” on the member countries of the continent.

          The dialogue on diversity is the best instrument to promote democracy, modernization and the fight against inequality.

          President Biden.

          I am sure that it is time to open up in a fraternal way instead of favoring common interests.

          The years prior to the defeat of the Government of the United States of America were signed by an immensely harmful policy for our region implemented by the administration that preceded it.

          It is time that these policies change and the damages are repaired.

          The OAS has been used as a gendarme that facilitated a coup d’état in Bolivia.

          They have taken advantage of the conduct of the Inter-American Development Bank that I have historically studied in Latin American hands.

          The actions to approach Cuba were dismantled, in which Papa Francisco mediated, which had signified advances made by the administration of Barack Obama, while he was vice president.

          The intervention of Donald Trump’s government before the International Monetary Fund was decisive in facilitating an unsustainable endowment in favor of a declining Argentine government.

          The only purpose was to prevent what ended up being the electoral triumph of our political power.

          Due to such indecency it suffers today all over the Argentinean pueblo.

          In this Summit, we must analyze the present and design the morning after a creative reconstruction of multilateralism.

          It is not possible to impose a single thought in a world that demands symphonic harmony in the face of common dramas.

          Here, allow me to highlight the urgent need to rebuild the institutions that were designed precisely to integrate us.

          The OAS, if it wants to be respected and return to being the regional political platform for which it was created, must be restructured, removing immediately the conduction.

          La Banca de Desarrollo Regional, without further delay, you have to return to your government in Latin America and the Caribbean.

          The IDB requires a capitalization process to have more and better means of financing.

          In America in which we live, exclusions are also acceptable, sustainable financing, productive diversification, technology for social progress and gender equity.

          We take on the challenge of addressing the deep causes that put tension in our democratic coexistence.

          The world is being threatened by hateful opportunists who have become discouraged in pueblos very hit by the pandemic.

          It’s time to face them.

          Latin America and the Caribbean know the need for integration as a basic condition to achieve development.

          The invasion of Russia on Ukraine has a full impact on nosotros.

          It is urgent to build negotiation scenarios that will end the war catastrophe.

          Without humiliation or desire for domination.

          Without dehumanized geopolitics and the privileges of violence.

          May the humanitarian tragedy we live through do not blind us.

          I am convinced that we are facing the opportunity to plan the development of a true Common Strategic Association.

          We propose the main objectives: continentally organic food and protein production and development of our enormous energy potential and critical minerals for the ecological transition.

          I come from a humanist country where we enshrine the value of human rights as the heart of our identity and we will always defend its validity in all areas.

          Precisely for this reason it is natural for us to think about the construction of a sustainable, resilient and equitable future, as the motto of this summit says.

          I haven’t come to Los Angeles to discuss when to do it.

          The Moment is today.

          El hambre attacks.

          We only have to debate how to do it.

          In the face of so much inequality, we must plant the need for progressive imposing policies, even when the domestic elites present us as a danger to democratic quality.

          The unexpected income that the war gave as a gift to large food, oil and arms corporations should be recorded to improve the distribution of income.

          Why did they choose us if we were not to take further measures for the benefit of the population group and the few?

          There is no theory of the spillage of wealth that has worked.

          Now is the time for us to take note and act accordingly.

          The climate change also faces us with new challenges.

          El Caribe suffers it in a dramatic way and there is no time to wait for answers.

          We are environmental creditors.

          We provide oxygen to the planet and we are not responsible for emitting the gases that cause the greenhouse effect.

          The environmental injustice we live through destroys our continent.

          We must face the ecological transition with enough financial aid to move innovation with social justice.

          Argentina is a peaceful country.

          We continue to claim, through diplomatic channels, the legitimate rights that belong to us on our Malvinas Islands.

          We continue to trust in dialogue.

          After the tragedy of the pandemic, we observe the wars as the triumph of human insensitivity.

          We must build together, in unity, a renewed humanism, which, as Pope Francis teaches, begins for the last ones, to reach everyone.

          United or dominated.

          United by the “common house” or dominated by the economic code.

          United by multilateralism or dominated by polarization.

          United for democracy with social inclusion or dominated by individualism and collective misery.

          President Biden.

          I’m here trying to build bridges and tear down walls.

          As president of CELAC, I would like to invite you to participate in our next plenary meeting.

          Sueño that in a fraternally united America, we commit ourselves to that all the human beings that inhabit our continent have right to the pan, to the land, to the technology and a worthy work.

          ANNEXES

          1 – MOTHERS OF PRAÇA DE MAIO

          2 – PHOTOS

          ***
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          Tags: alberto fernandez , anti- imperialism , argentina , summit of the americas , SPEECH EN LA NOVENA CUMBRE DE LAS AMERICAS , multilateralism , PRESIDENT OF LA CELAC. celac

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          Sunday, June 12, 2022
          HOW UKRAINE SERVES IMPERIALISM * RUY DIAZ / HONDURAS
          HOW UKRAINE SERVES IMPERIALISM

          RUY DIAZ / HONDURAS

          Does Joe Biden remember that his colleague George W. Bush used internationally banned white phosphorus bombs and MK77 (a derivative of napalm) in Iraq?

          “For Ukraine to survive and prosper, it must not be the outpost of one side against the other, but must act as a bridge between them. The West must understand that, for Russia, Ukraine can never be just a foreign country.” . Even famous dissidents such as Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn and Joseph Brodsky insisted that Ukraine was an integral part of Russian and indeed Russian history. Ukraine must not join NATO.” Henry Kissinger (2014).

          However, one of the most surprising things in the statements of the main European leaders is the downplaying of the impact of the war in Ukraine and the surprising optimism that their words exude.

          European leadership continues to put the need for a military victory first, conveying security and confidence in it, while ensuring that economic problems will be resolved without difficulty and that it is a price to pay for defending Ukraine’s territorial integrity and international law. .

          The reality is that international law and national sovereignty have been blown up many times in the last 20 years in the world, but the sanctions against the aggressor countries were far from the ones being applied now. In most cases, they just didn’t exist.

          For Biden, the defense of Ukraine is functional to his interests. It’s as if I don’t believe in your eagerness to defend Ukraine’s democracy and sovereignty. It turns out that we are all slaves to our words. Also Biden, when, in order to leave Afghanistan, he publicly confessed that the reason for the US intervention for 20 years was not to establish democracy in that country, as his political propaganda said, but to strictly guarantee US national security,

          and in In a global world, US security is at stake in every corner of the planet, so its military intervention has no limits.

          On the other hand, on June 3, 2022, the Minister of Foreign Affairs of India (Jaishankar) spoke at the Globsec 2022 forum in Slovakia. When asked why India won’t stop buying Russian oil, Jaishankar replied: “Somehow Europe has to get out of the mindset that Europeans’ problems are the world’s problems, but the world’s problems are not the world’s problems. world. .” Europe… If we saw Europe as a collective, which has been singularly quiet about a lot of things going on, in Asia, for example, we might ask why anyone in Asia should trust Europe… for anything.”

          Over the past three decades, India has been a close ally of the US, moving ever closer to its narrative of world events. However, in recent months, India’s reaction to the West, which has been arming Ukraine and imposing sanctions against Russia, demonstrates a change in this trend. Not only has it refused to sever ties with Russia, it has increased its purchases of crude oil, and the Indian national oil company is buying Russian assets dumped by Western companies.

          In addition, India is part of the Quadrilateral Security Dialogue (abbreviated in English as Quad) alliance, which includes Australia, Japan and the USA. The Quad’s objective is to encircle China. The alliance has been called “Asian NATO” and is supposed to be the front line in the US pressure campaign against China. However, in recent months, Australia, India and Japan have shown they are unwilling to join a quixotic campaign against the Chinese led by Washington.

          Recall that Australia and Japan’s main trading partner is China, not the US, and both nations have joined the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP), which is the largest existing trading bloc and of which the US is not a member.

          The fact that major Asian countries continued to trade with Russia blunted Western sanctions. Now China imports 800,000 barrels of Russian oil a day; India, 700,000 barrels, and their volumes of natural gas are similar. Buying Russian hydrocarbons at a discount is a tough offer to compete in a world experiencing the highest inflation rates in 40 years.
          *
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          Tags: HOW UKRAINE SERVES IMPERIALISM , honduras , imperialism , american intervention , joe biden , nazi laboratory , RUY DIAZ , ukraine
          ÁLVARO VIEIRA PINTO * By: @dautera
          ÁLVARO VIEIRA PINTO

          Today, June 11, 2022, marks the 35th anniversary of Álvaro Vieira Pinto’s death. He was undoubtedly the main Brazilian thinker of the 20th century and considered by many to be the most outstanding philosopher. He left an immense theoretical production on the Brazilian reality.

          His concern was to find emancipatory paths for an underdeveloped country. If our time is marked by the absence of critical awareness of society and politics, we have a duty to meet Álvaro Vieira Pinto and study his work.

          I would like to highlight here what was, in my opinion, one of Vieira Pinto’s main contributions to Latin American and Brazilian societies: Consciência e Realidade Nacional, a book written in 1960, in the turmoil of Brazilian critical thinking, for some a prehistoric period. revolutionary. A book that should be read by every critical Brazilian intellectual, since there, in addition to a theory of the nation, and its relationship with the capitalist totality, Vieira Pinto discusses two essential things nowadays: I) national revolution and destiny project and II ) principles of a nationalist policy. He says about the project of a nation’s destiny: “it is the project of being, the decision to self-determine, to take from oneself the form that one wants to take on.

          It is through its project that the national community rises to the condition of totality. And as a project is the will to assume an independent historical form and function, in the whole of the surrounding universe, the category of totality reveals itself, by this fact, as a historical category. It belongs to the critical awareness of the national reality, because it is a constitutive idea of ​​the evolutionary process of the community, in its desire for autonomous performance.

          Only the nations that conquer a significant historical role are wholes”. In addition to other fundamental books for understanding Brazilian society, Vieira Pinto focused on the concept of technology. It was the way he found to show the contradictions in the development of productive forces and their consequences for underdeveloped countries. Above all, he was a harsh critic of the ideology of technology.

          NATIONAL CONSCIOUSNESS AND REALITY

          ACCESS AND READ FREE
          Conscience and National Reality * Alvaro Vieira Pinto
          &
          NETWORK OF STUDIES ON ÁLVARO VIEIRA PINTO
          Network of Studies on Álvaro Vieira Pinto
          BOOKS BY ÁLVARO VIEIRA PINTO
          Books by Álvaro Vieira Pinto | Álvaro Vieira Pinto
          By: @dautera
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          Tags: alvaro vieira pinto , anti- imperialism , Brazil , conscience and national reality , nationality , Brazilian problems , national sovereignty
          HYBRID WARS AND THE ROLE OF THE OAS * Silvina Romano and Aníbal García Fernández
          HYBRID WARS AND THE ROLE OF THE OAS

          Silvina Romano and Aníbal García Fernández

          The OAS has an extensive interventionist history. His actions and statements are not isolated events: they are part of the hybrid war practiced by the US establishment, as a strategic update of old national security doctrines.

          In the last decades we have witnessed several mechanisms of destabilization that led to “soft” or conventional coups d’état. In these processes, various strategies implemented by the right and local elites were articulated, which sometimes found support in governments or sectors of power in countries such as the USA and even members of the European Union. The organizational and personal ties that make these relationships viable are based on an institutional architecture created, to a large extent, at the beginning of the Cold War, and consolidated over the last seven decades.

          At that time, with the excuse of “containing communism” – the main concern of US foreign policy – ​​its intelligence apparatus was organized, including the institutionalization of psychological warfare. This war was part of a series of strategies that could operate jointly or in isolation, incorporating, among other things, covert operations: “…activities conducted or financed by this government against hostile foreign states or groups, or on behalf of allied states, which are planned and executed in such a way that the US government does not appear to be responsible, in order to be able to disregard such facts and persons [including] propaganda, economic warfare, (…) assistance to insurgent movements, guerrillas and refugee groups ,

          In turn, psychological warfare was organized and defined under the umbrella of what came to be called “political warfare”, understood as the continuation of war by other means. This ranged from overt actions such as political alliances, economic measures and propaganda, to covert actions and clandestine support for partners or friends in other countries, as well as psychological warfare and support and encouragement of grassroots resistance in enemy countries (FRUS, 1948).

          Over the decades, part of these strategies became natural. They became part of “public diplomacy” and were largely institutionalized through an architecture of governmental and non-governmental organizations articulated around “development assistance”. Both these tools and the activities linked to covert operations are articulated around destabilization processes that can be conceived as hybrid wars (Korybko, 2019). They include war actions “which can be, to a large extent, not attributable and, therefore, applicable in those situations in which more open actions —and taking into account their degree of exposure—could generate rejection” (García Guindo and Martínez Valera González , 2015), and are recognized as a continuation of “special or “limited or flexible” warfare,

          A key aspect of the psychological and political warfare component in hybrid wars is the manipulation of local and global public opinion. In the age of communication, the positioning of the media and the prevailing climate in social networks are fundamental. In processes of destabilization, a manufacture of consensus often operates quite efficiently (Chomsky and Herman, 2000) among expert voices and opinion leaders that bias perceptions and sentiments in favor or against particular groups, sectors, or political leaders. International and regional organizations can play an important role in this dynamic.
          The diplomatic route as political pressure: the role of the OAS in hybrid warfare

          Regional and international organizations have played an important role in the formation, legalization and legitimation of this Cold War institutional architecture, anchored in center-periphery relations. One of the clearest examples in the region is the role of the OAS, active in destabilization operations and coups against governments classified as communist or progressive. According to several experts, organizations such as the OAS “facilitate the expansion of dominant economic and social forces with the following characteristics: 1) they incorporate the rules that facilitate the expansion of hegemonic world orders; 2) they are themselves a product of the hegemonic world order; 3) ideologically legitimize the norms of the world order; 4) they co-opt the elites of peripheral countries and 5) they absorb counter-hegemonic ideas” (Cox, 1981).

          It was during the coup d’etat in Bolivia that OAS interference reached its maximum level, changing the course of domestic politics and paving the way for a coup d’état.

          The most striking precedent in this regard was the psychological warfare operation implemented against the government of Jacobo Arbenz in Guatemala (1951-1954), which deliberately included diplomatic pressure. In the documents of the Tenth Inter-American Conference, held in March 1954 in Caracas, one can read: “the threat of an OAS or Foreign Ministers’ conference must be adequately fulfilled and reiterated. The purpose of the conference is to provide evidence that Guatemala constitutes a threat to hemispheric solidarity and the internal security of nations due to aggressive communist subversion” (FRUS, 1952-1954). This objective is also evidenced in the documents of “Operativo Éxito”, through which the destabilization and coup against the Arbenz government was organized. Since then,
          What is the OAS doing today?

          It is precisely in times of progressive governments, and in particular after the assumption of Luis Almagro as Secretary General, that the OAS incorporated interference with greater visibility and power, in line with Donald Trump’s “recharged imperialism” (Romano, 2020). The policies related to Venezuela are just a sample of the lack of adherence to the rules and the evident submission to the specific interests of some governments, such as the US.

          However, it was during the coup d’etat in Bolivia that OAS interference reached its maximum degree, altering the course of domestic politics and paving the way for a coup d’état. In the October 2019 elections, the OAS Election Observation Mission stated in a preliminary report the alleged existence of fraud on the part of the ruling party (Movement for Socialism). The aforementioned report, which supported the hypothesis of a coup without reliable evidence, was taken as proof of truth by several actors: by the opposition and voices of local experts, and internationally by the media and social networks.

          But why was this opinion of the Election Observation Mission so strong? What allowed you to quickly influence locally and internationally? This is due to the aforementioned institutional framework, which has lasted from the Cold War to the present day. It is up to it to articulate interests, funding and people and organizations —whether deliberately or not—promote ideas and policies contrary to sovereignty, self-determination and state intervention in the economy. One of the most interesting personal trajectories in this regard is that of Almagro himself, linked long before the 2019 elections to part of the Bolivian right and to regional and global institutions. In December 2019, shortly after the coup in Bolivia, Arturo Murillo, the de facto government minister, inaugurated his post by traveling to the US, where he held meetings with Luis Almagro and the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights (IACHR). . He also visited Mauricio Claver-Carone (current president of the IDB) and participated in the event at AS/COA together with US Senator Marco Rubio.
          In 2017 Almagro received the Freedom Award in Washington (Erbol, 2017). He received the award from former Bolivian President Jorge “Tuto” Quiroga, in the presence of Venezuelan opponent Carlos Vecchio. Freedom House is an international organization funded, among others, by the National Endowment for Democracy (NED), the Agency for International Development (USAID) and the US Department of State (Ampuero, Romano and Calderón Castillo, 2017). The Heritage Foundation was one of the think tanks that provided the Trump administration with specialized personnel in different areas (Maler, 2018).
          To complete

          The drift that the OAS took under the leadership of Luis Almagro was openly criticized by various actors and sectors, including within the institution itself . However, as we have stated, these are not isolated events in the history of an organization forged in the heat of “anti-communism” (as an all-inclusive enemy) that characterized inter-American policy, under US guidelines, during the Cold War (with worrying elements of continuity) (Romano, 2022). It is important to make visible the institutional, organizational and personal networks that have been reproduced since those years; learn about the programs and projects that these networks carry out in the countries of the region; review their objectives, the allocation of the budget they manage and the interests of the fund.
          &
          ALMAGRO&CIA

          with Camacho – Bolivia

          Proposing military intervention against Maduro

          With Rosa María Payá – anti-Cuban Catholic Church,
          during a first visit to the OAS in Washington

          with Lenin Moreno

          With Eduardo Bolsonaro – Brazil

          With Sergio Moro from Brazil

          With Weintraub – Brazil

          With Duke – Colombia

          With Michel Temer – Brazil

          With Guaido – Venezuela

          ANTICUBAN MEETING OAS
          Secretary General Luis Almagro with San Isidro Movement co-founder Amaury Pacheco (second from right) and other artists affiliated with the collective. According to research by the Samuel Robinson Institute , MSI receives financial support from the Atlas Foundation, the Pan American Development Foundation, USAID and the NED.
          ***
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          Tags : counterrevolution , coup , HYBRID WARS AND THE ROLE OF THE OAS , imperialism , US intervention , luis almagro , oea , Silvina Romano and Aníbal García Fernández

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          1. Saturday, June 11, 2022
            LOS ANGELES A NEST OF SNAKES A SHAMEFUL DEFEAT * Oscar Barrantes Rodríguez / Costa Rica
            LOS ANGELES A NEST OF SNAKES A SHAMEFUL DEFEAT

            Washington’s senile insanity insisted on forcing the cabal out of Los Angeles. With the grandiloquent, excessive and abusive label: “IX Summit of the Americas”.

            The confused management team of the current White House administration, with Biden, Harris and Blinken, as the watchdogs of a warmongering, geoglobalist and unipolar exceptionalist doctrine, accelerate their feverish anxieties of neocolonial plunder and the predatory greed of imperialist capitals and their immoral terrorist authoritarianism, and irreversible bankruptcy, isolation and catastrophe.

            This is an observable reality without the need to focus too much light on the apex of current events. The Despair and Compulsions of the Biden-Harris-Government

            Blinken are palpable, with the warmongering decisions, absurd sanctions and provocations against Russia.

            The rabid and virulent siege of the Russian Federation, the People’s Republic of China, North Korea, the Islamic Republic of Iran, Socialist Cuba, the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela, the sovereign Nicaragua, the Plurinational State of Bolivia, expanded in multiple forms, tactics, methods of warfare and multidimensional scenarios, however, failed and was defeated on all counts.

            The boomerang effect appeared and intensified, having an unsuspected impact on the economy, amplifying social inequality, misery, discrimination, precariousness, methods of labor exploitation, rampant inflation, roaring unemployment, productive contraction and recession. .

            The serious and irreconcilable structural contradictions exacerbated by the objective becoming of the development of the material base and, at the same time; the erosion of capitalist-imperialist relations of production.

            Like crazed sorcerers, they have been raving about executive measures and arrogant with sanctions and energy supply boycotts, financial transactions, freezing Russia’s assets and stable reserves in foreign banks, stealing solid Russian funds and dividends, from banking networks. international, bans on Russian imports and exports; among other sarcastic and erratic measures, from Organs tyrannical organs of Washington and the power of Western Europe…

            What they call the “Summit of the Americas”, the State Department know-it-alls, is nothing more than a political lobby promoted by the hegemonic aristocracy of the United States, to expose economic, political and military blackmail packages to leaders, oligarchies, mafias Creole capitalists and other political worms – franchise management, for the commercialization of votes in the government administration’s auction, in countries of the continent.

            An artificial model of coercion, influence and despotic control of governments, states, republics and nations of the “Americas”.

            The permanent body to manage this mechanism of imperialist submission is the “Organization of American States” OAS and its General Secretariat: This is the gear of the geopolitics of Yankee neocolonialism and the transmission belts of the recolonization strategy. with its exclusivist doctrine of colonizing global unipolarism.

            They are fossilized in the twisted irons of the “Monroe” and “Manifest Destiny” doctrines. They rave about the arrogance of considering Latin America and the Caribbean as their “backyard.” In this way, they consider themselves anointed to command and with jurisdiction to govern the destinies of our nations, according to their interests and greed.

            With a gnawed speech they take from the trunks eaten by the moth of arrogant ambition, the papyri speaking of withered democracies, praetorian liberties, primitive plans of aid to progress and development.

            As in the sixties, they launched the “Alliance for Progress” program of the International Development Agency (IDA). An irregular design of war and counter-insurgency, which tried to neutralize the sympathy aroused by the Cuban Revolution and overthrow the independent social project of socialist transformation.

            In these times and in the bad omens that global imperialism has reaped, Washington and the senile leader with his grotesque madness; the wood of the ill-fated “Dome of the Americas” is rotten. The rehearsal of plans to continue besieging Cuba, the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela, Nicaragua and plurinational Bolivia, is hanging by the “wings of a cockroach” in the canyon in which it finds itself, the distorted war policy of the United States and its fundamentalist strategy of unilateral, dogmatic, authoritarian and catastrophic geoglobalism.

            Unconventional warfare in the Americas has capsized in the rebellious waters of the dignity, resistance and solidarity of the peoples of Latin America and the Caribbean.

            The continuous blockade against Cuba, the aggression against Nicaragua, the siege against Bolivarian Venezuela, the sedition against the Plurinational State of Bolivia, were defeated once again.

            The attempt to remove revolutionary and anti-imperialist nations and governments – Socialist Cuba, the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela and Sandinista Nicaragua – from a hemispheric conclave cost them dearly.

            The caste of villains and tyrants, absolute owners of capital, wealth and power in the United States, has isolated itself even more in the lair of medievalism, in the caves of slavery, in the melancholy of monarchical absolutism.

            Those who call themselves the heralds of democracy attack with their autocratic bestialities, to the detriment of real and realized democracy, denying with impunity and abusively the participation of sovereign states and free nations such as Nicaragua, Venezuela and Cuba.

            With the issue of democracy on the agenda, the Los Angeles caucus begins with an anti-democratic and dictatorial menu of exclusion, at the whim of Washington’s bosses and potentates, as revenge for the hatred they profess against countries with popular and genuinely democratic governments, which decide autonomously, with courage, identity and originality, to respond to the immoral maneuvers of interventionism and asymmetric warfare, implemented against sovereign and constitutional states.

            With the common sense of liberating thinking and democratic governance, we witnessed a rebellion by the governments of Latin America and the Caribbean, which demonstrated the power of moral integrity, perseverance and the character of friendship and the feeling of unity of cities.

            Presidents and other state leaders made the wise decision to reject the invitation and argue their absence as an act of solidarity and commitment, with regional integration, unrestricted friendship and the unique unity of nations.

            This is an irreversible defeat of the interventionist, hegemonic, expansionist and fascist strategy of the Biden-Harris government, the State Department, the Southern Command and the Military Industrial Complex of global imperialism.

            This is a victory for the peoples, for the people’s democracy under construction, for the anti-imperialist revolutionary project and in the face of the storm clouds of the bellicose strategy of recolonization and barbarism, which the imperial-terrorist state of the United States unsuccessfully tried to perpetuate.

            The geostrategic reconfiguration of the continent is advancing, with the palpitations of the revival of the independence revolution and the new political will to forge renewed forms of regional integration.

            The restoration of the philosophical model of unity of nations in “La Patria Grande”. And the strengthening of a convergence mechanism for the political dialogue of States, such as CELAC.

            The communion of peoples in solidarity, friendship and common struggle, in the face of the global domination of imperialism, is an inexorable fact of the times that will make them definitively free.

            Oscar Barrantes Rodriguez
            Bolivarian Circle Yamileth López

            Costa Rican Popular Center for Social Studies CBYLO – CPCES

            San Ramon – Costa Rica

            ….

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            Tags : cupula das amercicas , divisionism , exclusion , imperialism , joe biden , LOS ANGELES A NEST OF SNAKES A SHAME DEFEAT , Oscar Barrantes Rodríguez
            CHÁVEZ HURRICANE MADE PEOPLE * NELIO GABAN / JOSÉ G. ALCALÁ – Venezuela
            CHÁVEZ HURRICANE MADE PEOPLE

            ACCESS AND READ FREE
            CHÁVEZ FURACAO MADE PEOPLE * NERIO GALBAN / JOSE G ALCALA
            NELIO GABAN / JOSÉ G. ALCALÁ

            MALCOM X / HUGO CHÁVEZ

            Illustrious Venezuelans

            VENEZUELA AGAINST DRUG TRAFFICKING

            OUR AMERICA
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            Tags : biography , Chavez, Hurricane Made People , Hugo Chavez , Jose G Alcala , Nelio Gaban
            BILDERBERG MAKES CHINA * Pepe Escobar
            BILDERBERG MAKES CHINA

            Pepe Escobar

            June 03, 2022

            When Davos and the Bilderberg messengers look at the Great Chessboard, they realize their era of perpetual free lunch is over.

            Discreetly, as under the radar as an impending virus, the 68th Bilderberg meeting is currently taking place in Washington, DC Nothing to see here. No “secret cabal” conspiracy theories, please. It’s just a meek “diverse group of political leaders and pundits” talking, laughing and bubbling up.

            However, one cannot help but notice that the choice of location says more than the entire Library of Alexandria, burned to the ground. In the year that heralds the outbreak of an expected proxy war between NATO and Russia, discussing its myriad ramifications is far more appropriate for the capital of the Empire of Lies than it was for Davos a few weeks ago, where a certain Henry Kissinger shuddered proposing the need for a toxic compromise called “diplomacy”.

            The Bilderberg 2022 attendee list is a delight to read. Here are some of the strengths:

            James Baker, Consigliere Extraordinary, now a mere director of the Pentagon’s Network Assessment Office.

            José Manuel Barroso, former head of the European Commission, who later received a golden parachute in the form of president of Goldman Sachs International.

            Albert Bourla, president of Pfizer.

            William Burns, director of the CIA.

            Kurt Campbell, the guy who invented the Obama/Hillary “pivot to Asia,” now the White House coordinator for the Indo-Pacific.

            Mark Carney, former Bank of England, one of the Great Reset designers, now Vice President of Brookfield Asset Management.

            Henry Kissinger, the voice of the establishment (or a war criminal: take your pick).

            Charles Michel, President of the European Council.

            Minton Beddoes, editor-in-chief of The Economist, who will duly convey all of Bilderberg’s main guidelines on upcoming magazine covers.

            David Petraeus, Certified Endless Wave Loser and President of the KKR Global Institute.

            Mark Rutte, Prime Minister of the Netherlands.

            Jens Stoltenberg, NATO Parrot, sorry, Secretary General.

            Jake Sullivan, director of the National Security Council.

            The ideological and geopolitical affiliations of these members of the “diverse group” need no further detail. Things get positively sexier when we see what they’re going to discuss.

            Among other topics we find «the challenges of NATO»; “the Indo-Pacific realignment”; “continuity of government and economy” (Conspiracists: Continuity in Case of Nuclear War?); “disruption of the global financial system” (already underway); «post-pandemic health» (Conspiracists: how to design the next pandemic?); “trade and deglobalization”; and of course the wagyu steaks of choice – Russian and Chinese.

            Since Bilderberg follows Chatham House rules, mere mortals will have no idea what they actually “proposed” or approved of, and none of the participants will be able to talk about it with anyone else. One of my top New York sources, with direct access to most Masters of the Universe, loves to joke that Davos and Bilderberg are just for the messengers: the guys who actually run the show don’t even bother showing up, hiding in their meetings. super-private clubs into super-private clubs, where real decisions are made.

            Still, anyone who follows the rotten state of the “rules-based international order” in any detail will have a good idea of ​​the 2022 Bilderberg conversation.
            what the chinese say

            Secretary of State Little Blinken — Sullivan’s partner in the current administration’s Crash Test Dummy remake of Dumb and Dumber — recently claimed that China “supports” Russia in Ukraine rather than remaining neutral.

            What really matters here is that little Blinken is insinuating that Beijing wants to destabilize Asia-Pacific, which is blatant nonsense. However, this is the master narrative that should pave the way for the US to strengthen its “Indo-Pacific” invention. And that’s the briefing Sullivan and Kurt Campbell will offer the “diverse group.”

            Davos – with its new mantra calling itself “The Great Narrative” – ​​completely excluded Russia. Bilderberg is mainly about containing China, which is after all the main existential threat to the Empire of Lies and its satrapies.

            Rather than waiting for Bilderberg tidbits released by The Economist, it is far more productive to see what a fact-based cross-section of the Chinese intelligentsia thinks about the new scheme of the ‘collective West’.

            Let’s start with Justin Lin Yifu, former chief economist at the World Bank and now dean of the Institute of New Structural Economics at Peking University, and Sheng Songcheng, former head of the Department of Statistics and Financial Studies at the Bank of China.

            They anticipate that if China reaches Covid-19’s “dynamic zero contagion” at the end of May (which actually happened: see the end of the Shanghai shutdown), the Chinese economy could grow by 5.5% in 2022.

            They reject the imperial attempt to establish an “Asian version of NATO”: “As long as China continues to grow at a higher rate and open up, European and ASEAN countries will not participate in the US decoupling trap to ensure their economic growth and job creation.

            Three scholars from the Shanghai Institute of International Studies and Fudan University do the same: the announced “Indo-Pacific Economic Scheme”, which was supposed to be the economic pillar of the Indo-Pacific strategy, is nothing more than an uncomfortable attempt to “weaken ASEAN’s internal cohesion and regional autonomy.”

            Liu Zongyi points out that China’s position at the center of Asia’s highly interconnected supply chains “has been consolidated”, especially now with the start of the planet’s largest trade agreement, the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP).

            Chen Wengling, chief economist at a think tank at the leading National Development and Reform Commission, points to the “widespread ideological and technological war against China” launched by the Americans.

            But he insists that “they are not prepared for a hot war as the US and Chinese economies are very closely linked.” The crucial vector is that «USA. has yet to make substantial progress in strengthening its supply chain, focusing on four main fields, including semiconductors.”

            Chen is concerned about “China’s energy security”; “China’s silence” on US sanctions on Russia, which “may lead to US retaliation”; and, crucially, how “China’s plan to build the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) with Ukraine and EU countries will be affected?” What will happen in practice is that the BRI will favor the economic corridors through Iran and West Asia, as well as the Maritime Silk Road, rather than the Trans-Siberian corridor through Russia.

            It is up to Yu Yongding of the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences (CASS) and former member of the Central Bank’s Monetary Policy Committee to go for the jugular, noting how “the global financial system and the US dollar have become geopolitical weapons”. The US’s nefarious behavior in freezing foreign exchange reserves has not only seriously damaged US international credibility, but has also shaken the credit foundations of the dominant international financial system in the West.”

            It expresses the consensus among Chinese intelligence that “if there is a geopolitical conflict between the US and China, China’s overseas assets will be seriously threatened, especially its huge reserves. Therefore, it is urgent to adjust the composition of China’s foreign financial assets and liabilities and reduce the proportion of US dollar-denominated assets in its reserve portfolio.”
            This chess board is shit

            A serious debate is taking place in virtually every sector of Chinese society over US arming the global financial casino. The conclusions are inevitable: get rid of the US Treasury, quickly, by any means necessary; more imports of raw materials and strategic materials (hence the importance of the Russia-China strategic partnership); and firmly hold foreign assets, especially foreign exchange reserves.

            Meanwhile, Bilderberg’s “diverse group” across the ocean is discussing, among other things, what will actually happen if they force the IMF racket (a key plan to implement the Big Reset, or “Big Narrative”).

            They are literally starting to freak out over the slow but sure emergence of an alternative resource-based monetary/financial system: exactly what the Eurasian Economic Union (UEE) is currently discussing and designing, with input from China.

            Imagine a counter-Bilderberg system in which a basket of resource-rich but financially poor players from the Global South are able to issue their own commodity-backed currencies, eventually breaking free of their IMF hostage status. All of them are paying close attention to the Russian gas experiment for rubles.

            And in the particular case of China, what will always matter is the abundance of productive capital supporting a massive and extremely deep industrial and civil infrastructure.

            No wonder the messengers from Davos and Bilderberg, when they look at the Great Chessboard, are filled with dread: their era of perpetual free lunch is over. What would delight cynics, skeptics, Neoplatonists, and Taoists in abundance is that it was the men (and women) of Davos-Bilderberg who really put themselves into the zugzwang.

            All dressed up – with nowhere to go. Even JP Morgan’s Jamie Dimon – who didn’t even bother to go to Bilderberg – is scared, saying an economic “hurricane” is coming. And knocking over the chessboard is no cure: at best, it might invite a ceremonious tuxedo visit from Mr. Sarmat and Mr. Zircon using some hypersonic bubble.
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            Tags: bilderberg , rich club , economics , geopolitics , economic group , imperialism , power
            Friday, June 10, 2022
            STALINGRAD THE CITY THAT DEFEATED NAZISM * JOCHEN HELLBECK
            STALINGRADO THE CITY THAT DEFEATED NAZISM

            Stalingrad The city that defeated Nazism Jochen Hellbeck_220610_172113.pdf

            Stalingrad
            The city that defeated the Third Reich

            Jochen Hellbeck

            Stalingrad was the fiercest and deadliest battle in human history, with a
            estimated death toll of over a million in just six months. Their
            importance was immediately realized by the Soviet authorities, who
            decided to send a delegation of Muscovite historians to record
            for posterity the voices of Stalingrad’s defenders.
            During the battle, no foreign correspondents were allowed to
            travel to Stalingrad. This fact, together with the impossibility of access until very
            recent addition to Russian archives, has made the numerous studies of the Battle of
            Stalingrad presented it through the eyes of the Germans who remained
            stuck in the city.
            With the publication for the first time of the interviews collected in Stalingrad, which
            was buried until now in the archives, this book represents a great
            contribution to the literature on the Second World War. and allow readers
            imagine Red Army soldiers and other city defenders as
            people who think and feel. His testimonies bring the reader closer to the battle and
            offer a vivid description of the actions, thoughts, and feelings of the
            Soviet participants that is not comparable to any other known source.
            They also help to understand some of the big questions about Stalingrad:
            How the Red Army managed to prevail over an enemy considered superior
            in operational planning, military discipline and combat techniques? of which resources
            Stalingrad defenders used to stop the invincibles
            Germans who until then have brought Europe to its knees?
            The book is supplemented by excerpts from letters and statements from soldiers
            Germans taken prisoner by the Soviets, all unheard of so far.
            Jochen Hellbeck offers us the best and most complete narration of what was
            Battle of Stalingrad, now that 75 years have passed since its conclusion.

            Stalingrad…

            the important battle
            The Battle of Stalingrad – the fiercest and deadliest battle in human history
            — ended February 2, 1943. With a death toll estimated at more than one
            million, the bloodshed at Stalingrad far exceeded that at Verdun,
            one of the most cost-effective battles in World War I.
            The Verdun analogy did not go unnoticed by German and Soviet soldiers.
            who fought in Stalingrad. In the descriptions of the “hell of Stalingrad” that
            did in their private letters, some Germans found themselves trapped in
            “a second Verdun”. Many Soviet supporters, in turn, extolled
            Stalingrad, a city with a bloody past war history, like its «Verdun
            Red”, swearing never to hand him over to the enemy. But, as a correspondent in
            October 1942, when reporting from Stalingrad, the besieged city was different from the city
            of Verdun: it did not have the design of a fortress and lacked
            fortifications or concrete shelters. The line of defense crosses vacant lots and courtyards where
            women used to hang clothes, the tracks of a narrow gauge railway, the house in which an accountant lived
            with his wife, his two children and his elderly mother, as well as dozens of similar houses and his now deserted
            destroyed squares and sidewalks, the park where even last summer couples whispered words to each other
            of love sitting on their green benches. A city where peace reigned became a
            city ​​where war reigns. The laws of war put you on the front lines, at the epicenter
            of a battle that will determine the final outcome of the war. In Stalingrad, the line of defense crosses
            the hearts of the Russian people. After sixty days of fighting, the Germans now know what that means.
            “Verdun!” they mock. This is not Verdun. This is something new in the history of war. This is Stalingrad.
            [1]
            During the six months it lasted, the battle also developed into a war.
            of the world media. From the beginning, observers
            both sides turned their attention to this clash of giants on the edge of the
            Europe, proclaiming it as a fact that would decide the Second World War. O
            fight for Stalingrad would become “the most important battle of the war”,
            announced a Dresden newspaper in early August 1942, as did the
            Hitler’s soldiers were preparing to take the city. The diary
            The British Telegraph used the same terms in September. in Berlin Joseph
            Goebbels read the newspapers of Germany’s enemies without blinking an eye. the battle of
            Stalingrad, declared the head of Nazi propaganda, referring to the British press, was
            a “matter of life and death, and all our prestige, as well as that of the Union
            Soviet, will depend on how it ends.
            [2] From October 1942, newspapers
            The Soviets began regularly quoting articles from the Western press in the
            praised the heroism of the soldiers and civilians who defended the city against
            dehumanized German fighters.

            ACCESS AND READ FREE
            STALINGRADO THE CITY THAT DEFEATED NAZISM
            JOCHEN HELLBECK

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            Tags: red army , history , joseph stalin , second world war , STALINGRAD THE CITY THAT DEFEATED NAZISM , stalinism , ussr
            MULTIPOLAR GEOPOLITICS * GENERAL VLADIMIR PADRINO / VENEZUELA
            MULTIPOLAR GEOPOLICY

            ACCESS AND READ FREE
            Multipolar Geopolitics * Vladimir Padrino Lopez
            AND DOWNLOAD THE BOOK IF YOU LIKE IT
            VLADIMIR_PADRINO_LOPEZ_GEOPOLITICA_MULTIPOLAR_DIGITAL_21_DE_ABRIL-1.pdf
            GENERAL VLADIMIR PADRINO / VENEZUELA
            *

            It is clear that so much evil unleashed against Venezuela is not only due to the fact that our model of leading and participatory democracy is a challenge to the anachronistic pseudo-democracy, which the US wants to sell to the world, but also because it considers a threat against its geoeconomic interests and geostrategic. Therefore, to suggest the idea that the Venezuelan conflict is limited only to the fact that a political group ideologically opposed to the ruling party seeks to seize power through illegal means would be an act of extreme stupidity, as unpresentable as thinking that the only thing that is at stake in the defense of the democratic and social State of Law and Justice, the decrees of popular sovereignty and the Bolivarian Revolution,

            Recent events in Eastern Europe, the leading role of the People’s Republic of China on the world stage and the behavior of the Western allies confirm what we were trying to predict in 2020, in my previous publication Thucydides’ climb to tripolarity, when finding the world in full swing transit for a rearrangement of the poles of power in a negotiation table that will have three courses served.

            From this, it is necessary to ask ourselves how Venezuela presents itself in the face of this new reality. In this sense, 15 evaluating the obstacles and setbacks to overcome was the reason for this humble attempt, which corresponds to the conference I gave on December 12, 2021 to the corps of generals and admirals of the Bolivarian National Armed Forces,1 which , In response to requests from my comrades-in-arms and taking into account the current escalation of events in Eastern Europe and the Indo-Pacific, I have decided to publish to share information that may be of interest to all those who, aware of the importance of our Homeland on the international scene, have dedicated efforts to put Venezuela in its rightful place on the global geopolitical agenda.

            This dissertation, in addition to becoming a military tradition that ends each year, carries with it the particularity of the stellar moment that we live at the end of the bicentennial year of the Battle of Carabobo and entering 2022, when we will not only remember the projection of the glory of the liberators of weapons in South America, within the framework of the Bicentennial Cycle, but we will be inspired by recent achievements, such as the recovery of the constitutional thread after the 2002 11A coup d’état; historic event that will soon complete two decades. In addition, comparing the geopolitical situation of the time with the current one forces us to make some reflections that I express in this brief essay, whose objective is to continue developing this idea of ​​the thesis of a New Tripolar World Order in the context of Multipolar Geopolitics.

            ***

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            Tags : anti- imperialism , GENERAL VLADIMIR PADRINO , geopolitics , MULTIPOLAR GEOPOLITICS , multipolarity , venezuela

            https://pcrtbrasil.blogspot.com/search?updated-max=2022-06-13T00:00:00-03:00&max-results=100&start=20&by-date=false

            Friday, June 10, 2022
            ALTERNATIVE MEETINGS AT THE SUMMIT OF AMERICAN IMPERIALISM * PCOA
            ALTERNATIVE MEETINGS AT THE SUMMIT OF AMERICAN IMPERIALISM

            Anti-imperialist working class platform
            (PCOA)
            Image: Urgent Action Fund.
            June 09, 2022.

            Mexico becomes one of the scenarios that will bring together multiple leaders of the working forces, peasants, indigenous peoples, women, progressive and popular organizations of our America, who will give an immediate response to the abuses and impositions of the Biden government and the imperialism agenda that it intends to impose. at the IX Summit of the Americas, which will take place from June 6th to 10th in the city of Los Angeles, USA. The absence of several countries to exclude Cuba, Venezuela and Nicaragua portends another defeat of imperialism in this meeting.

            We will promote active solidarity with sovereign peoples and nations (Cuba, Nicaragua and Venezuela) attacked with the economic blockade and unilateral coercive measures of US imperialism and its partners.

            On the sidelines of the Imperialism Summit convened by US President Joe Biden, the People’s Summit is held in Los Angeles on the same date, with the presence of various political and social movements from Latin America and sectors of the United States. decision to exclude the governments of Cuba, Nicaragua and Venezuela from the hemispheric summit.

            As expected, Biden did not present a single reason that justifies the undemocratic and arbitrary exclusion of any country in the hemisphere from this continental event.

            Regarding the «counter-summer» that was scheduled to take place this week, an organizing activist said that «popular organizations and movements in the United States seek to call attention to all the issues that are important for the pueblos and the fights that are going to be carried out. in this country”.

            The official Cuban statement, on the other hand, assured that “we know that the voice of Latin America and the Caribbean, as in the past, will resonate in those days in Los Angeles, with the admirable and vertical absence of fundamental leaders that enormous political, moral and recognition of their people and the world.

            We appeal to the programmatic unity of workers on the American continent to reflect, debate and produce proposals for action against colonial imperialism, with the strategic objective of combating labor and social violence applied to our peoples by US and Canadian imperialism.

            In the same way, two meetings are taking place, on the initiative of the Nuclei of the Platform of the Anti-imperialist Working Class (PCOA) of Mexico, North America and Mesoamerica. The first is the Meeting of the Peoples of the Americas, in Southern Mexico (Chicomusuelo-Chiapas), which is in full swing (June 7th and 8th) and the other is the Workers’ Summit of the Americas, to be held in Northern Mexico. (Tijuana) between June 10th and 12th, where specific agendas will be established to consolidate the programmatic unity of workers on the American continent.

            We will fight against interference and expansionism by the US, NATO and its global partner Colombia and for the implementation of the Proclamation of Latin America and the Caribbean as a zone of peace (CELAC January 28-29, 2014) for all of Our America.

            Tijuana and Chiapas will become alternative spaces for peoples who have been suffering the vicissitudes of the capitalist system and which is strengthened at the IX Summit of the Americas, a space where the Imperialist Government of the United States unfairly excludes the Sovereign Governments of Cuba, Nicaragua and Venezuela.

            The Meeting of the Peoples of the Americas, to be held on June 7th and 8th in Chiapas – Mexico, will feature the mobilization of more than 7,000 labor, peasant, feminist, indigenous and popular and progressive organizations from Mexico, Honduras, Guatemala and El Salvador, which expressed their active solidarity with sovereign peoples and nations (Cuba, Nicaragua and Venezuela) attacked with the economic blockade and unilateral coercive measures of US imperialism and its allies.

            We want to create a permanent space of solidarity and articulation of workers in anti-imperialist, anti-colonial and anti-patriarchal struggles in the American continent: Latin America and the Caribbean and North America.

            The Summit of Workers of Our America, to be held on June 10, 11 and 12 in Tijuana, Mexico, will receive 200 leaders from Trade Union Organizations and Social Movements from Mexico, Cuba, Colombia, USA and Canada, who will promote the creation of a permanent forum of workers for solidarity and articulation of anti-imperialist, anti-colonial and anti-patriarchal struggles in the American continent

            These activities will bring together various trade union organizations, social movements and progressive organizations from our continent, which will debate and produce proposals for action against colonial imperialism, with the strategic objective of combating labor and social violence applied to our peoples by US and Canadian imperialism. .

            Only the workers’ struggle will save humanity, nature and the planet!!
            We are winning!!
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            Tags: latin america , anti- imperialism , caribbean , ALTERNATIVE MEETINGS AT THE SUMMIT OF AMERICAN IMPERIALISM , class struggle , pcoa
            NOTICE * PCOA SOUTH AMERICA
            ANNOUNCEMENT

            PCOA SOUTH AMERICA

            The Plataforma de la Clase Anti-imperialist Worker of South America PCOA, salutes the Counter Cumbre de los Pueblos, which faces with courage and dignity against imperialism and its “Ministry of Colonies” by the OAS

            Finally, the United States decided to exclude Cuba, Venezuela and Nicaragua of the IX Summit of the Americas.

            With the imperialist arrogance that characterizes the EE governments. UU. It refused to respond to the just demands of numerous governments, so that it could change its arbitrary, discriminatory, reactionary and anti-democratic position.

            The Anti-imperialist Worker’s Class grouped in the PCOA Anti-Imperialist Worker Class of America del Sur PCOA, repudiates and rejects the immoral pressures, blackmail, threats and other deceitful maneuvers that use EE. UU. to achieve your goals.

            These habitual practices of imperialism reflect the traditional disregard of the pueblos of our America. For that, we salute the Counter Cumbre de los Pueblos that faces with courage and dignity against imperialism and its “Ministry of Colonies” by the OAS.

            The United States understands and uses these high-level dialogue mechanisms as instruments of its hegemonic system in the hemisphere, in the style of the Organization of American States (OAS) or the Inter-American Treaty of Reciprocal Assistance (TIAR), to curb independence , limit the sovereignty of the nations of the region and prevent the aspirations of Latin American and Caribbean unity and integration.

            Having our words from our Cuban brothers and sisters, we express: “We cannot speak of “Las Américas” without encompassing all the countries of the hemisphere”. What our region claims is cooperation, not exclusion; solidarity, not mezquindad; respect, not arrogance; sovereignty and free determination, no subordination”.

            Duban Antonio Vélez Mejía, Commissioner for PCOA Colombia liaison Sandra Cossio Colque, Commissioner for PCOA Bolivia

            Alicia Amarilla Leiva, Commissioner for PCOA Paraguay Eduardo Mernies, Commissioner for PCOA Uruguay Leonel Falcon Guerra, Commissioner PCOA Link Commissioner Perú Pascual Mamganiello, PCOA Link Commissioner Argentina

            Erly de los Sangeles Morales Medrano, PCOA Link Commissioner Venezuela John Willian, Link Commissioner PCOA Ecuador

            Juan Cuevas Cerda, PCOA Chile Liaison Commissioner and South America PCOAS Coordinator

            ANNEXES

            ***
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            Tags : anti- imperialism , communiqué , pcoa south america communiqué , class struggle , pcoa
            LAND GRILLING IN BRAZILIAN TERRITORIAL FORMATION * Ariovaldo Umbelino de Oliveira
            GRILLING OF LAND IN BRAZILIAN TERRITORIAL FORMATION

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            GRILLING OF LAND IN BRAZILIAN TERRITORIAL FORMATION * ARIOVALDO UMBELINO DE OLIVEIRA
            ARIOVALDO UMBELINO DE OLIVEIRA
            Ariovaldo Umbelino de Oliveira
            (Organiser)

            Synopsis:

            The work, written by many hands, demonstrates how land grabbing is ingrained in Brazilian society and its consequences for the country’s future. It is a warning so that we can unravel it even more, through these sertões that make up this Brazil. The book addresses the issue of peasants, quilombolas, indigenous people and land grabbers in conflicts in the Brazilian countryside; Ownership Chain: a reading of land grabbing and the constitution of capitalist private land ownership; The methodology of planned slowness, the struggle to retake the illegally owned lands and the plan for a new coup against agrarian reform in Pontal do Paranapanema; National by usurpation: land grabbing as the foundation of Brazilian territorial formation; The processes of taking over the common use and resistance lands of the Geraizeiro peasants in western Bahia; Illegality in continuous motion: the legal contribution for the allocation of public lands and land grabbing in the Amazon; Judicial land grabbing and the advance of private property over land for common use in general; and Territorial planning of the margins of federal highways in Amazonas: 50 years of Decree-Law 1164/71.
            ***
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            Labels: LAND GRILAGE IN BRAZILIAN TERRITORIAL FORMATION , ariovaldo umbelino de oliveira , grilagem , large landholdings , land legislation , agrarian reform , lands
            FREE COURSE ON STALIN * Lejeune Mirhan / SP
            FREE COURSE ON STALIN

            CLASS No. 1
            (67) FREE COURSE ON STALIN – CLASS 1 – WEDNESDAY – 25.05.2022 – YouTube
            CLASS No. 2

            FREE COURSE ON STALIN – CLASS 2 – WEDNESDAY – 01.06.2022 – YouTube
            CLASS No. 3

            Lesson 3 of the Stalin Course – Wednesday – 08.06.22 – YouTube
            ***
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            Tags: communism , free course on stalin , history , history of marxism , ideology , lejeune mirhan , marxism , professor lejeune mirhan , russian revolution
            INTERNATIONAL PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC OF DIGNITY * (PCTB)
            INTERNATIONAL PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC OF DIGNITY

            Resist Colombia!! Mobilize as a united people, in an iron and inseparable unity, in the face of this historic situation, that of defending the crushing defeat that you dealt at the polls to the Colombian paramilitary narco-oligarchy, to the Nazi government of Álvaro Uribe and Iván Duque, the mega electoral fraud, which is huge on the part of this nazifacist narco-oligarchy, for the Colombian people a runoff means death, this runoff mechanism is a deception mechanism created by the nazifacist oligarchies to perpetuate in power, to mobilize the Colombian people like you did in the past seeking peace and justice for his people,

            it is the historic moment for the Colombian people to change and direct the country towards a destiny of peace, social justice, prosperity, to be a country that self-determines its own destiny, free from the interference of the imperialist, yankee supremacist hegemon, this is the exact moment for a mobilization of the entire Colombian people who want peace for their country, it is not just the Peace of Colombia, it is the peace of all our Latin America and the Caribbean, this mega fraud that the Colombian Nazi feudal oligarchy inflicted on Mr. of the Colombian narco-paramilitary narco-oligarchy’s treacherous schemes, is a macabre plan for the Colombian people, which was orchestrated from Washington, the Pentagon itself, the CIA, Israeli Nazi Zionism, the British Nazi Zionist Monarchy and the oligarchic governments and European Nazi-Fascist feudals.

            The American Zionist Nazi supremacist hegemon, the Fourth Reich, has a lot to lose if the United States of America loses Colombia. We all know that Colombia is the most important imperialist base in America for the Yankee thief, because from there they control South America and Central America, through the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Atlantic Ocean, it was through a political-military strategy that Yankee hegemony, Yankee supremacy, militarily occupied Colombia to seize Venezuela’s riches, that’s why Yankee imperialist hegemony, in agreements with Colombian Nazi-fascist paramilitary oligarchies, transformed Colombia into a vulgar colony of imperialism, Nazi oligarchies always at the serving the economic, political and military interests of the United States of America. Another of the objectives of occupying Colombia,

            If the Colombian paramilitary narco-oligarchy loses the presidency of the Republic of Colombia, the imperialist hegemon, the US Zionist Nazi supremacist, is in limbo, losing its main police force in America, it loses its faithful cancer watchdog, which is the the only one that defends its interests, economic, political, military in the region and beyond.

            The Colombian paramilitary narco-oligarchy is so subservient to the Yankee thief that Colombian Nazi politicians lick the buttocks and testicles of the American Nazi government and its imperial politicians.

            The economic situation of Yankee imperialism is extremely serious, its internal and external debt is something unpayable, it will exceed sixty billion dollars, the dollar hegemony has started its free fall and in a turn, its fall is unstoppable, there is no solution to continue the hegemony of the dollar around the world, it is no longer possible for the US government to impose its currency anymore, the best Russian military and chess player Vladimir Putin discovered the weak side of this currency, the dollar, when the whole West united in a band as an organization of mafia criminals, they wanted to crash the Russian people’s economy, destroy it as an economic, scientific and military power.

            American Nazi Zionist imperialism, which then has conversations at the suggestion of England, with the imperialist Yankee hegemon and its Nazi Zionist oligarchy, is a conversation where Hitler exposes his project to the Yankee thief, he talks about the destruction of the Vietnamese Soviet Union and their scientific Marxist-Leninist socialism, and of all those peoples who try to practice these Marxist philosophies, that was their commitment to American imperialism and the European and American Nazi-Facist feudal oligarchies, Hitler’s success in conquering Europe was easy . it was because of the collaboration of these European Nazi-fascist oligarchies that Hitler’s headache was the Soviet Union, which ended up committing suicide due to its resounding failure of this psychopath. who then has conversations at the suggestion of England, with the imperialist Yankee hegemon and his Nazi Zionist oligarchy, is a conversation where Hitler exposes his project to the Yankee thief, he talks about the destruction of the Vietnamese Soviet Union and its scientific Marxist-Leninist socialism, and of all those peoples who try to practice these Marxist philosophies, that was their commitment to US imperialism and the European and US Nazi-Nazi feudal oligarchies, Hitler’s success in conquering Europe was easy. it was because of the collaboration of these European Nazi-Fascist oligarchies that Hitler’s headache was the Soviet Union, that he ended up committing suicide due to his resounding failure of this psychopath. who then has conversations at the suggestion of England, with the imperialist Yankee hegemon and his Nazi Zionist oligarchy, is a conversation where Hitler exposes his project to the Yankee thief, he talks about the destruction of the Vietnamese Soviet Union and its scientific Marxist-Leninist socialism, and of all those peoples who try to practice these Marxist philosophies, that was their commitment to US imperialism and European and US Nazi-Nazi feudal oligarchies, Hitler’s success in conquering Europe was easy. it was because of the collaboration of these European Nazi-Fascist oligarchies that Hitler’s headache was the Soviet Union, that he ended up committing suicide due to his resounding failure of this psychopath. is a conversation where Hitler exposes his project to the Yankee thief, he talks about the destruction of the Vietnamese Soviet Union and its scientific Marxist-Leninist socialism, and of all those peoples who try to practice these Marxist philosophies, that was his commitment to North American imperialism. American and European and North American Nazi-Nazi feudal oligarchies, Hitler’s success in conquering Europe was easy. it was because of the collaboration of these European Nazi-fascist oligarchies that Hitler’s headache was the Soviet Union, which ended up committing suicide due to its resounding failure of this psychopath. is a conversation where Hitler exposes his project to the Yankee thief, he talks about the destruction of the Vietnamese Soviet Union and its scientific Marxist-Leninist socialism, and of all those peoples who try to practice these Marxist philosophies, that was their commitment to North American imperialism. American and European and North American Nazi-Nazi feudal oligarchies, Hitler’s success in conquering Europe was easy. it was because of the collaboration of these European Nazi-fascist oligarchies that Hitler’s headache was the Soviet Union, which ended up committing suicide due to its resounding failure of this psychopath. and of all those peoples who try to practice these Marxist philosophies, that was their commitment to US imperialism and European and US Nazi-Nazi feudal oligarchies, Hitler’s success in conquering Europe was easy. it was because of the collaboration of these European Nazi-Fascist oligarchies that Hitler’s headache was the Soviet Union, that he ended up committing suicide due to his resounding failure of this psychopath. and of all those peoples who try to practice these Marxist philosophies, that was their commitment to US imperialism and European and US Nazi-Nazi feudal oligarchies, Hitler’s success in conquering Europe was easy. it was because of the collaboration of these European Nazi-Fascist oligarchies that Hitler’s headache was the Soviet Union, that he ended up committing suicide due to his resounding failure of this psychopath.

            The order that the English Nazi Zionist monarchy gave to the psychopath Adolf Hitler, was the elimination of all Jewish believers, and who were opposed to this Jewish Nazi Zionist project, the creation of a unipolar, unique and Nazi supremacist Zionist government, was for more of two centuries that these Jewish families opposed this Nazi Jewish project, the order that the English Nazi Zionist monarchy gave to Adolf Hitler, was the elimination of these Jews, those who opposed this Nazi project of a government the only Nazi supremacist, what Hitler later called, the final solution, the physical elimination of these Jews, Soviet Red Army troops arrived in Berlin in the Nazi wolves’ den, destroyed the Soviet Red Army, the greatest dream of Jewish Nazi Zionism,that of having a single Nazi supremacist government that would control all of humanity.

            the USA. North America, go back to the project of destruction of what is now the Russian Federation, to take revenge for the two beatings that the Russian people gave them, Napoleon Bonaparte and Adolf Hitler, the hatred of the Nazi-fascist governments of Europe, the Nazi Zionist monarchies from England, Canada, Australia, today brought together Nazis such as Japan, the former countries that belonged to the former Soviet Union, those that today border the Russian Federation, several of them belong to NATO, these countries are staunch enemies of the people and of the government of the Russian Federation. His hatred is visceral and sickening. the Nazi Zionist monarchies of England, Canada, Australia, today brought together Nazis like Japan, the former countries that belonged to the former Soviet Union, those that today border the Russian Federation, several of them belong to NATO, these countries are enemies staunch supporters of the people and government of the Russian Federation. His hatred is visceral and sickening. the Nazi Zionist monarchies of England, Canada, Australia, today brought together Nazis like Japan, the former countries that belonged to the former Soviet Union, those that today border the Russian Federation, several of them belong to NATO, these countries are enemies staunch supporters of the people and government of the Russian Federation. His hatred is visceral and sickening.

            Ukraine’s problem is that it is a puppet of Nazi drug trafficking, from the coup d’état in this country, to its legitimate government, with the sad Maidan coup,

            which is the return to feudalism and slavery, which was created by a Ukrainian Nazi movement, which the imperialist hegemon called a color revolution, a sophistry of deception by Yankee imperialism so that the peoples do not pay attention to this brutal coup d’état, after of this coup d’etat and imposed a Nazi candidate to power that led to Ukraine, a Nazi politician, who is a follower of the Nazi traitor and criminal, Sthepans Banderas, was later succeeded by the other Nazi, the drug addict Volodomir Zelenski, son of Joe Biden , Evelin Biden, a drug dealer, took to the presidency of Ukraine, since 2014, NATO, Yankee imperialism and its European cancer dogs, have been accumulating weapons brought from different western countries, preparing for the invasion and destruction of the Russian Federation, today they backfired.

            Ukraine was the region where the Russian Slavic people were born, it is the cradle of Russian civilization, the Russian Federation Army entered Ukraine for two very important reasons that are vital for the survival of the Russian people as an independent and sovereign state, the The first reason was to expel the Yankee thief and his mercenaries from Ukrainian territory, thus preventing the invasion of the Russian Federation by the West, the second reason was to free the Ukrainian people from the oppression of Nazism, that Nazi government, the drugged Bobolongo Zelensky, the denazification of that country by the followers of Sthepans Banderas.

            The army of the Russian Federation will never leave Ukraine, to avoid the reproduction of this malignant cancer of Nazifacism; if the army of the Russian Federation leaves Ukrainian territory, this malignant cancer will reproduce itself with greater violence, the army of the Russian Federation has arrived there to stay, that territory belongs to it by law and by sacred inheritance because it was there that the Russian people were born, Yankee supremacist hegemony, NATO, European Nazi-fascist governments and these Nazi monarchies will have to collect the weapons and credits, the cash loans that were granted to this Nazi drug addict, will have to collect that money in hell, because it is sacred Russian territory, it will never belong to these Nazis again, it will return to the bosom of the great motherland, to the Russian Federation, the Russian army will be in this territory of Ukraine for dignity, morality and ethics. Greetings!

            – UNKNOWN AUTHOR –

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            Tags: america , latin america , bolivia , colombia , cuba , honduras , imperialism , mexico , drug trafficking , nicaragua , national sovereignty , state terrorism , venezuela
            Could Russia win a PR war against the West? NEWSPAPER A COLINA
            Could Russia win a PR war against the West? THE HILL

            Foreign wars tend to be more popular at first, especially if they are effectively “marketed” to the American public in morally unambiguous terms, but unless they quickly end in a decisive victory, public support and political consensus begin to wane. This seems to be happening with the war in Ukraine.

            Since Pearl Harbor, which exploded into American consciousness with shocking rapidity and was instantly perceived as a clear case of good versus evil, in which the American national interest faced a clear existential threat, such a galvanized war has not enjoyed nearly uninterrupted public support. . as immediately as it was later. The conflict between Russia and Ukraine began last February.

            Public support for an important US role in Ukraine had a 60% approval rating in March polls, but in the latest AP-NORC poll on May 16, that’s a plurality of just 45%. Likewise, President Biden’s “manipulation of US relations with Russia” won a large majority in March but is now “underwater” with 45% approval and 51% approval.

            At the same time, the New York Times, previously a strong advocate of “victory” for Ukraine and severe “punishment” for Russia, now appears to exhibit growing skepticism about US goals in the war. The Times editorial board on May 19 stated that Ukraine’s recovery of all territory taken by Russia since 2014 “is not a realistic goal. … Russia is still very strong.” Biden must make it clear that there are “limits to the weapons, money and political support that Ukraine can expect,” the Times said.

            Reinforcing this point of view was Henry Kissinger’s speech delivered virtually at the World Economic Forum in Davos, Switzerland, calling for a ceasefire with a return to the “status quo ante”. Extending this dangerous conflict, Kissinger said, risks becoming “not a war for Ukraine’s freedom, but a war against Russia itself.”

            Simultaneously, the hitherto scanty and universally negative reports of Putin’s intentions began to morph into a nascent realization that the Russian leader’s strategy of taking a land bridge to Crimea and gaining absolute control over the entire Ukrainian economy through total control of the Black Sea coast, he is not as inept as previously reported.

            Another piece of conventional wisdom that is in ruins is the idea that crippling sanctions imposed by the United States and European Union nations would soon bring the Russian economy to its knees. Instead, there is evidence that the opposite may be happening, with sanctions doing more damage to Western economies than to Russia. Far from being the “rubble” predicted by President Biden, the ruble hit a two-year high in May and Russian energy and agriculture exports were producing record revenues, largely because Europe and much of the rest of the world cannot dispense with them.

            Related to these phenomena is the utter unreality of the founding myth of the war, namely, that the United States united almost the entire world against an almost totally isolated Russia. In fact, of the 195 countries in the world, only 65 agreed to join the US sanctions regime, meaning 130 refused, including China, India, Brazil, Mexico, Indonesia, most of Asia, Africa and the Americas. , countries that together constitute the vast majority of the world’s population.

            Also consider that the nations the US is currently targeting with sanctions represent a powerful bloc that strongly opposes what they see as US economic intimidation. -20 Summit, when the US delegation walked out of a speech by a Russian delegate with only three of the other 19 delegations following. All this tells any objective observer that Russia is not the most isolated superpower in the world, but perhaps the United States itself.

            Not long ago, talk of victory or possible regime change (“Putin ‘can’t stay in power'”) and “Ukrainians should decide” the ultimate goals of the war was common language across the West. The US and its allies appear to be in a different position, struggling to find an acceptable way to end the war,

            with nearly every western nation in varying degrees of economic crisis, and the US government With the US on the brink of mass political repudiation from Americans who constantly tell researchers that their top priority is to fix their own economy and recapture the American dream that is falling apart fast, the world is changing in unexpected and unexpected ways

            *

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            Tags: Russia could win a public relations war against the West , media war , imperialism , JORNAL A COLINA , media , mediocracy , thomas mann

            https://pcrtbrasil.blogspot.com/search?updated-max=2022-06-10T21:21:00-03:00&max-results=100&start=28&by-date=false

          2. Thursday, June 9, 2022
            Luis Almagro mercenary of imperialism * Elson Concepción Pérez | Cuba
            LUIS ALMAGRO MERCENARY OF IMPERIALISM

            Luis Almagro, in his ambition to be re-elected as head of one of the most discredited institutions on the planet, has once again campaigned with his usual lies against Cuba, Venezuela and Nicaragua.
            Author: Elson Concepción Pérez | [email protected]
            (December 9, 2018 20:12:54)
            Luis Almagro staged a new show in the United States, this time to accuse Cuba of exporting “torturers” to Venezuela and Nicaragua. Photo: taken from the internet

            Cuba is terrible. Let’s imagine that around 46,000 Cuban collaborators in Venezuela, the vast majority doctors, health technicians, nurses, educators, sports and cultural coaches, are – according to Luis Almagro – “teaching to torture” in that Latin American nation.

            This is not enough, the hundreds of doctors on the island who work in Nicaragua are also “torturers”, assures the imposter who presented his re-election to the position of Secretary General of the OAS for 2020-2025.

            And they can certainly slander thousands of others who provide their services in Guatemala, Haiti, Bolivia, Ecuador, and perhaps even those who brought Operation Miracle to Uruguay – land of Luis Almagro – which benefited 77,200 people with eye surgery in almost 11 years, according to the website Prensa Latina, 50,000 of them correspond to cataracts that, if they had not received attention, could have left them blind.

            The Cuban medical brigade in that South American nation treated more than 450,000 low-income Uruguayans in a decade and investigated 175,000, the country’s health authorities said.

            Operation Miracle arrived in Uruguay in 2005 as part of an agreement with Cuba to control the first cause of reversible blindness in the country, cataracts, and in November 2007, with the collaboration of Cuban technicians, the Hospital began operating. .

            What Mr. Almagro says about it? Would you classify as torturers those doctors who have restored sight to tens of thousands of citizens in your country?

            Many other examples can take us to the more than 68 countries where there are Cuban doctors, what they do is show solidarity.

            Everyone in our country knows, and I’m sure the vast majority of Latin Americans also know, that Almagro, in addition to being a liar, is a cynic and a vulgar mercenary paid by the United States. And as such we must unmask him, he and his followers and acolyte financiers.

            Now, in his ambition to be re-elected as head of one of the most discredited institutions on the planet, he has once again campaigned with his usual lies against Cuba, Venezuela and Nicaragua. And it is very possible that he will be reelected, because I imagine that a character like that will have very few competitors. His endorsement as an anti-Latin American mercenary trumps that of any other old-fashioned who aspires to his chair.

            The most recent of their meetings in Washington were attended by mercenary men and women who traveled from the island, with airfare and all other expenses paid for by the United States.

            They were invited to lie, give alleged testimonies and applaud Almagro every time he attacked Cuba, Venezuela or Nicaragua as “human rights violators”.

            Almagro set the tone for the event by guaranteeing that it was a “firm and continuous process of denouncing the Cuban regime”.
            The cynical character accused the Cuban government of exporting “terror mechanisms” to other Latin American countries, such as Venezuela and Nicaragua.

            For this circus, he summoned characters of the worst lineage, such as René Bolio, who identifies himself as president of Justice Cuba, and Orlando Gutiérrez, both linked to the worst terrorists of the Cuban-American mafia in Miami. From his hands came the report that opened the debate – or coup – between nostalgics, terrorists, would-be terrorists and others. Of course, there they were like the first ones, Berta Soler and Marta Reyes, the so-called Ladies in White, with very dark insides. All under the leadership of the worst, Luis Almagro, Secretary General of the OAS.

            And I list some of these characters so that our people know well those who, as mercenaries of the worst kind, live in Cuba or systematically travel to the island, receive many dollars from the imperial cradle of the United States and are always ready, the same in Washington as in Europe, take the plane to attend any appointment that is organized to defame the Cuban reality.

            When I read the full list of program participants, I realize that their American hosts had to pay a good amount of money as there were plenty of plane tickets, meals, drinks, and the Christmas bonus.

            On the subject of “torture”, I want to remind you that yes, in a corner of Cuba, in a part of our sovereign island, there is a dark torture center created by the United States in the illegal base of Guantánamo.

            Hundreds of people were taken there, many of them having Arab factions, and the most terrible forms of abuse and harassment that any human being can suffer were applied. Many did not resist and died. Others commit suicide. Others hope to one day have the possibility of a trial or at least know why they were brought there.

            It is curious, Mr. Luis Almagro, his infamous OAS and the mercenaries he pays and summons, never raised their hand condemning the real torture to which these human beings are subjected.

            ANNEXES

            INTERPELLED AT THE SUMMIT OF THE AMERICAS

            ***
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            Tags: cuba , Elson Concepción Pérez , granma , imperialism , american intervention , luis almagro , Luis Almagro mercenary of imperialism , mercenary , oea
            SUMMIT OF PEOPLE FROM CHIAPAS * Rolando Prudencio Briancon/Lawyer/Bolivia
            PEOPLES SUMMIT FROM CHIAPAS

            To participate in the 9th Summit is to accompany the United States to the edge of the abyss in which

            Latin America has for some time been in a daring historical trance that it has never experienced before; that is, to make decisions before the all-powerful Yankee empire like those that some of its members have just taken, which was previously unthinkable for them, such as not participating in this Summit. Furthermore, some who went back on their initial decision not to attend the 9th Summit have already shown that disobeying the empire is possible.

            Thus, by excluding the three countries -Cuba, Nicaragua and Venezuela- that will not participate in the 9th Summit of the Americas, which is already taking place in the United States; is that several others will not be at the Summit either; Precisely because of this exclusive decision by the host, which has made the rest of the countries begin to show signs that it is time to place themselves at the forefront of US power.

            He said that the three countries excluded: Cuba -since this event took place – Nicaragua and Venezuela are the ones that were excluded from this meeting, it was due to the sovereign political fronts that they practiced in relation to the hitherto hegemonic power that is still the United States, since it is becoming more and more evident that it is not this power that a simple snap of the fingers was enough to bring all other nations into line. Furthermore, all the rulers of these nations who participated in the previous Summits did not change so that no one would appear in the final photo of the event, since today this is not the abject vice of adhering to Washington’s guidelines.

            But today that the US; not only that it ceased to be the unipolar power, finding itself only in the struggle to be part of a new Pluripolar Order; some of those countries that he contemptuously called his “backyard” – remember Obama’s former Secretary of State: John Kerry emphasizing this condition of Latin America a few years ago – decided firmly and squarely not to participate in this Summit due to the exclusive nature of the event .

            These are the cases of; none other than Mexico, a neighbor of the USA, and with whom it shares and has shared not only thousands of kilometers of borders, but also common historical interests. Bolivia is the other country that will not participate due to the exclusionary nature of the event. of Honduras. Likewise, all of CARICOM will fail to do so.

            Other countries like Brazil, Argentina and Peru that initially indicated that they would not go and then replied; At the same time, they do not stop sending the signal that the shameful obedience that Latin America paid to the US is no longer such; although certainly those countries that have recoiled from lobbying by host operators to change their minds initially rebelled, and they are expected to gradually polarize with northern power.

            And it is that while the different countries in the region have been accumulating an attitude of resistance to a series of arrogant actions by the different governments of the United States, in relation to Latin America; northern power remained confident that allegiance would never change.

            One of those arrogant actions, and this has to do with one of the countries excluded from the event; it is the Olympic offense against the different votes that take place within the UN to lift the blockade against Cuba, which the United States and its unconditional vassal Israel vote against, which is what motivated the countries that did not attend to raise the cause of the Cuban people as a battle flag.

            It is this fact, in addition to having become a repetitive and banal rite in the UN that every year the same vote is taken and not carried out; Finally, it is an affront to every country that votes against the blockade against Cuba, but its expressed will is ignored. That’s why we come to the conclusion that maybe because each of the North American rulers believed that each vote in the UN was just a mere compliment to Cuba, which would always remain a good wish and nothing more; today, the Mexican representation demanded that this matter be addressed at the Summit.

            So, while the US was arrogant, scaling its power and reaching the peak of its hegemony;

            today that the descent, the decline of this hegemony, has begun, Latin America cannot continue to maintain this condition of a backyard, but it is time to kick its ass, now that it is on the brink of its fall.

            Rolando Prudencio Briancon/ Lawyer/Bolivia

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            Tags: anti- imperialism , chiapas , cupula of peoples , CUPULA DOS PEOPLE DE CHIAPAS , lopez obrador , mexico
            A Policy for Post-American Latin America * By Michael Shifter and Bruno Binetti
            A policy for post-American Latin America

            By Michael Shifter and Bruno Binetti

            The Summit of the Americas in Los Angeles June 6-10 was supposed to be a golden opportunity for US President Joe Biden to strengthen ties with Latin America and the Caribbean. But in the run-up to the first meeting of leaders from across the hemisphere held in the United States since the inaugural meeting in 1994, the Biden administration faced a significant backlash. Biden has indicated he will exclude dictators from Cuba, Nicaragua and Venezuela, prompting left-wing President Andrés Manuel López Obrador to threaten to boycott the event. Brazilian President Jair Bolsonaro is present but rejects Biden’s views on democracy and the environment. Rather than ushering in a new era, the summit may reveal the fragmented, troubled and leaderless state of the Americas.

            Seeki