# Why does anything exist?

Why does anything exist? Why is there something rather than nothing? Wouldn’t nothing have been so much easier?

This question has awed and mystified people throughout time.

The first question which we have a right to ask will be, “Why is there something rather than nothing?”

Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz in “The Principles of Nature and Grace, Based on Reason” (1714)

Not how the world is, is the mystical, but that it is.

Ludwig Wittgenstein in “Treatise on Logic and Philosophy” (1921)

No question is more sublime than why there is a Universe: why there is something rather than nothing.

Derek Parfit in “Why Anything? Why This?” (2008)

Martin Heidegger called this question the “fundamental question of metaphysics.” But it might as well be the fundamental question for any being — our existence poses a mystery that demands an answer.

Every society in every time has wrestled with this dilemma. It’s our most enduring question. For we all seek to know: why we are here?

Lacking an answer, we are like a ship adrift. Our ignorance on this question makes us like an amnesiac who awakens in a dark and strange place — knowing neither where we are, nor how we got here.

Some say without an answer to this question, we can’t know anything:

It is possible to think that one cannot answer any question if one cannot answer the question of why there is something rather than nothing. How can we know why something is (or should be) a certain way if we don’t know why there is anything at all? Surely this is the first philosophical question that has to be answered.

Robert Nozick in “Philosophical Explanations” (1981)

With an answer to this question we could orientate ourselves. We would know our place in reality, and understand the reason behind it all. An answer to this question would tell us not only why we exist, but also what else exists, both within the universe we see and beyond.

But can this question even be answered?

Some have suggested the answer is unknowable.

Who knows truly? Who here will declare whence it arose, whence this creation? The gods are subsequent to the creation of this. Who, then, knows whence it has come into being? Whence this creation has come into being; whether it was made or not; he in the highest heaven is its surveyor. Surely he knows, or perhaps he knows not.

The Hymn of Creation in “Rig Veda” (c. 1500 B.C.)

For most of history, the question remained beyond the possibility of being answered. But we live in a most-exciting point in time: one where this question has fallen to the progress of human knowledge.

In the past decades, results from physics, cosmology, mathematics, and computer science, have coordinated at last to solve this timeless question. We can now say, with some confidence, why we exist.

The answer we have is more than an idle philosophical speculation — it can be observationally tested and thereby be confirmed or falsified.

So far, observations are in agreement with this answer.

Let us retrace humanity’s steps in finding this answer, and see what this answer reveals about the nature of reality and our place in it.

Contents

## Two Paths to Existence

One reason we find “Why does anything exist?” so difficult is that there are only two possible answers — both are repugnant to our intuition as each contradicts our commonsense understanding of the world.

Given something exists, either:

1. Something emerged from nothing, or
2. There are self-existent things

The idea that something came out of nothing is contrary to reason. How can nothingness do, nevermind create, anything?

The idea that there exist self-existent things, is contrary to experience. Everything we know appears to have a preceding cause. How could anything create itself, or exist without some creative act?

And yet, that one of these answers must be right seems inescapable. There’s no other way to reach “something exists” without either starting with something at the beginning, or starting with nothing and having something emerge from nothing.

If we seek an answer to this question we have to be willing to accept an idea contrary to our commonsense understanding of the world.

### Something from Nothing?

The first of the two answers is that something emerged from nothing. But how is this possible? Does it even make sense logically?

For at least 2,500 years, humans have debated whether anything can come from nothing. The Greek philosopher Parmenides made the earliest recorded argument that “nothing comes from nothing.”

I will not permit thee to say or to think that [being] came from not-being; for it is impossible to think or to say that not-being is. What would then have stirred it into activity that [being] should arise from not-being later rather than earlier? So it is necessary that being either is absolutely or is not.

Parmenides in “The Way of the Truth” (c. 475 B.C.)

To decide whether existence emerging from nothingness is even logically possible, we need a precise definition of nothing. For instance, by ‘nothing’ do we mean no things, or do we mean absolute nothingness: no laws, structures, properties, or principles?

#### Defining Nothing

It might have been true that nothing ever existed: no living beings, no stars, no atoms, not even space or time. When we think about this possibility it can seem astonishing that anything exists.

Derek Parfit in “Why Anything? Why This?” (2008)

What is nothing? It seems like a straightforward question. Just keep removing things until there is nothing left.

Start with the universe as it is. Wipe away all the matter and energy. Take away all the quantum fields of the vacuum, and any virtual particles popping in and out of existence. And voilà: nothingness.

But wait, there’s still space. It still has dimensionality, and curvature. There is still time and physical law, even if there are no particles or fields left to be governed by them. Let us delete those too.

Let’s erase the volume of space, erase time, and erase physical law.

When we say out of nothingness we do not mean out of the vacuum of physics. The vacuum of physics is loaded with geometrical structure and vacuum fluctuations and virtual pairs of particles. The Universe is already in existence when we have such a vacuum.

No, when we speak of nothingness we mean nothingness: neither structure, nor law, nor plan.

John Archibald Wheeler in “Law Without Law” (1983)

What are we left with? If we eliminate all the dimensions of space and time, we’re left with a zero-dimensional, changeless point.

But a point is still a thing. Can we delete that too?

##### Kinds of Nothing

So long as we operate from a theory of geometry, we can’t define nothingness as anything less than a space of zero-dimensionality.

This leaves us with a point.

If we want to eliminate the point, we need to define nothingness not as a space of zero dimensionality, but as something non-geometric. For this, we must define nothingness in terms of some other theory.

But any theory we might choose has its own notion of nothing. In other words, nothingness is theory-dependent.

There is an unlimited number of possible theoretical systems. Does this mean there are also unlimited conceptions of nothing?

Nothing is simple. Not even Nothing.

Bruno Marchal

Might there be a true nothing — one with no laws, principles, nor any theory behind it? Or might every conception of nothing require a theory of things in order to declare that there are none of them?

##### Rules for Nothing

Wheeler called for absolute nothingness: “neither structure, nor law, nor plan.” But is this kind of absolute nothing achievable?

For instance, the law of identity holds that for any A, “A = A“. Without such a rule, there would be nothing to ensure that nothing stayed nothing, and didn’t later become equal to something.

For nothingness to persist, the rules of logic must apply. Further, if nothingness is the state where “zero things exist”, then the rules of arithmetic must also hold to ensure that “0 = 0” rather than “0 = 1”.

For there to remain no things requires some minimum set of laws. There might be no things as such, but the idea of no laws seems incompatible with there being and remaining no things.

In the beginning, there was only truth, logic and their relation. No possible reality can do without them.

C. W. Rietdijk in “Four-dimensional reality continued” (2018)

If there were no logic, what logic or reason ensures that nothing comes from nothing? If there were no laws, what law or principle would prohibit the spontaneous emergence of a universe?

#### The Trouble with Nothing

Can we define nothing in a way that suppresses all forms of existence?

That is, to not only have no things, but an absolute nothingness — a nothingness of no objects, neither abstract nor concrete, no properties, no laws, no principles, and no information content?

Or is this a fool’s errand? One that leads to a logical inconsistency and thus an impossibility? Might nothingness be, in some sense, unstable?

If absolute nothingness can be shown to be an impossible dream, it will advance us on our path to discover the reason for existence. It might even reveal some self-existent or necessarily-existent thing.

##### Properties of Nothing

Any time we delete something from reality, we leave something else in its place. When we deleted matter, we created a vacuum. When we eliminated light, we created darkness. When we removed heat we created cold. When we deleted space, we created a point.

The idea of nothingness has not one jot more meaning than a square circle. The absence of one thing always being the presence of another — which we prefer to leave aside because it is not the thing that interests us or the thing we were expecting — suppression is never anything more than substitution, a two-sided operation which we agree to look at from one side only: so that the idea of the absolution of everything is self-destructive, inconceivable; it is a pseudo-idea, a mirage conjured by our own imagination.

Henri Bergson in “The Two Sources of Morality and Religion” (1935)

If every deletion is a substitution for something else, then a pure nothing, devoid of any properties whatever, is impossible.

So while we might succeed in removing all material things from reality, we could not remove all properties from reality.

The existence of properties appears inescapable.

Nothingness, of any kind will always have some description and properties, even when it’s just a cold, dark, empty, vacuum.

But how far can we go in eliminating properties?

For instance, if we define nothingness as the empty set from set theory, what properties would remain? Temperature has no meaning for a set.

Would any properties remain for such a nothing?

##### Properties of Zero

Every conception and definition of nothing contains at its heart: zero. For any conception of a thing, nothing will always be zero of them.

The vacuum: zero energy. Geometry: zero dimensionality. The empty set: zero elements. Arithmetic: zero magnitude. Information theory: zero bits.

If zero is a universal property of nothing, we must ask: what are the properties of zero? What does zero bring to the table of reality?

Zero has many properties. It’s even, it’s the additive identity, it’s the only number that’s neither positive nor negative. It’s the number of elements in the empty set and the number of even primes greater than two.

In fact, zero has more properties than we could list if we recruited all the atoms in the observable universe to serve as paper and ink. This effort is doomed because zero’s properties are infinite in number.

Zero’s factors couldn’t be listed, as zero has infinitely many of them. Every number evenly divides zero and hence is one of zero’s factors.

Aside from zero’s factors, we could list infinite trivial properties of zero: zero is “the difference between 1 and 1” and it’s “the difference between 2 and 2” and it’s “the difference between 3 and 3” and so on.

But there are also an infinite number of non-trivial properties of zero. Some are even beyond the understanding of today’s mathematicians. As an example, mathematicians have for centuries wondered:

are there even numbers >2 that aren’t the sum of two primes?

This question is known as Goldbach’s conjecture after Christian Goldbach who posed it in 1742. Nearly three centuries later, it remains unsolved.

Between 2000 and 2002, a $1,000,000 prize was offered to anyone who could answer this question. All this money to settle a question about a property of zero. To decide: is zero the number of exceptions to Goldbach’s rule? We now see why “Nothing is simple. Not even nothing.” All definitions of nothing include the concept of zero. Far from being simple, zero is an object of unlimited complexity. ##### An Explosion of Entities Can zero exist in isolation — completely alone from other numbers? Or do relationships between numbers make them inseparable? Zero’s properties reference other numbers. And each of these numbers carries its own set of properties and relations to the other numbers. Are the properties of one any less real than the properties of zero? Perhaps in a reality having no things, ‘one’ is meaningless. In a reality containing nothing, there are no things as such — at least no material things. But in such a nothing, there is an abstract thing: zero. Zero reflects the number of material things to count. But how many abstract things are there to count? There is at least one. The one number that exists to define the number of material things is zero. But if we have one number and it is one thing to count, now another number exists: one. We then have zero and one together as the only numbers. But now we have two numbers. Now two exists… This is how numbers are defined in set theory. Within set theory, each number is formed as the set of all previous sets. The process starts with the empty set (represented by { } or ∅) which contains zero things. • 0 = { } = ∅ • 1 = { 0 } = {∅} • 2 = { 0, 1 } = { ∅, {∅} } • 3 = { 0, 1, 2 } = { ∅, {∅} , {∅, {∅}} } • 4 = { 0, 1, 2, 3 } = { ∅, {∅}, {∅, {∅}}, {∅, {∅}, {∅, {∅}}} } It seems once a single abstract number is admitted, each next number comes to life as the count of the abstract numbers that preceded it. Is there any way to stop the proliferation of infinite abstract entities? If zero exists by virtue of there being zero things to count, then on that basis, shouldn’t every number have the same right to exist by virtue of being the number of preceding numbers there are to count? The existence of any number, in virtue of its properties, entails the existence of all the others i.e. a system of mathematics couldn’t exist bereft only of the number, say, 42; and the existence of any number, in virtue of the full set of its properties/structural relationships, entails the existence of every other number. David Pearce in “Why Does Anything Exist?” (1995) Set theory and building up numbers from the empty set are modern ideas — they appeared around the turn of the 20th century. Yet the idea of numbers giving rise to themselves goes back much farther. The Tao gives birth to One. One gives birth to Two. Two gives birth to Three. Three gives birth to all things. Laozi in chapter 42 of “Tao Te Ching” (c. 600 B.C.) #### A True Nothing Whenever we specify or define nothing, we invoke theories and concepts which, in turn, lead to properties and abstract entities. But what if we forgo even specifying nothing? Might this be a path to achieve absolute nothingness? A true nothing, having: • No things, no objects • No definitions, no properties • No abstract entities, no concepts • No sets, no numbers • No set theory, no mathematics • No specifications, No information Avoiding all this we have no theories of any kind. We are left with a plain and simple, pure, unadulterated nothing at all. But again this leads to trouble. There’s a problem with this kind of nothing — a nothing of no information is identical to everything. We note that the collection of all possible descriptions has zero complexity, or information content. This is a consequence of algorithmic information theory, the fundamental theory of computer science. There is a mathematical equivalence between the Everything, as represented by this collection of all possible descriptions and Nothing, a state of no information. Russell Standish in “Theory of Nothing” (2006) At first this sounds counter-intuitive, if not outright wrong. Yet this consequence is something we intuitively understand in other contexts. Let’s review three such cases: Unsculpted Marble, an Unsent E-mail, and the Library of Babel. Each demonstrates an equivalence between the nothing of no specification, and the everything of all possibilities. ##### Unsculpted Marble Before marked by a sculptor’s chisel, a block of marble contains every figure — or at least every figure fitting the dimensions of the block. Michelangelo’s Pietà was in the block before he uncovered it. It was there with all the other figures. To bring forth the Pietà alone, required the addition of information. Michelangelo had to uniquely specify the Pietà from among the set of all possibilities. There is a beautiful angel in that block of marble, and I am going to find it? All I have to do is to knock off the outside pieces of marble, and be very careful not to cut into the angel with my chisel. In a month or so you will see how beautiful it is. George F. Pentecost in “The Angel in the Marble” (1883) This specification requires adding information to the block, by way of chisel marks. It is only in the absence of this information — in the absence of any chisel marks — that all possible figures remain. In this sense, information is subtractive rather than additive. When information specifies, it eliminates from the preexisting infinite set of possibilities. Absent such information, all possibilities remain. ##### An Unsent E-mail You are at your desk, awaiting an important e-mail from your boss. Before this message arrives you know nothing about the contents of this e-mail — you are in a state of having no information. But there is one thing you know before the e-mail arrives: the e-mail will be one message from among the infinite set of possible e-mails. Only after the e-mail arrives in your inbox do you learn which from among the infinite set of messages the boss chose to send you. But consider the case where instead of sending a single e-mail, the boss sent you every possible e-mail. Would you be able to learn anything from these infinite messages about what your boss wants? The lack of specification in the infinite set of messages is equal to the lack of specification that existed prior to receiving anything. Both states are equivalently unspecified. Therefore, both represent states of complete ignorance and a state of having zero information. Having every message is as informative as having no message. ##### The Library of Babel One of the best illustrations of the uselessness of all information comes from Jorge Luis Borges’s concept of a ‘Total Library’, described in his short story The Library of Babel. This library is described as follows: The universe (which others call the Library) is composed of an indefinite and perhaps infinite number of hexagonal galleries, with vast air shafts between, surrounded by very low railings. From any of the hexagons one can see, interminably, the upper and lower floors. […] There are five shelves for each of the hexagon’s walls; each shelf contains thirty-five books of uniform format; each book is of four hundred and ten pages; each page, of forty lines, each line, of some eighty letters which are black in color. […] This thinker observed that all the books, no matter how diverse they might be, are made up of the same elements: the space, the period, the comma, the twenty-two letters of the alphabet. He also alleged a fact which travelers have confirmed: In the vast Library there are no two identical books. From these two incontrovertible premises he deduced that the Library is total and that its shelves register all the possible combinations of the twenty-odd orthographical symbols. Jorge Luis Borges in “The Library of Babel” (1941) From the provided information, we can calculate the number of books in this library. This total library contains every possible 410-page book, representing every possible arrangement of 25 characters. Each page, with 40 lines and 80 characters, contains 3,200 characters. Each book, with 410 pages, contains 410 \times \text{3,200} = \text{1,312,000} characters. With an alphabet of 25 characters, this gives 25^{\text{1,312,000}} possible books. This number is 25 multiplied by itself over a million times. To put its magnitude in context, the number of atoms in the observable universe is only 25^{57} or 25 multiplied by itself 57 times. This library is a great treasure. For in this library we can find every book, article, poem, and novel ever written, or that could be written. We’ll find descriptions of every scientific theory: from Newton’s Principia, to Einstein’s Relativity, to the presently unknown theory of quantum gravity. We’ll find blueprints to world-changing technologies not yet invented based on principles not yet discovered. This library possesses the greatest works of literature: the complete works of Shakespeare, Dickens, and Tolstoy. It also has every work yet to be written: the completed Game of Thrones series, as well as the unfinished works of Tolkien, Hemingway, and Twain. The library has the untold histories of every civilization, including civilizations now lost to time. It has the contents of every scroll burned in the fire of Alexandria. The library has biographies of every person who’s ever lived — and even biographies of those yet to be born. What could be more valuable than this boundless trove of information, with its complete knowledge, its answers to every mystery, and its articulated solutions to every problem? This is where the equivalence between all information and no information rears its ugly head. It renders the library worthless. There are issues with this library. To start, for every valid theory, technology, history, and biography in the library, there are countless others that are subtly wrong, inaccurate, or utterly bogus. Worse, finding any book with more than a few grammatically sensible words is next to impossible. Most books are pure gibberish (or babble) — indistinguishable from random sequences of characters. Perhaps all hope is not lost. Since this library contains every possible book, surely this library contains books that serve as indexes to find all the other meaningful and sensible books in the library. But this dream is also impossible. Given the number of books, it’s impossible to uniquely reference any other book with a descriptor shorter than the length of the book. Thus it takes all 410 pages to reference a specific book in this library. What if we organize the books somehow, such as by sorting them in alphabetical order? Then finding any particular book would be easy. This too suffers from a pathological breakdown. While this makes it easy to find any particular book, the difficulty shifts from finding the book to deciding which book we want to find. This is a consequence of the library having every possible book. As one seeks a book of interest, one is faced with 25 choices: to choose which of the 25 characters is next in the content of the book we seek. During the search, the seeker must choose each next letter, and must do this for all 1,312,000 characters in the book. Thus, finding a book in this library is as difficult as writing the book in the first place! In a way, we already have access to this library — as we are already free to put down any sequence of characters we want, and thus “find” a book that is already present somewhere in this total library. Thus, this library provides no new knowledge or information. Its set of all books is as helpful to us as if it had no books. And so a total library offers nothing. It’s equivalent to having no information at all. You can explore this frustrating enigma of the Library of Babel. Jonathan Basile created an online version at libraryofbabel.info. #### Everything From Nothing? Information theory reveals the equivalence between the totality of all information and the nothingness of zero information. Both lack any specification. Both are completely uninformative. Both contain within them the complete and infinite set of every possibility. We’ve seen this equivalence first-hand. We saw it in the unsculpted block of marble, in the unsent e-mail, and in the Library of Babel. So is a nothing of no specification, a nothing or an everything? ##### Less Information, More Reality How much information is in the Library of Babel? To determine this, we need only consider what is the shortest description that can generate the content of the library. For instance: A library containing one of each possible 410-page book with 3,200 characters per page and a fixed alphabet of 25 characters. The preceding description for the library is 125 characters long. There could be shorter descriptions, but this sets an upper-bound for the information content of the Library of Babel. It takes next to no information to describe the vast Library of Babel. Paradoxically, there’s more information in a single page from a single book in the Library, than in the entire library itself! How could this be? How can there be less information in the library as a whole than there is in a single book or page from the library? This is a consequence of algorithmic information theory, which includes the science of data compression. It reveals that it is simpler (in terms of needing a shorter description) to generate every book in the library than it is to generate only a single book, or a single page of a book in the library. A shorter, less specific, and more general description casts a wider net: The description “All possible books” needs fewer characters than the description of the Library of Babel, but it defines a much larger set of books, in fact, it defines an infinite set of books, of all possible lengths and character sets. The Library of Babel, though vast, was still finite. Might the same apply to our universe and reality? To describe one universe like ours requires a vast amount of information. It requires specifying not only the physical laws, but also the position, direction, and speed of every particle in the universe. This is estimated to require on the order of 10^{90} bits. Yet to specify every possible universe of our kind — a multiverse of every possible arrangement of particles ruled by our laws of physics — needs much less information. Such a multiverse requires only the information to define the physical laws, particle types, fundamental forces and constants of nature. This can be done in just a few pages of equations. Describing our specific universe is like describing a specific book from the Library of Babel. It needs more information than the library itself. In theories such as the string theory landscape, the constants of nature are not specified by the theory, leading to an even greater multiverse consisting of every possible universe having every set of possible values for the constants of nature (e.g. different values for things like the electron mass and the strength of electromagnetism). There are reasons to suspect this, or something like it is true. For one, it explains why laws of physics and constants of nature appear fine-tuned for the emergence of life. (See: “Was the universe made for life?“) This description of a “string theory landscape” needs less information. It might save a page by not having to include the 30 some odd constants of nature. And yet, it describes a vastly larger multiverse. What happens when the length of reality’s description goes to zero? This would leave the equations themselves unspecified — implying an even greater multiverse. This multiverse includes universes not just of every arrangement of matter, nor universes of every set of constants, but universes ruled by every kind of physical equations. If all possible string vacua, space-time geometries, masses of elementary particles and interaction strengths, and (by)laws of physics are realized, then all possible descriptions are satisfied. This is equivalent to zero information. David Pearce in “Why Does Anything Exist?” (1995) Thus, to specify all possible physical laws, all possible physical constants, for all possible universes, needs no information at all. Might we inhabit such a nothing? This is the thesis of Russell Standish’s 2006 book Theory of Nothing. Standish believes our universe, with its seemingly vast quantity of information, is something like a book in the Library of Babel. We would then be denizens of nothing, occupying a place within a total reality which altogether amounts to zero information. Such a reality — one of zero information — is the simplest state of existence. It’s simpler than an empty vacuum or a geometrical point, as these both need a non-zero amount of information to describe. ##### Necessary Existence We’ve attempted but frustratingly failed to define a true nothing. When we tried to specify a nothing, whether as a vacuum, a point, or an empty set, we inevitably invoke properties, abstract entities, the number zero and the infinitude of numbers and their relationships. Furthermore, this specification is not an absolute nothing as it requires reality to have a nonzero amount of information to specify it. Alternatively, if we attempt a nothing of zero information and zero specification we get a total reality containing all possibility. Neither approach succeeds in bringing about absolute nothingness. Moreover, these approaches rely upon and assume the validity of logical principles and consistency. No reality, not even a nothing, appears possible without laws and principles of logic. And so the goal of the philosopher’s nothing, the “neither structure, nor law, nor plan” kind of true nothing at all, seems an impossible dream. The nothings we attempt break down and lead to somethings. • With no structure, there are zero structures, this introduces zero and with it the structure of all numbers and their interrelations. • With no law, there are no restrictions on what can or cannot exist nor any law to prevent things spontaneously popping into existence. • With no plan, there is no information, which is equivalent to a totality. The motto reads: “Omnibus ex nihil ducendis sufficit unum” For producing everything out of nothing, one principal is enough. Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz in “letter to Duke” (1679) If a true and absolute nothing is impossible or unstable, does this mean there must be self-creating or self-existent things? Can a thing exist out of logical necessity, because its absence is impossible? What might the nature of such things be? ### A Self-Existent Thing? If something did not emerge out of nothing, then there’s only one other possibility: that there is something that has always existed. In other words, nothingness is not the default state of reality. It is extraordinary that there should exist anything at all. Surely the most natural state of affairs is simply nothing: no universe, no God, nothing. But there is something. Richard Swinburne in “Is There a God?” (1996) Given that something exists, it either came from nothing or else something has existed from the beginning. The existence of this thing is somehow necessary. It existed without any preceding cause. This, we also find contrary to intuition. It’s strange because everything we are familiar with can trace its existence to some earlier cause: Manufactured things are made by people, or by machines that were made by people. Life comes from other life. Things not created by humans or other life, like rivers and mountains are created by natural forces acting on matter. It seems to defy reason for a thing to exist without a cause. And yet, we know the universe exists. The universe either came from some preceding cause, or else the universe has always existed, is self-existent, or self-creating. There is no third option. If the universe is not the end of this causal chain, then something else is. Therefore we must accept some things are self-creating (come out of nothing) or are self-existent. Let’s call such a thing causeless. #### Existing without Cause Take anything that exists: the chair you’re sitting in, your conscious thoughts, the Eiffel tower. For the purposes of the reasoning, it doesn’t matter what thing we start with. Given that this thing exists, there are two possibilities: either that thing was caused or it was not caused. If a thing has no cause, then it is causeless. Otherwise, the thing has a cause and its existence is owed to some other thing. If we follow the chain of causality back towards an ultimate root cause, there are three possibilities: 1. First Cause: The chain of causality comes to an end in a ‘first cause 2. Infinite Regression: The chain of causality continues forever 3. Causal Loop: The chain of causality forms a closed cycle, or a loop These represent all possibilities. The trace either ends (a first cause) or it continues forever. If it continues forever it forms an infinite chain that’s either open (an infinite regression) or closed (a causal loop). In all three cases we find something that has always existed: either the first cause, the infinite chain itself, or the causal loop itself. This thing, which has always existed, we can describe as causeless. ##### First Cause If when tracing back through the series of causes we happen upon something causeless, then our existence results from a first cause. Leading cosmological theories, such as the big bang and cosmic inflation posit that the universe is not infinitely old, but rather underwent an abrupt event where it came into existence. That our universe has a point that may be marked as a beginning leaves open the possibility that there is a preceding cause for our universe. Another possibility is that the universe is its own cause, emerging as a random quantum fluctuation allowed by laws of physics. Many religions speak of the first cause as a divine act of creation. In such a case God would be the first cause. Yet some other non-theistic object could as well be responsible for our existence. If the universe is not eternal, we should look for some reason for the sudden appearance of the universe: to explain how it could arise by itself, be self-existent, or be the product of some prior cause. ##### Infinite Regression If our universe has an eternal history, or if it belongs to a reality having an eternal history, then we exist due to an infinite regression. A number of scientific theories propose that our universe is eternal. Prior to wide acceptance of the big bang, the steady-state model was popular. It proposed that the universe is eternally expanding with new matter perpetually created to fill the void in the newly made space. Since the acceptance of the big bang, various new models suppose that the big bang is itself part of an eternal succession of big bangs. Roger Penrose’s conformal cyclic cosmology supposes that the heat death of our universe could appear as a new big bang in the next ‘aeon’. Lee Smolin proposed cosmological natural selection wherein a new universe spawns every time a black hole forms. Accordingly, if the laws mutate, he suggests that universes might even ‘evolve’ towards having laws that maximize the production of black holes. Sean Carroll notes that the equations of quantum mechanics, unlike those of general relativity, permit physicists to calculate eternally into the past or future. With a theory of quantum gravity, we could in principle predict backwards to times preceding the big bang. The Schrödinger equation has an immediate, profound consequence: almost all quantum states evolve eternally toward both the past and the future. Unlike classical models such as spacetime in general relativity, which can hit singularities beyond which evolution cannot be extended, quantum evolution is very simple. […] If this setup describes the real world, there is no beginning nor end to time. Sean Carroll in “Why Is There Something, Rather Than Nothing?” (2018) If an infinite regression is true, there is no ultimate cause. However, we might still look for an ultimate explanation for the chain of causes. ##### Causal Loop It might be that our existence is part of an infinite series, but one that repeats forever. If true, we are stuck in a never ending causal loop. In 1922, Alexander Friedmann applied Einstein’s equations of general relativity to the universe as a whole. He found that for certain values of the density of the universe and the cosmological constant, the universe will expand for a period of time, slow down, and eventually recollapse. In his 1923 book, The World as Space and Time, Friedmann speculates that the collapse (or Big Crunch) could rebound (in a Big Bounce), causing a new Big Bang. The process could repeat forever. The idea of a cyclic cosmology has appealed to many scientists, including Georges Lemaître, Richard Tolman, George Gamow, William Bonnor, Herman Zanstra and Robert Dicke, among others. We can now ask ourselves two important questions: why was our universe in such a highly compressed state, and why did it start expanding? The simplest and mathematically most consistent, way of answering these questions would be to say that the Big Squeeze which took place in the early history of our universe was the result of a collapse which took place at a still earlier era, and that the present expansion is simply an “elastic” rebound which started as soon as the maximum permissible squeezing density was reached. George Gamow in “The Creation of the Universe” (1952) Cyclical cosmologies can be found in many religions. For example, there is the concept of the Wheel of Time in the Dharmic religions. The most elegant and sublime of these is a representation of the creation of the universe at the beginning of each cosmic cycle, a motif known as the cosmic dance of Shiva. The god, called in this manifestation Nataraja, the Dance King, has four hands. In the upper right hand is a drum whose sound is the sound of creation. In the upper left hand is a tongue of flame, a reminder that the universe, now newly created, will billions of years from now be utterly destroyed. Carl Sagan in “Cosmos” (1980) But cyclic models, lacking observational evidence and theoretical support, remained on the periphery of cosmology. In 1998, observations revealed the expansion of the universe was not slowing, but accelerating. This seems to rule out a future collapse. The driver of this acceleration, dark energy, remains little understood. If it is constant, the expansion will continue forever. But in some theories, it varies with time and so a later collapse may be possible. Cyclic models have seen a revival. In 2001, Justin Khoury, Burt Ovrut, Paul Steinhard and Neil Turok proposed the ekpyrotic universe. This idea marries string theory and cosmology to give a model where periodic brane collisions trigger cycles of Big Bangs and Big Crunches. If our universe is part of a causal loop, no beginning or end is identifiable. But what got it started? Did one of the succession of states spring forth out of nothing, or might the loop have always existed? ## The Nature of Uncaused Things Given that reality exists, we know there must be an entity that is causeless. What is it about causeless entities that makes them existent? If a first cause, how did it bring itself into existence? If an infinite regression or causal loop, how did it come into being? Might it exist out of logical necessity? Or is it a result of chance? Or might it exist simply because it can exist, and nothing forbids it? Tracing causes backwards can tell us where the previous state came from, but it won’t answer where the chain or loop itself came from. Some believe that, if all events were caused by earlier events, everything would be explained. That, however, is not so. Even an infinite series of events cannot explain itself. We could ask why this series occurred, rather than some other series, or no series. Derek Parfit in “Why Anything? Why This?” (2008) What we are looking for is not a cause, but a reason — an explanation. For in the cases of the loops or infinite regression, we can always find an earlier cause, but may never reach a satisfactory reason. For the question to be properly, fully answered, we need a sufficient reason that has no need of any further reason—a ‘Because’ that doesn’t throw up a further ‘Why?’—and this must lie outside the series of contingent things, and must be found in a substance which is the cause of the entire series. It must be something that exists necessarily, carrying the reason for its existence within itself; only that can give us a sufficient reason at which we can stop, having no further Why?-question taking us from this being to something else. Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz in “The Principles of Nature and Grace, Based on Reason” (1714) If we seek a final ‘Because’ that puts an end to any further ‘Whys’, we must find something that we can show must exist. Not only must this thing exist, but we must also show how this thing can account for the reality we experience — only then will we have succeeded in our quest. ### Candidates for Self-Existence Throughout history, philosophers, scientists and religions have suggested candidates for self-existence. These causeless entities generally fall into one of seven categories: 1. Logic 2. Truth 3. Numbers 4. Possibility 5. The Universe 6. A Higher Plane 7. Consciousness Let’s review each candidate and its merits for self-existence. Afterwards, we will consider whether that entity could further serve as an ultimate explanation: a self-existent starting point from which the rest of reality emerges as a direct consequence of that thing. #### Logic Some suppose rational principles, like the laws of logic, are self-existent. Unlike physical laws, logical laws have an air of inevitability to them. These are laws such as: These are laws that seem inevitable, and necessary in any reality, as it’s hard to imagine any reality where logical laws would not hold. If logical laws apply in all universes and all possible realities, they represent universal laws, applying everywhere and to everything. If we can say laws of physics exist because all matter in our universe adheres to physical laws, then could we say laws of logic exist, because all things in all possible realities adhere to these logical laws? If so, then laws of logic are self-existent. They are necessary even in a reality of no things, as logical laws ensure “nothing = nothing”. If I ask myself why bodies or minds exist rather than nothing, I find no answer; but that a logical principle, such as A = A, should have the power of creating itself, triumphing over the nought throughout eternity, seems to be natural. Henri Bergson in “Creative Evolution” (1907) This idea, that logical law and rational principles have eternally existed predates modern philosophers. It’s a cornerstone belief in Taoism. There was something formless and perfect before the universe was born. It is serene. Empty. Solitary. Unchanging. Infinite. Eternally present. It is the mother of the universe. For lack of a better name, I call it the Tao. Laozi in chapter 25 of “Tao Te Ching” (c. 600 B.C.) Tao translates as “the way”, “principles”, and “natural order”. A similar sentiment is expressed in Christianity. The Gospel of John begins: In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. Gospel of Johnchapter 1 verse 1 (100 A.D.) The term Word is a translation of verbum in Latin, which is a translation of logos (λόγος) in Greek. Logos has a deep and rich meaning. Aside from “word” logos also means, “reason”, “principles”, and “rational law”. Logos is the root from which we get the word logic. It is also the origin of the suffix -logy (as in biology, geology and psychology). Where it means the principles, explanation, and story thereof. If however he be admitted to exist apart from Matter in virtue of his character as a principle and a rational law [logos], God will be bodiless, the Creative Power bodiless. Plotinus in “The Enneads VI.1.26” (270 A.D.) In Chinese bibles, Logos has been translated as Tao. In this way, Both Taoist and Christian ideas suppose that the Tao/Logos (order, reason, principles, logic, rational law) exists prior to the material universe. #### Truth Some believe that truth is causeless. There seems to be some essential difference between “zero is even” and “zero is odd” — only one of them is true. Did anything make it so? When did this statement become true? Did it require a human mind to conceive of it as being true, or has it always been true? Might this property of truth have an independent and necessary existence? If logical laws apply universally, then any well-formed statement is either true or false. The law of noncontradiction says a statement can’t be both true and false. The law of excluded middle says a statement must be either true or false — there is no middle ground. Thus, if logical laws apply to everything, they apply to all statements, forcing on them the objective property of being either ‘true’ or ‘false’. As Derek Parfit said, “Some truth is logically necessary when its denial leads to a contradiction.” Accordingly, the truth that “zero is even” would exist before humans proved it. It would be true before it was first spoken. Presumably, it would be true absent a universe of things, for even in the case zero things exist, it remains true that “an even number of things exist.” When we imagine how things would have been if nothing had ever existed, what we should imagine away are such things as living beings, stars and atoms. There would still have been various truths, such as the truth that there were no stars or atoms, or that 9 is divisible by 3. We can ask why these things would have been true. And such questions may have answers. Thus we can explain why, even if nothing had ever existed, 9 would still have been divisible by 3. There is no conceivable alternative. Derek Parfit in “Why Anything? Why This?” (2008) Ultimately, nothing is responsible for creating this truth. Truth exists out of its own necessity. It has always existed and could never not exist. The idea of the primacy of truth is very old. It can be found in many religions, some of which draw an equivalence between God and Truth. In the 3,000 year old religion of Zoroastrianism, it is said that Asha (meaning truth and order) is the divine law behind all things. Iran, as India, presents us with a term which has had to signify first of all ‘true statement’; that this statement, because it was true, had to correspond to an objective, material reality; and that, as the discourse did, this reality must embrace all things; and, finally that one recognized in it a great cosmic principle since all things happen according to it. Jacques Duchesne-Guillemin in “Heraclitus and Iran” (1963) In the book of Psalms 31:5, God is called the “God of truth.” In the Qur’an, Al-Ḥaqq (meaning The Truth), is one of the 99 Names of God. Similar ideas are found in Dharmic religions. The Mūl Mantar (or root mantra), is the most important verse of the Sikh religion. It begins: “There is one creator, whose name is truth” and is described as timeless, beyond birth or death, and self-existent. In the Brahma Saṁhitā, a Hindu prayer book, the primeval Lord Govinda is described as the “indivisible, infinite, limitless, truth.” If it is possible for the human tongue to give the fullest description of God, I have come to the conclusion that God is Truth. Mahatma Gandhi in “All Men Are Brothers” (1953) #### Numbers Some speculate that numbers, or their relationships, are self-existent. If truth has an independent existence, this truth includes the infinite truths describing all true relationships between the numbers. These include arithmetical statements, such as: • 2 is even • 7 is prime • 1 is greater than 0 • 2 + 2 = 4 • n × 0 = 0 • the square root of 9 = 3 Truths concerning the numbers are boundless. Might this infinite truth, provide a scaffolding and structure to all the numbers? And if there is nothing more to numbers than their properties and relations, then might numbers — in some sense — really exist? It’s been said, “math is the science we could still do if we woke up tomorrow and there was no universe.” The idea that math holds some claim to reality is known as mathematical realism, or Platonism. It’s believed by many, if not most, mathematicians. It is an idea that many mathematicians are comfortable with. In this scheme, the truths that mathematicians seek are, in a clear sense, already “there”, and mathematical research can be compared with archaeology; the mathematicians’ job is to seek out these truths as a task of discovery rather than one of invention. Roger Penrose in “The Big Questions: What is reality?” (2006) But can number relations have any reality in the absence of things? If zero things exist, it would have to be true that “0 not equal 1”, and also that “0 not equal 2”, and true that zero not equal any other number. So even with no things, an infinite number of arithmetical relations are needed to avoid contradiction and preserve a nothing of zero things. If all things were absent, would Two And Two Make Four be a non-reality, remaining like that until at least four things had come to exist? Presumably the answer must be No. John A. Leslie and Robert Lawrence Kuhn in “The Mystery of Existence” (2013) This idea that numbers have an independent existence is ancient. It can be traced to some of the earliest records of human thought. It was taught by ancient philosophers and is found in the oldest religious texts. Taoism, for instance, sets the existence of numbers as prior to things. The Tao gives birth to One. One gives birth to Two. Two gives birth to Three. Three gives birth to all things. Laozi in chapter 42 of “Tao Te Ching” (c. 600 B.C.) The Greek mathematician Pythagoras taught “All things are number. Pythagoreans applied themselves to mathematics, and were the first to develop this science; and through studying it they came to believe that its principles are the principles of everything. Aristotle in “Metaphysics 1.985b” (c. 350 BC) Pythagoras was the first to propose that the motions of the planets are governed by mathematical equations, which he called the harmony of the spheres. When Newton discovered his law of universal gravitation some 2,000 years later, he credited Pythagoras for the discovery. Across times, mathematicians have described a seemingly divine connection between mathematics and reality: Geometry, which before the origin of things was coeternal with the divine mind and is God himself (for what could there be in God which would not be God himself?), supplied God with patterns for the creation of the world, and passed over to Man along with the image of God. Johannes Kepler in “The Harmony of the World” (1619) From these considerations it is now wonderfully evident how a certain divine mathematics or metaphysical mechanics is employed in the very origination of things. Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz in “On the Ultimate Origination of Things” (1697) To all of us who hold the Christian belief that God is truth, anything that is true is a fact about God, and mathematics is a branch of theology. […] An old Greek, a French child, and a self-taught Indian, each finds for himself the same theory of geometrical conics. The simplest and therefore the most scientific way of describing this, is that they have discovered, not created, a geometry that exists by itself eternally, the same for all, the same for teacher as for taught, the same for man as for God. The truth that is the same for man as for God is pure mathematics. Hilda P. Hudson in “Mathematics and Eternity” (1925) #### Possibility Some speculate that simply not being impossible, is sufficient for being actual. If true, then every possible object, structure, and entity exists. What then is impossible? At a minimum, we can say self-contradictory things. For example: square circles, married bachelors, triangles with five sides, and so on. We might also include things proven to not exist: odd numbers evenly divisible by two, a largest prime number, a sixth platonic solid. If consistency and provability are the requirements for possibility, then possible existence is mathematical existence. As David Hilbert said, “Mathematical existence is merely freedom from contradiction.” The idea that all possible things exist has enjoyed many names: In 1936, Arthur Lovejoy dubbed it the principle of plenitude. In 1981, Robert Nozick named it the principle of fecundity. David Lewis, in 1986, developed it as a theory he called modal realism. In Max Tegmark’s 1998 model of multiverses, he called it the mathematical universe hypothesis. Most recently, in 2008, Derek Parfit coined the all worlds hypothesis. If all possible objects are actual, then our universe is just one such possible structure among an infinite, and total, set of all possible structures. Anything that could happen, happens somewhere. There are so many other worlds, in fact, that absolutely every way that a world could possibly be is a way that some world is. And as with worlds, so it is with parts of worlds. There are ever so many ways that a part of a world could be; and so many and so varied are the other worlds that absolutely every way that a part of a world could possibly be is a way that some part of some world is. David Lewis in “On the Plurality of Worlds” (1986) If the universe is inherently mathematical, then why was only one of the many mathematical structures singled out to describe a universe? A fundamental asymmetry appears to be built into the heart of reality. As a way out of this conundrum, I have suggested that complete mathematical symmetry holds: that all mathematical structures exist physically as well. Every mathematical structure corresponds to a parallel universe. Max Tegmark in “Parallel Universes” (2003) The idea that possibility is sufficient for actuality is not new. Arthur Lovejoy, who wrote about the history of this idea, traced it to 360 B.C. beginning with Plato’s theory of forms. Plato hypothesized a realm containing all possible forms (eternal, perfect, idealizations). We find this idea expressed in a variety of ways throughout history. The One is all things and not a single one of them. […] It is because there is nothing in it that all things come from it: in order that being may exist, the One is not being, but the generator of being. Plotinus in “The Enneads V.2.1” (270 A.D.) But to explain more distinctly how from eternal or essential metaphysical truths there arise temporal, contingent or physical truths, we must first observe that, from the very fact that there exists something rather than nothing, it follows that in possible things, or in possibility or essence itself, there is a certain need of existence, or so to speak, a claim to exist, in a word, that essence of itself tends to existence. Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz in “On the Ultimate Origination of Things” (1697) Others have linked God’s infinite nature to an infinite creation. From God’s supreme power, or infinite nature, an infinite number of things—that is, all things have necessarily flowed forth in an infinite number of ways, or always flow from the same necessity; in the same way as from the nature of a triangle it follows from eternity and for eternity, that its three interior angles are equal to two right angles. Baruch Spinoza in “Ethics” (1677) Know thou of a truth that the worlds of God are countless in their number, and infinite in their range. None can reckon or comprehend them except God, the All-Knowing, the All-Wise. Baháʼu’lláh in “Tablet to Vafá” (circa 1885) It makes sense that an infinitely creative deity would create other universes, not just our own. […] For the theist, the existence of multiple universes would simply support the view that creation reflects the infinite creativity of the creator. Robin A. Collins in “Spiritual Information” (2005) #### The Universe Some say that the universe, or the physical law that enabled it to come into existence, has always existed and so is self-existent. The reasoning is simple. If we know at least one thing is causeless, why not just presume this causeless thing is the universe itself? I should say that the universe is just there, and that’s all. Bertrand Russell in “Russell-Copleston debate” (1948) Perhaps there is no reason. It simply is, and has no explanation. Given the universe exists, we know the universe is possible. Perhaps it exists because it is possible, and nothing forbade it from existing. But there are other tracks to follow. Perhaps we can demonstrate that the universe is self-creating. Or that it exists due to some higher law. Modern cosmology made progress along these directions. The theory of cosmic inflation uses general relativity to explain how a tiny quantum fluctuation can inflate into the huge universe we now see. Inflation is radically at odds with the old dictum of Democritus and Lucretius, “Nothing can be created from nothing.” If inflation is right, everything can be created from nothing, or at least from very little. If inflation is right, the universe can properly be called the ultimate free lunch. Alan Guth in “Inflation and the New Era of High-Precision Cosmology” (2002) According to the laws of quantum mechanics, the quantum fluctuation that seeded our universe appeared because it was possible, emerging out of nothing but the physical laws themselves. Is there any bound to how small the initial universe could be? […] To my surprise, I found that the tunneling probability did not vanish as the initial size approached zero. I also noticed that my calculations were greatly simplified when I allowed the initial radius of the universe to vanish. This was really crazy: what I had was a mathematical description of a universe tunneling from a zero size — from nothing! […] And yet, the state of “nothing” cannot be identified with absolute nothingness. The tunneling is described by the laws of quantum mechanics, and thus “nothing” should be subjected to these laws. The laws of physics must have existed, even though there was no universe. Alexander Vilenkin in “Many Worlds in One” (2006) General relativity and quantum mechanics are the two cornerstone theories of modern physics. From them alone we can explain a self-emerging universe. Quantum mechanics shows how possible fluctuations spontaneously pop into existence. General relativity explains how such a fluctuation could expand exponentially to reach an unfathomable size. (See: “What caused the big bang?”) But we must wonder, why these laws? What, if anything, is special about them? Who or what anointed these equations with existence? What is it that breathes fire into the equations and makes a universe for them to describe? The usual approach of science of constructing a mathematical model cannot answer the questions of why there should be a universe for the model to describe. Why does the universe go to all the bother of existing? Stephen Hawking in “A Brief History of Time” (1988) The idea that the universe is uncreated, or exists due to some laws, predates the successes of modern physics and cosmology. The ancient Greeks and Romans believed that the material of the universe has always existed, since nothing comes from nothing. The first principle is that nothing can be created from the non-existent: for otherwise anything would be formed from anything without the need of seed. Epicurus in “Letter to Herodotus” (c. 300 B.C.) This matter was originally in a state of disorder (or kháos). Before the ocean and the earth appeared — before the skies had overspread them all — the face of Nature in a vast expanse was naught but Chaos uniformly waste. Ovid in “Metamorphoses” (8 A.D.) It was not until a divine craftsman imposed mathematical order on this chaos that the ordered universe — the kosmos — appeared. In religions with past-eternal cosmologies, the universe is believed to be causeless. Jainism explicitly says the universe was not created. The doctrine that the world was created is ill advised and should be rejected. If God created the world, where was he before the creation? If you say he was transcendent then and needed no support, where is he now? How could God have made this world without any raw material? If you say that he made this first, and then the world, you are faced with an endless regression. If you declare that this raw material arose naturally you fall into another fallacy, For the whole universe might thus have been its own creator, and have arisen quite naturally. Jinasena in “Mahapurana” (898 A.D.) #### A Higher Plane Some suppose our universe exists on account of a higher plane and that this higher plane, rather than the universe, is self-existent. There are many conceptions of what this higher plane of reality is. Some describe this plane as a cause of being, be it God, a creator, divine will, a first cause, or an unmoved mover. Others describe it as a source of being, the Mind of God, The One, or the Tao. Still others describe it as a ground of being, The Absolute, The All, or what Hindus call Brahman. Not all theories of higher planes of existence need be supernatural. There are also naturalistic descriptions of higher realities. In multiverse theories, a higher reality contains our universe among others. In brane cosmology, our universe is caused by collisions in a literal ‘higher dimension’. In the simulation hypothesis, our universe is the result of computations occurring in a more fundamental reality. (See: “Are we living in a computer simulation?”) Though these theories deal with phenomena that are beyond the nature of our universe, and hence supernatural, evidence is accumulating for some of these higher realms. Every experiment that brings better credence to inflationary theory brings us much closer to hints that the multiverse is real. Andrei Linde in interview (2014) Various theories imply that various types of parallel universes exist, so that by modus ponens, if we take any of these theories seriously, we’re forced to take seriously also some parallel universes. […] Parallel universes aren’t a theory, but predictions of certain theories. Max Tegmark in “Are Parallel Universes Unscientific Nonsense?” (2014) The idea of a preexistent cause, source, or ground of being, one that’s external to and beyond our universe, is as old as religion itself. By means of the Higher Knowledge the wise behold everywhere Brahman, which otherwise cannot be seen or seized, which has no root or attributes, no eyes or ears, no hands or feet; which is eternal and omnipresent, all-pervading and extremely subtle; which is imperishable and the source of all beings. Mundaka Upanishad I.6 (c. 800 B.C.) In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth. Genesis 1:1 (c. 600 B.C.) #### Consciousness Some posit that consciousness is self-existent. If true, consciousness could be the cause of a universe that exists only in appearance. The idea seems strange, but we must admit all knowledge of existence comes to us through experiences that exist in our conscious minds. This fact hasn’t escaped the attention of scientists. It is difficult for the matter-of-fact physicist to accept the view that the substratum of everything is of mental character. But no one can deny that mind is the first and most direct thing in our experience, and all else is remote inference. Arthur Eddington in “The Nature of the Physical World” (1927) I regard consciousness as fundamental. I regard matter as derivative from consciousness. We cannot get behind consciousness. Everything that we talk about, everything that we regard as existing, postulates consciousness. Max Planck in “Interviews with Great Scientists” (1931) The relation between mind and matter perplexes scientists to this day. It leads to philosophical conundrums like brains in a vat, Boltzmann brains, and the simulation argument. All of which suppose that perceived reality is an illusion — a byproduct of a deluded mind. It’s also led physicists to propose theories where conscious minds play a fundamental role in shaping reality as we see it. Physics, after all, is fundamentally about experiences. Physics is the science of predicting future observations from prior observations. In 1970, Heinz-Dieter Zeh proposed the many-minds interpretation of quantum mechanics, which proposes that differentiation of an infinity of observer mind states explains quantum phenomena. A many minds theory, like a many worlds theory, supposes that, associated with a sentient being at any given time, there is a multiplicity of distinct conscious points of view. But a many minds theory holds that it is these conscious points of view or ‘minds,’ rather than ‘worlds’, that are to be conceived as literally dividing or differentiating over time. Michael Lockwood in “‘Many Minds’. Interpretations of Quantum Mechanics” (1995) The mysterious link between consciousness and reality inspired John Wheeler’s idea of a participatory universe. As Martin Redfern described, “Many don’t agree with John Wheeler, but if he’s right then we and presumably other conscious observers throughout the universe, are the creators — or at least the minds that make the universe manifest.” The idea that consciousness precedes the material world has a rich history. It is found across philosophies and religious traditions. Where physical reality is seen as a dream or construct of a mind or soul. For it is the same thing that can be thought and that can be. Parmenides in “fragment 3” (c. 475 B.C.) A few millennia later, the philosopher George Berkeley echoed Parmenides, concluding that “to be is to be perceived.” It is indeed widely believed that all perceptible objects — houses, mountains, rivers, and so on — really exist independently of being perceived by the understanding. But however widely and confidently this belief may be held, anyone who has the courage to challenge it will — if I’m not mistaken — see that it involves an obvious contradiction. For what are houses, mountains, rivers etc. but things we perceive by sense? George Berkeley in “The Principles of Human Knowledge” (1710) Hindus believe the universal mind, or world soul Atman, became the universe. Accordingly, the universe is not real, but the dream of a God under the spell of māyā — a temporary ignorance of the true reality. Buddhists believe that the mind underlies and forms everything. All the phenomena of existence have mind as their precursor, mind as their supreme leader, and of mind are they made. Gautama Buddha in “The Dhammapada” (c. 500 B.C.) The Taoist philosopher Zhuang Zhou said the world is a dream. While he is dreaming he does not know it is a dream, and in his dream he may even try to interpret a dream. Only after he wakes does he know it was a dream. And someday there will be a great awakening when we know that this is all a great dream. Zhuang Zhou in “Zhuangzi” (c. 300 B.C.) ### Reviewing Answers We’ve considered seven proposals for self-existent things: 1. Logic 2. Truth 3. Numbers 4. Possibility 5. The Universe 6. A Higher Plane 7. Consciousness Yet so far, none of these is satisfactory as an ultimate explanation. None stands out as a final Because that doesn’t throw up a further Why. #### Abstract Entities: Logic, Truth, Numbers First, we have abstract entities: logic, truth, and numbers. But though these things are plausibly causeless, how could they cause anything? These things are eternal and unchanging, not to mention abstract. How can they cause anything like the huge dynamic universe we see? So the cause of the universe must (at least causally prior to the universe’s existence) transcend space and time and therefore cannot be physical or material. But there are only two kinds of things that could fall under such a description: either an abstract object (like a number) or else a mind (a soul, a self). But abstract objects don’t stand in causal relations. This is part of what it means to be abstract. The number 7, for example, doesn’t cause anything. William Lane Craig in “Reasonable Faith” (1994) #### Possibility: Mathematical Consistency What about all possibility? If all possible things exist, then our universe would be counted among those possible things. But why should possible things be actual? As J. J. C. Smart remarked, “That anything should exist at all does seem to me a matter for the deepest awe.” Existence is what we seek to explain. And there is another issue: why is our universe so simple and ordered compared to all else that exists in the space of all possibility? Tegmark’s proposal, however, faces a formidable problem. The number of mathematical structures increases with increasing complexity, suggesting that “typical” structures should be horrendously large and cumbersome. This seems to be in conflict with the simplicity and beauty of the theories describing our world. Alexander Vilenkin in “Many Worlds in One” (2006) #### The Physical: The Universe, Physical Law If the universe alone exists, it explains exactly what we see. But there would be lingering questions. Why does consciousness exist? Are abstract entities real? And perhaps the biggest mystery of all: “Why should this universe, or its laws, be the only real ones? As Lee Smolin asked, “Why do these laws, and not others, hold in our universe?” Does the existence of laws require some higher principle? Although science may solve the problem of how the universe began, it can not answer the question: Why does the universe bother to exist? Maybe only God can answer that. Stephen Hawking in interview (1988) #### Higher Planes: God, Multiverse, Simulation We might appeal to a higher cause to explain the universe we see. But as J. J. C. Smart reminds us, “If we postulate God in addition to the created universe we increase the complexity of our hypothesis. We have all the complexity of the universe itself, and we have in addition the at least equal complexity of God.” This seems true for any higher principle. For example, if we presume our universe is the result of a simulation in a higher reality, what’s responsible for that higher reality? Whatever our final theory of physics, we will be left facing an irreducible mystery. For perhaps there could have been nothing at all. Not even empty space, but just absolutely nothing […] If you believe God is the creator, well, why is God that way? The religious person is left with a mystery which is no less than the mystery with which science leaves us. Steven Weinberg in “Closer to Truth: Cosmos, Consciousness, God” (2008, 2009) #### The Mental: Mind, Soul, Consciousness If consciousness is causeless, it could explain why perceptions exist. But if reality is only a dream or illusion, why do our perceptions appear to follow along with a universe adhering to physical laws? If it’s all an illusion, what’s the source of this illusion? Even if everything in this universe were an illusion, there would still have to be something outside this universe that generates the illusion. John A. Leslie and Robert Lawrence Kuhn in “The Mystery of Existence” (2013) ### A Causeless Cause What we seek, and have so far have failed to identify, is a causeless cause. This is, something that not only has a plausibly self-existent and causeless nature, but also plausibly accounts for the reality we see. We’ve found things that appear to be causeless: logic, truth, and numbers — but these things also appear incapable of being a cause. Conversely, we’ve found things that could be a cause: the universe, a higher plane, and consciousness — but they don’t seem causeless. Then there is possibility, for which we have reason to question whether it is causeless and whether it causes what we see. We find an almost inverse relation: The more plausibly something is causeless, the less plausible it seems to be the cause for what we see. A causeless cause would provide us with a complete explanation. It would explain both itself and the properties of observed reality. It would describe the relation between the mental and material. It would tell us why the universe exists and why it has simple, ordered laws. To progress we need to find the connecting glue — the missing piece of the puzzle that shows either how a causeless thing accounts for the reality we see, or alternatively, why the reality we see is causeless. ## Three Modes of Existence In reviewing the seven categories of possibly causeless things, we encountered three modes of existence. Loosely speaking they are: • Mathematical Existence • Material Existence • Mental Existence Mathematical existence includes: abstract entities, logic, truth, numbers, math, properties, forms, equations, relations, possibility, structures, laws, and principles. This mode might include religious concepts of divine law/will/order (Tao/Logos), the infinite indivisible truth (Asha/Govinda), and divine mathematics. Material existence includes: matter, energy, the vacuum, spacetime, physical law, the universe, the multiverse, particles, forces, fields, and physical systems. This mode might include what religions refer to as creation, kosmos, the material plane, and māyā/illusion. Mental existence includes: mind, consciousness, observations, perceptions, ideas, and dreams. This mode might include religious concepts of the mind of god, world soul, Atman, and souls or spirits. My viewpoint allows for three different kinds of reality: the physical, the mental and the Platonic-mathematical, with something (as yet) profoundly mysterious in the relations between the three. Roger Penrose in “The Big Questions: What is reality?” (2006) ### Math, Matter, Mind Of the three modes of existence, does any stand out as being more fundamental than any of the others? What is their relation? If one of these modes of existence can be shown as primary, while the others are derivative, then we might close in on a causeless cause. A common view of physicists is that matter produces mind, and mind produces math. But even among physicists, this view isn’t universal. The triangle suggests the circularity of the widespread view that math arises from the mind, the mind arises out of matter, and that matter can be explained in terms of math. Non-physicists should be wary of any claim that modern physics leads us to any particular resolution of this circularity, since even the sample of three theoretical physicists writing this paper hold three divergent views. Piet Hut, Mark Alford, and Max Tegmark in “On Math, Matter, and Mind” (2006) What is the reality of these modes of existence? Are all on equal footing? Or is one more fundamental while the others are derivative? #### Materialism: Matter is Primary Materialism is the view that matter is fundamental. It assumes mental states are the byproduct of particular material arrangements (e.g. brains) and that mathematical objects, if they exist at all outside of minds, have no bearing on the material world. Materialism is a popular, if not conventional, view among physicists. Materialism can explain why our perceptions follow the patterns of physical law, but it has difficulty explaining why matter gives rise to mental states — this is the so-called hard-problem of consciousness. Materialism also hits an explanatory dead-end trying to answer why matter exists and why it follows simple physical laws. If eager to know the world’s structure, ask the scientists. Science, however, seems unable to answer some key questions concerning the structure. For start, why is the structure an orderly one? Why do events so often develop in fairly simple and familiar ways, leading us to talk of causal laws? […] Then there is what can seem the biggest question of all. Science investigates the world’s structure, but why is there anything at all to be structured? Why is there a cosmos, not a blank? Why is there something rather than nothing? Science cannot answer this. John Leslie in “A Cosmos Existing through Ethical Necessity” (2009) #### Idealism: Mind is Primary Idealism is the view that mind is fundamental. It assumes mental states are the basis of reality, and that the matter that seems to exist, exists only as thoughts and perceptions in minds. Idealism is expressed by Eastern religions, theologians, and mystics. But increasingly, physicists recognize they can’t so easily do away with the observer. It seems the observer plays a necessary, if not fundamental, role in any description of reality. Consciousness cannot be accounted for in physical terms. For consciousness is absolutely fundamental. It cannot be accounted for in terms of anything else. Erwin Schrödinger in interview (1931) But idealism doesn’t answer everything. It doesn’t explain why minds are bound up with the patterns of matter in a material world. We find that our perceptions obey some laws, which can be most conveniently formulated if we assume that there is some underlying reality beyond our perceptions. This model of a material world obeying laws of physics is so successful that soon we forget about our starting point and say that matter is the only reality, and perceptions are nothing but a useful tool for the description of matter. This assumption is almost as natural (and maybe as false) as our previous assumption that space is only a mathematical tool for the description of matter. We are substituting reality of our feelings by the successfully working theory of an independently existing material world. And the theory is so successful that we almost never think about its possible limitations. Andrei Linde in “Inflation, Quantum Cosmology, and the Anthropic Principle” (2002) #### Platonism: Math is Primary Platonism is the idea that math is fundamental. It assumes abstract objects are the most real, and that everything we see and perceive is somehow derivative from this higher existence. Platonism is popular among philosophers and mathematicians, whose job is to study the objective properties of abstract things. If mathematical objects form the basis of reality, it might explain why the material world is so mathematical in its form. In a famous 1959 lecture, physicist Eugine P. Wigner argued that “the enormous usefulness of mathematics in the natural sciences is something bordering on the mysterious.” Conversely, mathematical structures have an eerily real feel to them. They satisfy a central criterion of objective existence: they are the same no matter who studies them. A theorem is true regardless of whether it is proved by a human, a computer or an intelligent dolphin. Contemplative alien civilizations would find the same mathematical structures as we have. Accordingly mathematicians commonly say that they discover mathematical structures rather than create them. Max Tegmark in “Parallel Universes” (2003) Where Platonism falls short is in explaining how abstract objects lead to material or mental existence. According to Leibniz, the difficulty is explaining, “how from eternal or essential metaphysical truths there arise temporal, contingent or physical truths.” ### What Came First? For each of the three modes of existence, there is an ancient school of thought holding that mode of existence as most fundamental. The Mathematical: Plato believed that abstract entities were the most real and that the material world was derivative. The Material: Plato’s foremost student Aristotle, disagreed, saying material substances were more real than abstract forms. The Mental: Several centuries later, Plotinus argued that mind was more real than the material reality it perceives. Today’s scientists, mathematicians, and philosophers seem no closer to an answer on whether math, matter, or mind came first. • Does mind give rise to math, or does math give rise to mind? • Does matter give rise to mind, or does mind give rise to matter? • Does math give rise to matter, or does matter give rise to math? To unravel the mystery of existence requires that we understand the relationship between these modes of existence. Only then do we have any hope of identifying an ultimate explanation: a causeless cause. To address the nature of reality we need to understand its connection to consciousness and mathematics. Roger Penrose in “The Big Questions: What is reality?” (2006) ### Are They One? Various thinkers have suspected the three modes of existence to be connected and perhaps are all aspects of one ultimate reality. #### Mind and Matter as One? Modern physical experiments have revealed something inseparable between the mind and the observed physical reality. As we penetrate into matter, nature does not show us any isolated ‘basic building blocks’, but rather appears as a complicated web of relations between the various parts of the whole. These relations always include the observer in an essential way. The human observer constitutes the final link in the chain of observational processes, and the properties of any atomic object can only be understood in terms of interaction with the observer. This means that the classical ideal of an objective description of nature is no longer valid. The Cartesian partition between the I and the world, between the observer and the observed, cannot be made when dealing with atomic matter. In atomic physics, we can never speak about nature without, at the same time, speaking about ourselves. Fritjof Capra in “The Tao of Physics” (1975) Aren’t we mistaken in making this separation between ‘the universe’ and ‘life and mind’? Shouldn’t we seek ways to think of them as one? John Archibald Wheeler quoted in “Trespassing on Einstein’s Lawn” (2014) #### Math and Matter as One? Likewise, mathematicians and scientists cannot help but notice a mysterious link connecting mathematics and the physical world. There exists, unless I am mistaken, an entire world consisting of the totality of mathematical truths, which is accessible to us only through our intelligence, just as there exists the world of physical realities; each one is independent of us, both of them divinely created and appear different only because of the weakness of our mind; but, for a more powerful intelligence, they are one and the same thing, whose synthesis is partially revealed in that marvelous correspondence between abstract mathematics on the one hand and astronomy and all branches of physics on the other. Charles Hermite in “Eloges Académiques et Discours” (translation p. 323) (1912) Maybe the relationships are all that exist. Maybe the world is made of math. At first that sounded nuts, but when I thought about it I had to wonder, what exactly is the other option? That the world is made of “things”? What the hell is a “thing”? It was one of those concepts that fold under the slightest interrogation. Look closely at any object and you find it’s an amalgamation of particles. But look closely at the particles and you find that they are irreducible representations of the Poincaré symmetry group―whatever that meant. The point is, particles, at bottom, look a lot like math. Amanda Gefter in “Trespassing on Einstein’s Lawn” (2014) #### All as One? If matter and mind are two aspects of one reality, and if math and matter are likewise two aspects of one reality, then all three must be connected — all would be reflections of one underlying reality. So how do the elements of the trinity fit together: the “phenomenological” world, the “physical” world, and the “mathematical” world? On the unargued assumption that the principle underlying ultimate reality is radically simple, it will here be conjectured that these three realms are one-and-the-same under different descriptions. David Pearce in “Why Does Anything Exist?” (1995) ## A Path to Reality For millennia, philosophers have debated the relation between math, matter, and mind. For millennia, they’ve sought a causeless cause. Despite this, philosophy has not yielded any definitive answers. Perhaps science can shed new light on this question. Science allows us to test and decide among competing theories. Science provides opportunities to discover the missing piece of the puzzle and explain how and why a causeless thing gives rise to the reality we see. As it happens, discoveries in the field of mathematics in the 20th century found this missing puzzle piece. We now know a viable link between “eternal or essential metaphysical truths” and “temporal, contingent or physical truths.” We can explain how reality can emerge from self-existent, causeless truth concerning numbers and their relations. But without hard science and observational evidence to back it up, how can we ever know if this explanation is right? How can we ever escape from the morass of inconclusive philosophy? Fortunately, discoveries in the fields of physics and cosmology — also occurring in the 20th century — provide exactly this support. We not only have found a plausible path to reality, we have evidence for it. ### 20th Century Mathematics Many consider the field of mathematics to be mostly uneventful — unchanged since Euclid defined the laws of geometry 2,300 years ago. But at the turn of the 20th century, the field of mathematics was in a state of crisis. The field was shaken to its foundation. Math was broken, and it had to be rebuilt from scratch. During this reformation, monumental discoveries shocked and dismayed mathematicians. In the first half of the 20th century, logicians and mathematicians discovered a provably self-existent thing. In the second half of the 20th century, they showed how — under certain assumptions — this self-existent thing could account for the reality we see. Might this thing be our causeless cause? Let’s see what mathematicians found, and how they came to find it. #### The Foundational Crisis At the turn of the 20th century, math was in trouble. It was undergoing what came to be called the foundational crisis of mathematics. At the time, set theory had come to serve as the foundation of mathematics. All mathematical proofs ultimately relied on it. But in 1899, Ernst Zermelo noticed this set theory had a fatal flaw. Zermelo told other math professors at the University of Göttingen about it, including David Hilbert, but Zermelo didn’t publish it. In 1901, Bertrand Russell also noticed this flaw. But Russell didn’t stay quiet. He wrote a letter in 1902 to Gottlob Frege, just as his second volume on set theory was going off to the publisher. Frege had spent decades laying the foundation of set theory. It was his life’s work. But one letter, showing one flaw, brought it all down. Russell showed Frege’s set theory allows two contradictory statements to both be proved. This flaw is known as Russell’s paradox. One flaw might not sound so bad, but in math it is fatal. For if in math, just one falsehood can be proved, then any falsehood can be proved. This is known as the principle of explosion. For example, assume mathematics had a flaw that allowed you to prove that “2 + 2 = 5”. You could use this false proof to prove anything. You could prove that the$1 in your bank account equals $1,000,000. \def\arraystretch{1.5} \begin{array}{l:l} 2 + 2 = 5 & \text{(given)} \\ \hline 0 = 1 & \text{(subtract 4 from both sides)} \\ \hline 0 = \text{999,999} & \text{(multiply both sides by 999,999)} \\ \hline 1 = \text{1,000,000} & \text{(add 1 to both sides)} \\ \end{array} If math allowed proofs of false statements, then contracts, commerce — even society as we know it — couldn’t function. This was the state of mathematics in 1900 — it’s no wonder it was considered a crisis. Math was broken. It had to be fixed. It needed a rallying cry. #### A Call to Action In 1900, mathematicians from around the world gathered in Paris for the International Congress of Mathematicians. David Hilbert, considered the greatest mathematician of his time, was invited to speak. He used the opportunity to present what he considered to be the 23 most significant open problems in mathematics. The second of Hilbert’s problems called for a proof that the foundational rules of mathematics were free of contradictions. This would, once and for all, put math on a solid foundation. Never again would mathematicians need worry that a new contradiction might one day surface and torpedo the whole of mathematics. #### New Foundations The collapse of Frege’s set theory and Hilbert’s call for a provably solid foundation for math served as an inspiration. Under Hilbert’s direction, Zermelo, began work on fixing set theory. Similarly, Bertrand Russell began work with his supervisor, Alfred North Whitehead, on a solution. Their aim was to lay a new foundation for mathematics based on a precise logic, and produce a set theory rid of paradoxes and contradictions. It was a massive undertaking that took over a decade. It culminated in the three volume tome Principia Mathematica, published in 1910, 1912, and 1913. It was so detailed, that it famously required several hundred pages to work up to the point where it proved ‘1 + 1 = 2’. Owing to its complexity and unique notation, Principia Mathematica never gained much popularity with mathematicians. It also had a competitor. By 1908, Zermelo developed a new set theory, consisting of just eight rules. And in 1921, it was further improved by Abraham Fraenkel. Their combined result is called Zermelo-Fraenkel set theory. It became the default foundation of mathematics, and remains so to this day. #### Hilbert’s Program Although no one had discovered contradictions in either Russell’s or Zermelo’s new foundational systems, no one had been able to prove they were free of contradictions either. Mathematics still rested on a foundation of uncertain stability. This led Hilbert, in 1921, to push for finding a mathematical theory that was provably consistent. And not only did he want this theory to be provably consistent, he wanted it to be provably complete. A complete system of mathematics means any true statement can be proven within that theory. There would never be a need to add to this complete theory, as it would cover everything that mathematicians might think up in the future. It would be a final theory and the last theory any mathematician would ever need. It was the mathematician’s equivalent of a theory of everything — where all of mathematics is derivable from one rock-solid foundation. The effort to find this theory became known as Hilbert’s Program. It was a noble goal. But less than a decade after launching his program, Hilbert’s dream of a final theory was shattered. In 1930, at a conference in Königsberg, Hilbert remained confident in the eventual success of his program, proclaiming: “Wir müssen wissen. Wir werden wissen.” — “We must know. We will know.” #### Gödel’s Incompleteness Theorems Unknown to Hilbert, his dream had already been crushed. The day before, at the very same conference, the 24-year-old Kurt Gödel presented his PhD thesis. It proved Hilbert’s dream is impossible. At the conference Gödel presented his First Incompleteness Theorem. It showed that in any finite mathematical foundation, there will be true statements that can’t be proved in that theory. Thus Hilbert’s dream of completeness is impossible. The most comprehensive current formal systems are the system of Principia Mathematica (PM) on the one hand, the Zermelo-Fraenkelian axiom-system of set theory on the other hand. These two systems are so far developed that you can formalize in them all proof methods that are currently in use in mathematics, i.e. you can reduce these proof methods to a few axioms and deduction rules. Therefore, the conclusion seems plausible that these deduction rules are sufficient to decide all mathematical questions expressible in those systems. We will show that this is not true. Kurt Gödel in “On formally undecidable propositions of Principia Mathematica and related systems I” (1931) Gödel’s first incompleteness theorem showed there could never be a final theory that would serve mathematicians for all time. Gödel wasn’t finished. Shortly thereafter, he published his Second Incompleteness Theorem. This proved that no consistent theory of mathematics can ever prove itself to be consistent. The 2nd of Hilbert’s 23 problems was impossible. This explained the failure of Zermelo in proving the consistency of his set theory. It was actually a good sign that he was unable to — had he been able to prove it consistent, it would imply that it was not. So now, not only was completeness impossible, but it was also impossible for a theory to prove its own consistency. This was a double whammy to Hilbert. Hilbert lived another 12 years but he never publicly acknowledged Gödel’s result. Privately, he was crushed — he didn’t want mathematics to be this way. But others greatly admired Gödel and his achievement. When Harvard gave Gödel an honorary degree, he was introduced as “The discoverer of the most significant mathematical truth in the century.” Some called Gödel “the greatest logician since Aristotle.” Edward Nelson called Aristotle “the greatest logician before Gödel.” John von Neumann said, “Gödel is absolutely irreplaceable; he is the only mathematician alive about whom I would dare make this statement.” #### Undecidability In 1673, Leibniz invented and later built the first digital calculator. He declared, “It is beneath the dignity of excellent men to waste their time in calculation when any peasant could do the work just as accurately with the aid of a machine.” After he built the device, Leibniz began to wonder about the limits of what machines can calculate: was it possible to build a machine that could answer any mathematical question? Several centuries later, David Hilbert together with Wilhelm Ackermann refined Leibniz’s question. At a conference in Berlin in 1928, they defined the Entscheidungsproblem (or decision problem). The decision problem asks: is it possible to build a machine that can decide whether or not any mathematical question can be proved in some mathematical system? Gödel showed that not every true statement was provable, but was there a way to decide whether or not a statement was provable? It was an important question. Such a method would be most useful to mathematicians. It would tell them when they ought to give up, and thereby save them from wasting their lives searching for proofs that don’t exist. Alonzo Church got the first result on the Entscheidungsproblem. He defined a programming language, and proved certain questions about it are undecidable. It follows that the Entscheidungsproblem is unsolvable in the case of any system of symbolic logic which is [consistent] in the sense of Gödel. Alonzo Church in “An Unsolvable Problem of Elementary Number Theory” (1935) The next year, Church’s student, Alan Turing, published another example of an undecidable problem — the halting problem. Gödel has shown that there are propositions U such that neither U nor [not U] is provable. […] On the other hand, I shall show that there is no general method which tells whether a given formula U is provable. Alan Turing in “On Computable Numbers, with an Application to the Entscheidungsproblem” (1936) It was in this paper that Turing introduced the concept of a general purpose programmable computer, birthing the digital age. Hilbert never got the answers he hoped for. We can’t prove the consistency of a mathematical foundation. We can’t prove everything that is true, and given undecidability, we can’t even be sure whether a statement has a proof or not. And yet, despite not getting the answers he hoped for, Hilbert knew the right questions to ask. The answers produced great discoveries. I’d like to make the outrageous claim, that has a little bit of truth, that actually all of this that’s happening now with the computer taking over the world, the digitalization of our society, of information in human society, you could say in a way is the result of a philosophical question that was raised by David Hilbert at the beginning of the century. Gregory Chaitin in “A Century of Controversy Over the Foundations of Mathematics” (2000) #### Hilbert’s 10th Problem Of Hilbert’s 23 problems, his 10th problem asked for a general method to solve Diophantine equations. These are equations that allow only whole numbers, (no decimals or fractions), which are named after Diophantus who studied them in the 3rd century. Given a Diophantine equation with any number of unknown quantities and with rational integral numerical coefficients: To devise a process according to which it can be determined in a finite number of operations whether the equation is solvable in rational integers. David Hilbert in “Mathematical problems” (1902) Deceptively simple Diophantine equations were often notoriously difficult. A famous example is the Diophantine equation: a^n = b^n + c^n This equation is easy when n = 1, or when n = 2. Millennia ago Pythagoras proved there were infinite solutions when n = 2. And yet, no one had found even one solution for n \ge 3. No one knew of a cube number (a^{3}) that was the sum of two other cube numbers. In 1673, Pierre de Fermat wrote in his notes that he had a proof that there were no solutions when n \ge 3. But no one had ever found it, nor was anyone able to rediscover a proof. The missing proof became known as Fermat’s last theorem. The problem went unsolved for 321 years. Until in 1994, after seven years of work, Andrew Wiles completed a 129-page proof that no whole number solutions exist when n \ge 3. If mathematicians had a procedure to solve Diophantine equations, Andrew Wiles wouldn’t have had to spend seven years working on this problem. Instead, he could program a computer to follow the procedure and the computer would crank out a solution. In 1970, Hilbert’s 10th problem was solved. Solving it required 21 years of work by four mathematicians: Martin Davis, Julia Robinson, Hilary Putnam and Yuri Matijasevič. Their proof, called the MRDP-Theorem (after their initials), gave a negative result. They proved there is no general procedure for solving Diophantine equations — and they proved it in a shocking way. They showed an equivalence between solutions to Diophantine equations and what is computable. In other words, for any imaginable computer program, there is a Diophantine equation whose solutions equal all the outputs of that computer program. This was so surprising that many mathematicians had difficulty believing it. It meant there is a Diophantine equation that picks chess moves like Deep Blue, and there’s a Diophantine equation that does your taxes like TurboTax, and there’s yet another Diophantine equation that does spellchecking like Microsoft Word. For anything a computer can compute, there’s a Diophantine equation that gives the exact same answers. But despite how surprising their result was, it was true. And this is why there can be no general method for solving Diophantine equations: because the question of whether or not a program finishes (Turing’s halting problem) is equivalent to asking whether or not some Diophantine equation has solutions. Since the halting problem is not generally solvable, the equivalence between Diophantine equations and computers meant Diophantine equations weren’t generally solvable either. Yet again, what Hilbert asked for couldn’t be provided. Hilbert’s questions probed at the heart of consistency, provability, decidability, and computability. They didn’t lead where he expected, but they did reveal deep truths about the nature of mathematics. #### Universal Equations In 1978, the mathematician James P. Jones went a step further. Just as it is possible to make a computer program that runs all other computer programs, it is also possible to make a Diophantine equation that includes all other Diophantine equations. Matijasevič’s Theorem implies also the existence of particular undecidable diophantine equations. In fact there must exist universal diophantine equations, polynomial analogues of the universal Turing machine. James P. Jones in “Undecidable Diophantine Equations” (1980) Such Diophantine equations are general purpose computers: plug in the ‘program’ as one of the variables to the equation, and the solutions to the equation will be the outputs of that program. Jones provided an example of such an equation. It is complex, but the truths concerning this single equation include all truths concerning the executions and outputs of all computer programs. \text{In order that } x \in W_{v} \text{ it is necessary and sufficient that the} \\ \text{following equation has a solution in positive integers:} \\ \text{} \\ (v - (((zuy)^2 + u)^2 + y))^2 + (elg^2 + \alpha - (b - xy)q^2)^2 + \\ (q - b^{5^{60}})^2 + (\lambda + q^4 - (1 +\lambda b^5))^2 + \\ (\theta + 2z - b^5)^2 + (l - (u + t \theta))^2 + (e - (y + m \theta))^2 + \\ (n - q^{16})^2 + (r - ([g + eq^3 + lq^5 + (2(e - z \lambda)(1 + xb^5 + g)^4 + \\ \lambda b^5 + \lambda b^5 q^4)q^4][n^2 - n]+ [q^3 -bl + l + \theta \lambda q^3 + \\ (b^5 - 2)q^5][n^2 - 1]))^2 + (p - 2ws^2 r^2 n^2)^2 + \\ (p^2k^2 - k^2 + 1 - \tau^2)^2 + (4(c - ksn^2)^2 + \eta - k^2)^2 + \\ (k - (r + 1 + hp - h))^2 + (a - (wn^2 + 1)rsn^2)^2 + \\ (c - (2r + 1 + \varphi))^2 + (d - (bw + ca -2c + 4\alpha \gamma - 5 \gamma))^2 + \\ (d^2 - ((a^2 -1)c^2 + 1))^2 + (f^2 - ((a^2 - 1)i^2 c^4 + 1))^2 + \\ ((d + of)^2 - (((a + f^2(d^2 - a))^2 - 1)(2r + 1 + jc)^2 + 1))^2 = 0 As [v] varies through the positive integers, the [equation] defines every recursively enumerable set. This is, to our mind, the attraction of the universal equations. At once, [this equation defines] primes, Fibonacci numbers, Lucas numbers, perfect numbers, theorems of ZF, or indeed theorems of any other axiomatizable theory. James P. Jones in “Three Universal Representations of Recursively Enumerable Sets” (1978) We might consider such universal equations as ‘God Equations‘ — equations whose solutions contain and include all the others. In his 1987 book Algorithmic Information Theory, Gregory Chaitin describes one such equation: the “Exponential Diophantine Equation Computer.” It has 20,000 variables and is two hundred pages long. This equation perfectly replicates the behavior of the LISP programming language. He describes the equation as follows: If the LISP expression k has no value, then this equation will have no solution. If the LISP expression k has a value, then this equation will have exactly one solution. In this unique solution, n = the value of the expression k. Gregory Chaitin in “META MATH! The Quest for Omega” (2004) Chaitin showed that even modern day computers and programming languages have counterparts in the form of Diophantine equations. Universal Diophantine equations are remarkable. They exist in pure arithmetic. The arithmetical relations they encode represent every program that can be computed along with all of their outputs. Among these solutions we can find the valid proofs of every theorem in every mathematical system, every way of playing every computer game that has or will ever be invented, and simulations of every galaxy in the observable universe down to the atomic level. Jones’s discovery of universal Diophantine equations inspired him to quote chapter 11, verse 7 of the Bhagavad Gita: “Whatever you wish can be seen all at once right here. This universal form can show you all that you now desire. Everything is here completely.” Given that such equations include everything computable, including all physical laws and systems as well as simulations of any observer’s mind and brain — could these equations be the glue connecting eternal mathematical truths with contingent physical truths? #### The Universal Dovetailer In 1991, Bruno Marchal wrote a program he called the Universal Dovetailer — a program that generates and runs all programs. In order to run every program without getting stuck on a program that never ends, the Universal Dovetailer interleaves, or dovetails, on the processing, doing a little bit of work on each program at a time. The program is simple. The full program is quite short, consisting of about 300 lines of LISP code. Its pseudocode is even simpler: for k from 0 to ∞: for j from 0 to k: for i from 0 to j: // Compute k steps of program i on input j This program sequentially generates every program and runs it for every input. The longer the Universal Dovetailer runs, the more programs it generates and the more steps of each program it performs. If allowed to run forever, it runs every program there is. This program, like universal Diophantine equations, contains all. While studying the consequences of the existence of all computations, Marchal made an incredible discovery: what he describes as the “many-histories interpretation of elementary arithmetic.” The discovery served as the basis of his 1998 PhD thesis, Computability, Physics and Cognition. This paper explains how we can explain the appearance of a multiverse given two assumptions: 1. All computations exist 2. Computation supports cognition We will explain that once we adopt the computationalist hypothesis, which is a form of mechanist assumption, we have to derive from it how our belief in the physical laws can emerge from only arithmetic and classical computer science. Bruno Marchal in “The computationalist reformulation of the mind-body problem” (2013) Given there exist universal Diophantine equations, all computations exist as a consequence of arithmetical truth concerning them. While there is no physical realization of the perpetual execution of the Universal Dovetailer, its complete execution exists in number theory as a consequence of arithmetical truth. There are, for instance, Diophantine equations whose solutions exactly equal all the sequentially generated states reached by the Universal Dovetailer. So if we accept the self-existent truth of ‘2 + 2 = 4’, we must also accept truths concerning universal Diophantine equations — truths that concern all computational histories and all simulated realities. To be sure, the existence of the UD is a logical consequence of elementary arithmetic with Church’s thesis or Turing’s thesis. Bruno Marchal in discussion list (2019) It therefore becomes a purely mathematical question to prove whether some Diophantine equation contains in its solutions a computational state equivalent to some person’s physical brain state. We would then exist for the same reason that ‘2 + 2 = 4’ — as an inevitable consequence of mathematical truth. The question “Why is there anything at all?” is reduced to “Why does 2 + 2 = 4?” ### A Story of Creation We have arrived at a plausible story of creation. We can now connect the causeless abstract entities: logic, truth, and numbers, with a viable cause for our perceptions of a physical reality. Why does anything exist? Because necessity requires logical laws; logical laws imply incontrovertible truth; such truth includes mathematical truth; mathematical truth defines numbers; numbers possess number relations; number relations imply equations; equations define computable relations; computable relations define all computations; all computations include algorithmically generated observers; and these observers experience apparent physical realities. #### Ancient Anticipations This account of how eternal mathematical truths could give rise to contingent physical truths depended on recent discoveries. It required a deep understanding of modern ideas: universal equations, computers, computation, virtual reality, and simulation. Only a century ago, we didn’t even have words for these concepts. Despite this, a few ancient thinkers gave theories for existence that are eerily similar to this modern creation story. They postulated something primal and simple that gave rise to the numbers, and from numbers arose beings, consciousness, and matter. 2,600 years ago, Laozi wrote that numbers proceed from The Tao and that from numbers that all things are born: The Tao gives birth to One. One gives birth to Two. Two gives birth to Three. Three gives birth to all things. Laozi in chapter 42 of “Tao Te Ching” (c. 600 B.C.) Diogenes Laërtius was a biographer of eminent philosophers. The following is his account of 2,500-year-old Pythaogrean beliefs: That the monad (one) was the beginning of everything. From the monad proceeds an indefinite duad (two), which is subordinate to the monad as to its cause. That from the monad and the indefinite duad proceed numbers. And from numbers signs. And from these last, lines of which plane figures consist. And from plane figures are derived solid bodies. And from solid bodies sensible bodies. Diogenes Laërtius in “The Lives and Opinions of Eminent Philosophers” (c. 225 A.D.) 1,750 years ago, Plotinus developed neoplatonism — a rich theory concerning the relations between various levels of being. Wikipedia describes Plotinus’s chain of being as a series of emanations: “The first emanation is Nous (Divine Mind, Logos, Order, Thought, Reason) […] From Nous proceeds the World Soul. […] From the world soul proceeds individual human souls, and finally, matter, at the lowest level of being and thus the least perfected level of the cosmos.” The One is not a Being but the generator of Being. [V.2.1] The greatest, later than the [One], must be the [Intellectual-Principle], and it must be the second of all existence. [V.1.6] For what emanates from the Intellectual-Principle is a Reason-Principle, a Logos. [III.2.2] And as soon as there is differentiation, number exists. [V.1.5] Thus Number, the primal and true, is Principle and source of actuality to the Beings. [VI.6.15] [The Soul’s] substantial-existence comes from the Intellectual-Principle. [V.1.3] The Soul, itself a Divine Thought and possessing the Divine Thoughts, or Ideas, of all things, contains all things concentred within it. [III.6.18] This gives the degree in which the kosmos is ensouled, not by a soul belonging to it, but by one present to it; it is mastered not master; not possessor but possessed. [IV.3.9] This one universe is all bound together in shared experience. [IV.4.32] So matter is actually a phantasm. [II.5.5] Plotinus in “The Enneads” (270 A.D.) 1,570 years ago, Proclus wrote that mathematical existence occupies a middle ground. He said mathematical being sits between the simple reality that’s grounded in itself and the things that move about in matter. Mathematical being necessarily belongs neither among the first nor among the last and least simple of the kinds of being, but occupies the middle ground between the partless realities—simple, incomposite, and indivisible—and divisible things characterized by every variety of composition and differentiation. The unchangeable, stable, and incontrovertible character of the propositions about it shows that it is superior to the kinds of things that move about in matter. But the discursiveness of [mathematical] procedure, in dealing with its subjects as extended, and its setting up of different prior principles for different objects—these give to mathematical being a rank below that indivisible nature that is completely grounded in itself. Proclus in “A Commentary on the First Book of Euclid’s Elements” (c. 450 A.D.) ### The Causeless Cause Found? Could this be the answer? Could things be so simple? In order for this explanation of existence to be correct, mathematical truth must be causeless. Mathematical existence must depend on neither human minds, nor on physical or material things. In addition, mathematical truth must be something capable of generating observers — observers who consciously perceive their environment and which they consider as existing physically. Ideally, this causeless cause will illuminate the relation between the mental and material, and explain why the universe obeys simple laws. Can the theory achieve this? #### Is it Causeless? For mathematical truth to serve as a causeless cause, it must exist causelessly. Math must depend on neither minds nor matter. ##### Independent of Minds Do numbers and their properties exist beyond the minds of mathematicians and their scribblings on blackboards? Had Hilbert’s program succeeded, and given a mathematical theory capable of proving all true statements, then arguably, mathematics might only be that which follows from this theory. Math would then be an invention of the human mind. But the failure of Hilbert’s program, and Gödel’s proof of the impossibility for any finite theory to define all mathematical truth, meant that mathematical truth is infinite and beyond description, and therefore cannot be a product of human minds. [The existence of] absolutely undecidable mathematical propositions, seems to disprove the view that mathematics is only our own creation; for the creator necessarily knows all properties of his creatures, because they can’t have any others except those he has given to them. So this alternative seems to imply that mathematical objects and facts (or at least something in them) exist objectively and independently of our mental acts and decisions, that is to say, [it seems to imply] some form or other of Platonism or ‘realism’ as to the mathematical objects. Kurt Gödel in “Some basic theorems on the foundations of mathematics and their implications p. 311″ (1951) (See: “Is math invented or discovered?“) ##### Independent of Matter The infinite nature of mathematical truth also implies an independence from matter. Our observable universe has an information capacity of 10^{120} bits. This number is large, but finite. Nowhere in physics, is there room to store, represent, or hold the infinite true statements of mathematics. If there are infinite primes, infinite factors of zero, infinite digits of \pi, they don’t exist physically. If these infinite properties don’t and can’t depend on physical processes operating within a material universe, it follows that mathematical properties must exist independently of matter. It is our firm belief that the Pythagorean theorem needs not be created, nor the fact that the circumference of a circle is 3.14… times the diameter; the laws of nature and the collection of truths, values and their interrelations are primordial and have always existed. C. W. Rietdijk in “Four-dimensional reality continued” (2018) #### Is it the Cause? For this story to work, abstract objects: truth, numbers, equations, and so on, must play a causal role in generating reality and perceptions. The default position of philosophers has been that abstract objects have no effects — they cause and do nothing. But we must admit that this has always been an assumption, it’s never been proven. Although philosophers deny that abstract objects can have causal effects on concrete objects (abstract objects are often defined as causally inert), their potential, say as a collective, to be an explanatory source of ultimate reality cannot be logically excluded. John A. Leslie and Robert Lawrence Kuhn in “The Mystery of Existence” (2013) Recent advances in mathematics give us pause. The discovery that all computations exist as a consequence of mathematical truth, makes us wonder whether abstract mathematics is really so ineffectual. But can mind or matter really be created by math? ##### The Cause of Minds Consciousness remains one of humanity’s last great mysteries. While science has not settled the question of what consciousness is, it has progressed by developing a testable theory of consciousness. In the 1600s, thinkers such as René Descartes and Thomas Hobbes advanced the idea of mechanism — the theory that our brains and bodies are machines that operate according to mechanical rules. In 1936, the discovery of universal machines (or computers) led to the Church-Turing thesis, which says the behavior of any finite machine can be perfectly replicated by an appropriately programmed computer. This is their special power. It is what makes computers so useful. Some were quick to recognize the implications of the Church-Turing thesis for theories of minds, brains, and consciousness. The two fathers of computing, Alan Turing and John von Neumann, noticed parallels between computers and the mind. In 1948, Turing wrote the first chess playing program and in his 1950 paper Computing Machinery and Intelligence, Turing asked, “Can machines think?” The last work of John von Neumann was a lecture series: The Computer and the Brain, published posthumously in 1958. In it von Neumann explains that it is not that the brain acts like a computer, but that computers are so varied in what they can do, that they can be set up to imitate any machine — presumably even the human brain. The important result of Turing’s is that in this way the first [universal] machine can be caused to imitate the behavior of any other machine. John von Neumann in “The Computer and the Brain” (1958) In the 1960s and 1970s, philosophers of mind including Hilary Putnam and his student Jerry Fodor developed what they called functionalism. In its digital form, functionalism is known as the Computational Theory of Mind (or computationalism). This is the idea that function, or computation, is the foundation of consciousness. The computational theory of mind remains as the most popular theory for consciousness among scientists and philosophers. Computationalism, or digital mechanism, or simply mechanism, is [a] hypothesis in the cognitive science according to which we can be emulated by a computer without changing our private subjective feeling. Bruno Marchal in “The computationalist reformulation of the mind-body problem” (2013) If the computational theory of mind is true, then mathematics can explain where observers come from. Observers would be found among the infinite computational histories within arithmetical truth. (See: “What is consciousness?” and “Can a machine be conscious?“) Recent discoveries in physics lend support to computationalism. In 1981, Jacob Bekenstein discovered a physical limit now known as the Bekenstein bound. This bound says that a physical system of finite mass and volume can contain, at most, a finite amount of information. This applies to any finite physical system: a brain, the Earth, the Solar System, our galaxy, or the observable universe. Given that the observable universe has a finite mass and volume, it follows by the Bekenstein bound that it has a finite description. Given that it has a finite description, it follows by the Church-Turing thesis that the evolution of the observable universe is something that is perfectly replicated by a certain computer program. This program contains a version of you, me, the Earth and everyone and everything present in our universe. Our shared histories and memories would be identical. But the question remains: are these computational doppelgängers conscious like we are? If we inspected the contents of this computer program, we would find analogues of all the objects of our own universe. We would find the same books, articles, and movies. Among these we would even find many works on the mysterious nature of consciousness. If these purely computational versions of us are not conscious, what drives them to write and read books about consciousness? If, on the other hand, they are just as conscious as we are, then the idea of a separately existing physical reality becomes redundant. In that case, for all we know, we are these computational versions! We would then exist as pure computations. We would inhabit the computational histories of simulated realities that exist only as a consequence of mathematical truth concerning universal equations. Every imaginable computation is realized in arithmetic as true relations about these universal equations. This includes the computations that describe you, your environment, and even the evolving state of your brain as it processes this very sentence. If computationalism is right, this is who we are. We’ll explore the fascinating relations between computation, mathematics, physics and mind, and explore a crazy-sounding belief of mine that our physical world not only is described by mathematics, but that it is mathematics, making us self-aware parts of a giant mathematical object. Max Tegmark in “Our Mathematical Universe” (2014) ##### The Cause of Matter Can mathematical truth, with its inherent infinite collection of computational histories, explain matter, physical laws and universes? How can abstract things, like truth, numbers, computations, give rise to concrete things like chairs, bricks, and houses? What’s the difference between abstract existence vs. concrete existence? Some say the difference is only a matter of perspective. To a being who inhabits an abstract object, (be it an abstract mathematical object or abstractly existing computation), it seems concrete to them. This equivalence between physical and mathematical existence means that if a mathematical structure contains a [self-aware substructure], it will perceive itself as existing in a physically real world, just as we do. Max Tegmark in “The Mathematical Universe” (2007) The relative aspect of concrete existence, is explicit in Markus Müller’s definition of physical existence: Given two objects A and B, we say that they [physically exist] for each other if and only if, under certain auxiliary conditions, modifying the state of A will affect the state of B, and vice versa. Markus Müller in “Could the physical world be emergent instead of fundamental, and why should we ask?” (2017) Whenever a conscious observer experiences or interacts with another object, that object appears concrete to that observer — even if, from another point of view, both that observer and object seem abstract. Of the modes of existence, this understanding implies mind over matter. Math produces an infinity of conscious minds, and the perceptions of these minds include experiences of material realities. Computationalism, together with the mathematical existence of all computations, leads to a causal reversal between mind and matter. What results is not a primitive matter with consciousness emerging from its organisation but the reverse: consciousness is now the more primitive and matter, or rather the appearance of material organisation, emerges from all the possible experiences of all the possible consciousnesses. Bruno Marchal in “The Amoeba’s Secret” (2014) Matter is then, as Plotinus supposed, a phantasm. #### Is This Testable? This is a big pill to swallow. Are we to take as serious the idea that we live inside an equation? And this equation somehow produces all computations by virtue of its solutions? And that the whole physical universe is just some kind of shared hallucination? Unless there is a way to test and either confirm or falsify this theory, we are not operating in the realm of science, but fantasy. Fortunately, there is a way to test this theory. Due to the fact that not all programs appear with equal frequency, a particular bias should appear in the resulting computational histories. We can then check for this bias by comparing our observations of the character of physical law and the properties of our universe against the predictions made by the theory. If our observations match the predictions, we gain evidence in support of the theory. If they don’t match, we rule the theory out. This is how all theories are tested. ##### Algorithmic Information Theory The reason not all programs occur with equal frequency is due to a consequence of algorithmic information theory (or AIT). This field was developed by Ray Solomonoff, Andrey Kolmogorov and Gregory Chaitin, starting in the 1960s. Chaitin says, “AIT is the result of putting Shannon’s information theory and Turing’s computability theory into a cocktail shaker and shaking vigorously. The basic idea is to measure the complexity of an object by the size in bits of the smallest program for computing it.” Across the infinite programs executed by universal equations, some programs exhibit identical behavior. This is because the program’s code may instruct it to read only a fraction of its total available code. Programs that complete are naturally self-delimiting. They define their own length by virtue of reading only a finite number of bits. Above we see two equivalent programs highlighted in blue, both of these programs are defined by the same 9-bit prefix. Given that this program length is 9 bits, we can calculate that this program should appear once every 2^{9} (or 512) bit strings. Self-delimited 10-bit programs would be half as common, appearing once every 2^{10} (or 1,024) programs. Conversely, 8-bit programs are twice as common as 9-bit ones. We can use this consequence of algorithmic information theory to make several predictions about the character of physical law. The main point is that the derivation is constructive, and it provides the technical means to derive physics from arithmetic, and this will make the computationalist hypothesis empirically testable, and thus scientific in the Popperian analysis of science. Bruno Marchal in “The computationalist reformulation of the mind-body problem” (2013) ## Confirming Evidence Could such a bold theory be true? For now, let’s neither accept nor reject this theory. To do either before weighing the evidence would be premature. So let us not believe anything and maintain an open mind. For the time, we will only play with the idea and see where it leads. As with any theory, the only path forward is to see what this theory predicts and then to compare the predictions with our observations. If we find it leads in a fruitful direction, by making predictions we can confirm and by not making predictions we can refute, then we will have cause to tentatively accept this theory. ### Predictions of the Theory Does the reality we see fit predictions of a reality generated by the infinite computations inherent to causeless arithmetical truth? For that matter, what are the predictions? At first blush, it seems impossible to get any useful predictions from a theory that includes all computations and all observations. For if they all exist, any observation is compatible with the theory. As Victor Stenger noted, “Theories that explain everything explain nothing.” Fortunately, there is a catch: not all observations are equally likely. If our conscious states result from the existence of all computations, then they are subject to the rules of algorithmic information theory. This enables us to make testable predictions, and thereby tie it back to hard science, observation, and measurement. Some of the predictions of this theory provide clues to otherwise unsolvable questions in physics and cosmogeny. These predictions offer answers to such fundamental mysteries as: These results are the work of pioneers in the theory, who include Bruno Marchal, Max Tegmark, Russell Standish, and Markus Müller. Using the tools of computer science, math, information theory, and algorithmic information theory, they revealed how these traits of the universe result from our mind states being computationally-generated. The appearance of a universe, or even universes, must be explained by the geometry of possible computations. Bruno Marchal in “The Amoeba’s Secret” (2014) Let’s review the evidence for this most speculative of theories, which is presently at the forefront of mathematics and physics. #### Why Laws? We take for granted that our universe obeys laws. But why should it? What’s the source of these laws? Why are they so simple? Why aren’t they ever violated? Why these laws and not others? All these questions are mysteries left unaddressed by science. In the orthodox view, the laws of physics are floating in an explanatory void. Ironically, the essence of the scientific method is rationality and logic: we suppose that things are the way they are for a reason. Yet when it comes to the laws of physics themselves, well, we are asked to accept that they exist “reasonlessly”. Paul Davies in “The flexi-laws of physics” (2007) With the equations, when they are not too complicated, we can predict phenomena. But in truth, the equation doesn’t explain anything. It compresses, certainly, in a very ingenious way, the description of the physical world, but it does not explain the nature of bodies nor why these bodies obey laws, nor from where these laws come. Bruno Marchal in “The Amoeba’s Secret” (2014) That laws are never violated, on its face, seems highly improbable. For in the space of possibility, for each way there is for the universe to obey the laws, there are infinite ways it might deviate from them. For each law-governed world, there are countless variants that would fail in different ways to be wholly law-governed. Derek Parfit in “Why Anything? Why This?” (2008) Why the laws hold is unknown to science. And yet, this feature of reality is the very basis that allows us to do science. A lawful universe is the basis of empiricism. It is why we can repeat experiments, and make predictions about the future based on past observations. But why does this work, and why should it work? Marchal explains the emergence of laws as a consequence of the computational reality. He says the laws are the ‘consistent extensions’ of programs that produce the observer’s mind state. Arithmetic contains or executes all computations. Your first person is distributed on all computations going through your current first person state. To make any prediction on the future of your possible inputs, you need to take all the computations into account, and the laws of physics is what is invariant in all consistent extensions. Bruno Marchal in discussion list (2019) Müller goes further, and gives a mathematical proof that shows why, given algorithmic information theory, observers will, with high probability, observe a ‘persistence of regularities‘ (i.e. laws). That is, computable regularities that were holding in the past tend to persist in the future. […] Intuitively, highly compressible histories are those that contain regularities which can be used to generate shorter descriptions. Markus Müller in “Law without law: from observer states to physics via algorithmic information theory” (2020) Because most programs are simple, and simple programs tend to keep doing what they have been doing, this gives the appearance of a fixed set of laws that holds into the future as the program unfolds. So in a sense, the laws of physics are the rules of the programs that instantiate us, as seen by those of us inside those programs. ##### Why the Laws are Mathematical It has long been recognized that mathematics is “unreasonably effective” in describing the physical laws. In 1623, Galileo wrote, “[The universe] is written in the language of mathematics.” This connection between math and physics still puzzles scientists. The miracle of the appropriateness of the language of mathematics for the formulation of the laws of physics is a wonderful gift which we neither understand nor deserve. We should be grateful for it and hope that it will remain valid in future research and that it will extend, for better or for worse, to our pleasure, even though perhaps also to our bafflement, to wide branches of learning. Eugene Wigner in “The Unreasonable Effectiveness of Mathematics in the Natural Sciences (1960) But why should physics be so mathematical? Tegmark offers a simple explanation: because physical theories result from our perceptions of what are ultimately mathematical structures. The various approximations that constitute our current physics theories are successful because simple mathematical structures can provide good approximations of how a [self-aware substructure] will perceive more complex mathematical structures. In other words, our successful theories are not mathematics approximating physics, but mathematics approximating mathematics! Max Tegmark in “Is ‘the theory of everything’ merely the ultimate ensemble theory?” (1998) ##### Why the Laws are Simple In the 2nd century, Ptolemy wrote, “We consider it a good principle to explain the phenomena by the simplest hypothesis possible.” This rule of thumb is called the law of parsimony or Occam’s razor. It is the idea that in science, the simplest answer that fits the facts is usually right. Occam’s razor is no doubt a useful and effective rule, but until recently no one understood why it works. Deep truths of nature can be expressed by short formulas, like F = ma and E = mc2. Physical equations rarely involve more than a few terms, rather than dozens or hundreds. Physicists are awestruck by this simplicity. Einstein remarked, “The eternal mystery of the world is its comprehensibility.” Given there are far more ways for these formulas to be more complex, it’s especially odd that they should be so simple. Compared with simple laws, there is a far greater range of complicated laws. […] We would have some reason to believe that there are at least two partial Selectors: being law-governed and having simple laws. Derek Parfit in “Why Anything? Why This?” (2008) But the lesson is that at present the idea that the ultimate laws are as simple as possible is a hope, not something suggested by the evidence. Moreover, the prospect still faces the challenge of explanatory regression, as one would [be] left to explain why the underlying laws should be so simple. Sean Carroll in “Why Is There Something, Rather Than Nothing?” (2018) The mystery of simple comprehensible laws can now be answered. We have found a selector that preferentially selects universes with simple laws. Algorithmic information theory tells us that for each bit saved in a program’s description, its occurrences double. This adds up fast. A program that’s 30 bits shorter, say 120-bits vs. 150-bits occurs 2^{30}or over 1 billion — times more often. Ray Solomonoff, the father of algorithmic information theory, was the first to draw a connection between AIT and Occam’s razor. On a direct intuitive level, the high a priori probability assigned to a sequence with a short description corresponds to one possible interpretation of “Occam’s Razor.” Ray Solomonoff in “A Formal Theory of Inductive Inference” (1964) When Müller applied algorithmic information theory to observer states, he found that it led to the prediction of simple physical laws. Observers will, with high probability, see an external world that is governed by simple, computable, probabilistic laws. Markus Müller in “Law without law: from observer states to physics via algorithmic information theory” (2020) ##### Why the Laws are Life-Friendly One of the most surprising discoveries in physics of the past 50 years was the discovery that the laws of physics and constants of nature appear specially selected to allow complexity and life to arise. Wheeler wrote, “A life-giving factor lies at the centre of the whole machinery and design of the world.” That the constants of nature, the strengths of the forces, the particle masses, etc., are just right to permit complex structures to arise is mysterious. Why are the laws this way? Why are they life friendly? Physicists ask, why does the universe appear fine-tuned? As we look out into the universe and identify the many accidents of physics and astronomy that have worked together to our benefit, it almost seems as if the universe must in some sense have known we were coming. Freeman Dyson in “Energy in the Universe” (1971) The fine tunings, how fine-tuned are they? Most of them are 1% sort of things. In other words, if things are 1% different, everything gets bad. And the physicist could say maybe those are just luck. On the other hand, this cosmological constant is tuned to one part in 10^{120} — a hundred and twenty decimal places. Nobody thinks that’s accidental. That is not a reasonable idea — that something is tuned to 120 decimal places just by accident. That’s the most extreme example of fine-tuning. Leonard Susskind in “What We Still Don’t Know: Are We Real?” (2004) The first step in explaining fine-tuning is to recognize that for any universe to be perceived, requires that it be populated with conscious observers. This reasoning is known as the anthropic principle. The next step is to explain why any universe exists that supports conscious observers. Typical answers are that the universe was either designed or it is just one among a vast set of mostly dead universes. We imagine our universe to be unique, but it is one of an immense number—perhaps an infinite number—of equally valid, equally independent, equally isolated universes. There will be life in some, and not in others. Carl Sagan in “Pale Blue Dot” (1994) The existence of infinite computational histories, guarantees that some will be of a type that can support life. Moreover, algorithmic information theory tells us the resulting physics should be maximally simple while respecting the constraint of being life-friendly. In this paper I show why, in an ensemble theory of the universe, we should be inhabiting one of the elements of that ensemble with least information content that satisfies the anthropic principle. This explains the effectiveness of aesthetic principles such as Occam’s razor in predicting usefulness of scientific theories. Russell Standish in “Why Occam’s Razor” (2004) And indeed, this is what we find when we examine our physics: A very interesting question to me is: is the universe more complicated than it needs to be to have us here? In other words, is there anything in the universe which is just here to amuse physicists? It’s happened again and again that there was something which seemed like it was just a frivolity like that, where later we’ve realized that in fact, “No, if it weren’t for that little thing we wouldn’t be here.” I’m not convinced actually that we have anything in this universe which is completely unnecessary to life. Max Tegmark in “What We Still Don’t Know: Why Are We Here” (2004) (See: “Is the universe fine-tuned?“) #### Why Quantum Mechanics? Quantum mechanics is a cornerstone theory of modern physics. It’s among the most thoroughly tested of all theories in science, and it’s given us the most accurate predictions in all of physics. But quantum mechanics is incredibly strange. It suggests the existence of many (infinite) histories (i.e. many-worlds or many-minds). Observation or measurement appears to cause the infinite set of possibilities to “collapse” to just one of the possibilities, and the selected result is absolutely unpredictable. Quantum mechanics includes apparent absurdities, like unobserved cats being simultaneously alive and dead, non-local faster-than-light influences, and unlimited computation underlying physical reality. I have never been able to let go of questions like: How come existence? How come the quantum? John Archibald Wheeler in “Geons, Black Holes, and Quantum Foam” (1998) Of the mysteries in physics, “How come the quantum?“, ranks highly: Niels Bohr said, “Those who are not shocked when they first come across quantum theory cannot possibly have understood it.” Werner Heisenberg admits, “I repeated to myself again and again the question: Can nature possibly be so absurd as it seemed to us in these atomic experiments?” And Richard Feynman said, “I think I can safely say that nobody understands quantum mechanics.” Wheeler thought if an ultimate theory could explain quantum mechanics, it would be a sure sign the theory was on the right track. The most important test is whether it gives anything like quantum mechanics. If it does, we have a go-ahead sign, if not, we have to revise our thinking. John Archibald Wheeler quoted in “Trespassing on Einstein’s Lawn” (2014) Marchal’s 1998 thesis, Computability, Physics and Cognition, gave the first hints that features of quantum mechanics, such as indeterminism, the many parallel histories, the non-clonability of matter, and quantum logic, could be explained as a consequence of computationalism. As in quantum mechanics, computationalism highlights a strong indeterminism, as well as a form of non-locality. […] Computationalism entails the existence of a phenomenology of many-worlds or parallel states. Bruno Marchal translated from “Computability, Physics and Cognition” (1998) Marchal writes, “The quantum empirical clues happen to be serious hints that the physical emerges from an internally defined statistics on the numbers dreams or computations seen from inside.” Standish went further. In a 2004 paper and in his 2006 book, he showed one could derive the basic rules, or postulates, of quantum mechanics, including the Schrödinger equation, purely from basic assumptions about observation within an infinite set of possibilities. The explanation of quantum mechanics as describing the process of observation within a plenitude of possibilities is for me the pinnacle of achievement of the paradigm discussed in this book. I can now say that I understand quantum mechanics. […] So when I say I understand quantum mechanics, I mean that I know that the first three postulates are directly consequences of us being observers. Quantum mechanics is simply a theory of observation! Russell Standish in “Theory of Nothing” (2006) ##### Irreducible Randomness One of the strangest features of quantum mechanics is the presence of irreducible randomness that creates absolute unpredictability. Compounding this strangeness is the fact that the equations of quantum mechanics are entirely deterministic. And yet, when a measurement is made, it seems the universe momentarily stops following these equations to randomly select one possibility to make real, from among the many possibilities present in the equations. This was a pill too hard for Einstein to swallow. He declared, “God doesn’t play dice with the world.” And in the end he never accepted it. In the single-electron double-slit experiment, an electron is put into a superposition — where the electron exists in multiple locations at once. Then it’s location is measured. But when we measure the electron’s location, it will appear in only one location, seemingly at random. Before measurement, it’s impossible, even in theory, to predict where the electron will be. If we inhabit a computational reality why do we see any randomness or unpredictability? Computations are perfectly predictable. Might this observation of randomness give us cause to doubt or rule out our being in a computational reality? The opposite is true. The existence of an infinite computational reality explains why we encounter absolute unpredictability. If only one computational history existed, observing randomness would be cause to dismiss the theory. But here there are infinite computational histories. Some of these histories will be similar to each other, some, so similar as to be almost indistinguishable. Since there are infinite computational histories, each observer’s mind state can be found within infinite parallel computational histories. In a 1988 conference and in a 1991 paper, Mechanism and Personal Identity, Marchal explained how the appearance of randomness emerges from multiple instantiations of a single observer’s mind. He calls the phenomenon first-person indeterminacy. To predict the first person observable outcome of any physical experiment, you have to assume that your current computational state will not be obtained in some other part of the universe, or the multiverse, with different output for your experience. Bruno Marchal in “The computationalist reformulation of the mind-body problem” (2013) In summary: no brain that belongs to multiple distinct universes, or computational histories, can ever be sure what it will see next. It is impossible for any observer to deduce with certainty on the basis of her observations and memory which world she is a part of. That is, there are always many different worlds for which being contained in them is compatible with everything she knows, but which imply different predictions for future observations. Markus Müller in “Could the physical world be emergent instead of fundamental, and why should we ask?” (2017) So even in a fully deterministic reality, the existence of infinite histories makes the appearance of randomness inevitable. The physicist shining a photon at a piece of glass is in an infinity of histories where the photon will reflect, and is in an infinity of histories where the photon will pass through. The physicist can’t tell which until after the experiment is performed and she learns the result. Ultimately, randomness stems from our inability to self-locate within the infinite sea of indistinguishable computational histories. Tegmark notes how randomness appears in deterministic processes: It gradually hit me that this illusion of randomness business really wasn’t specific to quantum mechanics at all. Suppose that some future technology allows you to be cloned while you’re sleeping, and that your two copies are placed in rooms numbered 0 and 1. When they wake up, they’ll both feel that the room number they read is completely unpredictable and random. Max Tegmark in “Our Mathematical Universe” (2014) Einstein is vindicated. God doesn’t play dice with the world. But perhaps, not even God can predict what universe you will find yourself in once you perform a measurement that splits yourself. ##### Infinite Complexity In 1948, Richard Feynman developed the path integral formulation, which provided a new way to understand quantum mechanics. Feynman showed that you get the same results quantum mechanics predicts by taking into account and adding up every one of the infinite combinations of possible particle paths and interactions. It was bizarre, but it worked. And this new formulation provided key insights that helped develop quantum electrodynamics (or QED). In 1965, Feynman, together with Sin-Itiro Tomonaga and Julian Schwinger shared the 1965 Nobel Prize in physics for developing QED. But why adding up all of these infinite possibilities gave the right answers presented a great puzzle, which bothered Feynman. It always bothers me that, according to the laws as we understand them today, it takes a computing machine an infinite number of logical operations to figure out what goes on in no matter how tiny a region of space, and no matter how tiny a region of time. How can all that be going on in that tiny space? Why should it take an infinite amount of logic to figure out what one tiny piece of space/time is going to do? Richard Feynman in “The Character of Physical Law” (1965) The appearance of infinite happenings, infinite computations and infinite logical operations underlying physical reality is mysterious. Perhaps the simplest answer for why reality appears this way is, “It appears this way because that is the way reality is.” If infinite computational histories form the foundation of reality, then infinities in physics might just be a reflection of this reality. In short, within each universe all observable quantities are discrete, but the multiverse as a whole is a continuum. When the equations of quantum theory describe a continuous but not-directly-observable transition between two values of a discrete quantity, what they are telling us is that the transition does not take place entirely within one universe. So perhaps the price of continuous motion is not an infinity of consecutive actions, but an infinity of concurrent actions taking place across the multiverse. David Deutsch in “The Discrete and the Continuous” (2001) Matter is only what seems to emerge at infinity from a first person plural point of view (defined by sharing the computations which are infinitely multiplied in the [Universal Dovetailer’s] work) when persons look at themselves and their environment below their substitution level. The non-cloning results from the fact that such a matter emerges only from an infinity of distinct computations. Bruno Marchal in “The computationalist reformulation of the mind-body problem” (2013) ##### Quantum Computers Richard Feynman and David Deutsch are the two fathers of the quantum computer. Feynman proposed their possibility in 1982 and in 1985, Deutsch described how to build one. These computers exploit the unlimited complexity inherent in quantum mechanics to build computers of incredible power. How quantum computers do what they do is puzzling. Each qubit added to a quantum computer doubles its power. A quantum computer with 300 qubits can simultaneously process 2^{300} states. This number of states exceeds the 2^{265} atoms in the observable universe. How could a tabletop device process more states than there are atoms? How could it solve problems that no conventional computer could solve in the lifetime of the universe, even if all matter and energy in the observable universe were recruited for that purpose? Some found the abilities of these computers so incredible, they concluded quantum computers simply weren’t possible. After all, where exactly would all that computation be occurring? Deutsch and Tegmark offer some answers. Since the Universe as we see it lacks the computational resources to do the calculations, where are they being done? It can only be in other universes. Quantum computers share information with huge numbers of versions of themselves throughout the multiverse. David Deutsch in “Taming the Multiverse” (2001) Given engineering challenges, for decades quantum computers remained only theoretical. Today, quantum computers are a reality. In 2019, engineers at Google reported that their 53-qubit quantum computer solved in 200 seconds a problem that would take the world’s most powerful supercomputer 10,000 years. Today, anyone can sign up for free to program and use IBM’s quantum computers over the internet. What makes quantum computers difficult to build, is that to work, they must be completely isolated from the environment — such that they are not measured by anyone or anything until it finishes its work. By isolating the quantum computer from the environment, observers temporarily make their existence compatible with all the possible states the quantum computer might simultaneously be in. The parallel computations performed by quantum computers can then be explained by the work of parallel computational histories. If current efforts to build quantum computers succeed, they will provide further evidence for [the quantum multiverse], as they would, in essence, be exploiting the parallelism of the [quantum] multiverse for parallel computation. Max Tegmark in “Parallel Universes” (2003) (See: “How do quantum computers work?“) #### Why Time? The universe, our lives, and even our thoughts are inextricably linked with the march of time. Few things are as familiar to us as time, and yet time remains little understood. (See: “What is time?“) 2,500 years ago, Heraclitus recognized change to be the only constant in life, saying, “All entities move and nothing remains still.” But it doesn’t seem logically necessary for a universe to have time. Mathematical structures are eternal and unchanging: they don’t exist in space and time—rather, space and time exist in (some of) them. If cosmic history were a movie, then the mathematical structure would be the entire DVD. Max Tegmark in “Our Mathematical Universe” (2014) Why should our universe have a property like time? All computers process information in an ordered sequence of steps. This ordering defines a notion of time that exists for any computation. A Turing machine requires time to separate the sequence of states it occupies as it performs a computation. Russell Standish in “Why Occam’s Razor” (2004) Müller further showed that with algorithmic information theory, we can predict the appearance of a universe that evolves in time. Our theory predicts that observers should indeed expect to see two facts which are features of our physics as we know it: first, the fact that the observer seems to be part of an external world that evolves in time (a ‘universe’), and second, that this external world seems to have had an absolute beginning in the past (the ‘Big Bang’). Markus Müller in “Could the physical world be emergent instead of fundamental, and why should we ask?” (2017) Assuming we are part of an unfolding computation, then we should expect to find ourselves in a universe with time. ##### A Beginning in Time Current evidence suggests our universe has a beginning. But why should it? Until the middle of the 20th century, most scientists believed the universe was infinitely old, without a beginning. They considered theories of an abrupt creation event to be inelegant. Accordingly, scientists resisted the idea of a beginning until overwhelming evidence came out in its favor. It wasn’t until we could actually see the afterglow of the big bang, in the form of microwaves, that scientists were convinced the universe began a finite time ago. We call this point the beginning because in tracing the history of the universe backwards, we hit a point where predicting earlier states breaks down and further backwards tracing becomes impossible. The physics either stops providing sensible answers, or we run into an explosion of possibilities and can’t tell which of them is real. The theory of cosmic inflation, gives an account of what caused the hot, dense, early phase of the universe. (See: “What caused the big bang?“) But inflation makes further backwards prediction (or retrodiction) impossible. It wipes its footprints with a set of infinite prehistories. Since our own pocket universe would be equally likely to lie anywhere on the infinite tree of universes produced by eternal inflation, we would expect to find ourselves arbitrarily far from the beginning. The infinite inflating network would presumably approach some kind of a steady state, losing all memory of how it started, so the statistical predictions for our universe would be determined by the properties of this steady state configuration, independent of hypotheses about the ultimate beginning. Alan Guth in “Eternal Inflation: Implications” (2013) Müller shows that algorithmic information theory predicts most observers will find themselves in a universe with simple initial conditions and an absolute beginning in time. He explains this reasoning for a hypothetical observer named Abby: If she continues computing backwards to retrodict earlier and earlier states of her universe, she will typically find simpler and more “compact” states, with measures of entropy or algorithmic complexity decreasing — simply because she is looking at earlier and earlier stages of an unfolding computation. At some point, Abby will necessarily arrive at the state that corresponds to the initial state of the graph machine’s computation, where simplicity and compactness are maximal. At this point, two cases are possible: either Abby’s method of computing backwards will cease to work; or Abby will retrodict a fictitious sequence of ‘states before the initial state’, typically with increasing complexity backwards in time. Markus Müller in “Law without law: from observer states to physics via algorithmic information theory” (2018) This mirrors what cosmic inflation does for our universe. In an alternate history where humans developed algorithmic information theory before microwave telescopes, we might have predicted a beginning of the universe before telescopic evidence came in. #### Information as Fundamental Physicists are increasingly recognizing that information plays a fundamental role in physics. Scientists have long understood that matter and energy can be neither created nor destroyed. They are, in all interactions, conserved. But only recently have physicists realized the same is true for information. Physical information can neither be copied nor deleted. There is an equivalent law for the conservation of information. This discovery stemmed from the black hole information paradox. According to general relativity, dropping something into a black hole destroys its information, like an ultimate furnace. But according to quantum mechanics, information can’t be destroyed. At best, a black hole can only rearrange information, like an ultimate shredder. In 1981, this paradox sparked the “black hole war” — waged by two camps of physicists. After decades of debate, the black hole war settled in favor of quantum mechanics. Information can’t be destroyed, not even by a black hole. Physicists now understand a kind of mass-energy-information equivalence. There is also an equivalence between entropy in thermodynamics and entropy in information theory. And constants of nature are closely linked to the ultimate physical limits of computational speed, efficiency and storage density. (See: “How good can technology get?“) Why is the link between physics and information so tight? Wheeler dedicated his life to the pursuit of fundamental questions. Ultimately, he reached the conclusion that everything is information. It from bit symbolizes the idea that every item of the physical world has at bottom — a very deep bottom, in most instances — an immaterial source and explanation; that which we call reality arises in the last analysis from the posing of yes-no questions and the registering of equipment-evoked responses; in short, that all things physical are information-theoretic in origin. John Archibald Wheeler in “Information, Physics, Quantum: The Search for Links” (1989) Now I am in the grip of a new vision, that Everything is Information. The more I have pondered the mystery of the quantum and our strange ability to comprehend this world in which we live, the more I see possible fundamental roles for logic and information as the bedrock of physical theory. John Archibald Wheeler in “Geons, Black Holes, and Quantum Foam” (1998) Why is information fundamental? The answer is easy if reality is computational. Information lies at the heart of computation. In the end, all that computers do is process information. So to say, “computation is the foundation of reality,” is another way of saying, “information processing is the foundation of reality.” The burgeoning field of computer science has shifted our view of the physical world from that of a collection of interacting material particles to one of a seething network of information. Paul Davies in “The flexi-laws of physics” (2007) What we can learn from these reconstructions is that a few simple and intuitive constraints on encoding and processing of information will automatically lead to (aspects of) the Hilbert space formalism of quantum theory. Markus Müller in “Law without law: from observer states to physics via algorithmic information theory” (2019) #### Observation as Fundamental Observation also appears to have a fundamental role in reality. The universe and the observer exist as a pair. […] The moment you say that the universe exists without any observers, I cannot make any sense out of that. You need an observer who looks at the universe. In the absence of observers, our universe is dead. Andre Linde in “Does the Universe Exist if We’re Not Looking?” (2002) Quantum mechanics revealed that observation somehow forces reality to choose from among many possibilities. More recently, physicists have speculated that the observer’s power to force reality’s hand applies not only to the here and now, but perhaps all the way back to the beginning of the universe. We are participators in bringing into being not only the near and here but the far away and long ago. We are in this sense, participators in bringing about something of the universe in the distant past. John Archibald Wheeler in “The anthropic universe” (2006) The top down approach we have described leads to a profoundly different view of cosmology, and the relation between cause and effect. Top down cosmology is a framework in which one essentially traces the histories backwards, from a spacelike surface at the present time. The no boundary histories of the universe thus depend on what is being observed, contrary to the usual idea that the universe has a unique, observer independent history. In some sense no boundary initial conditions represent a sum over all possible initial states. Stephen Hawking and Thomas Hertog in “Populating the landscape: A top-down approach” (2006) The observer might even, in some sense, choose the laws of physics. It is an attempt to explain the Goldilocks factor by appealing to cosmic self-consistency: the bio-friendly universe explains life even as life explains the bio-friendly universe. […] Cosmic bio-friendliness is therefore the result of a sort of quantum post-selection effect extended to the very laws of physics themselves. Paul Davies in “The flexi-laws of physics” (2007) Observation and its relation to observed reality is an enigma. Wheeler believed the relation between them was our best clue to finding an answer to why there is something rather than nothing. « Omnibus ex nihil ducendis sufficit unum », Leibniz told us; for producing everything out of nothing one principle is enough. Of all principles that might meet this requirement of Leibniz nothing stands out more strikingly in this era of the quantum than the necessity to draw a line between the observer-participator and the system under view. […] The necessity for that line of separation is the most mysterious feature of the quantum. We take that demarcation as being, if not the central principle, the clue to the central principle in constructing out of nothing everything. John Archibald Wheeler in “Quantum Theory and Measurement” (1983) In the view that all computational histories exist, observation does play a role in selecting both histories and physical laws. It is a tautology that observers only find themselves in computational histories capable of producing their observations. Since every imaginable program exists, implementing every imaginable set of laws, then in a very real sense, the observer does force reality to select both the laws and history they observe. To derive the effective laws of physics, one needs to do statistics over the ensemble of identical observers. This involves performing summations over the multiverse, but these summations are with a constraint that says that some given observer is present. Saibal Mitra in discussion list (2018) It’s curious that Buddhist thinkers reached similar conclusions about observers well ahead of modern physicists. The Buddhist does not believe in an independent or separately existing external world, into whose dynamic forces he could insert himself. The external world and his inner world are for him only two sides of the same fabric, in which the threads of all forces and of all events, of all forms of consciousness and their objects, are woven into an inseparable net of endless, mutually conditioned relations. Anagarika Govinda in “Foundations of Tibetan Mysticism” (1969) ### Reviewing the Evidence We have found evidence in support of this theory. The existence of infinite computational histories predicts many features of reality. It predicts a universe of inviolable, but simple, mathematical, and life-friendly laws. It predicts a multiverse of parallel histories, infinite computational complexity, and a fundamental unpredictability, as we find in quantum mechanics. The theory predicts a universe that evolves in time, has simple initial conditions, and a point that we can’t retrodict beyond: a beginning. Further, it predicts information and observation are fundamental. So far, all of these predictions are confirmed by current physical and cosmological observations. For the first time in history, humanity has an answer to why we exist that is backed by physical evidence. ## Conclusions Given the observational evidence, we have reason to suspect that this theory, or something close to it, is correct. It implies: We live within the total set of all computations. Moreover, we have traced the existence of this set to something that’s a strong candidate for having necessary existence: self-existent truths concerning numbers and their relations. One option, following Leibniz and others, is that we reach a level at which further explanation is not required, because something is necessarily true. Sean Carroll in “Why Is There Something, Rather Than Nothing?” (2018) This truth not only seems causeless, but because from it we can deduce much of physics, it is also a candidate for being the cause. The supreme task of the physicist is the discovery of the most general elementary laws from which the world-picture can be deduced logically. Max Planck in “Where is science going?” (1932) Under this theory, the most general laws from which we can deduce the world-picture become the laws of arithmetic. Thus, arithmetic, as a theory of arithmetical truth, becomes a theory of everything. This brings a whole new meaning to Leopold Kronecker’s edict: “God made the integers, all else is the work of man.” This is why, with Church’s thesis, and the quantum confirmation of mechanism, intuitive arithmetic, a.k.a. number theory and its intensional variants, may well be the simplest and richest “theory of everything” that we can have at our disposal. Bruno Marchal translated from “Computability, Physics and Cognition” (1998) This theory — arithmetic — has been under our noses the whole time! Behind it all is surely an idea so simple, so beautiful, so compelling, that when—in a decade, a century, or a millennium—we grasp it, we will all say to each other, how could it have been otherwise? How could we have been so stupid for so long? John Archibald Wheeler in “How Come the Quantum?” (1986) ### The Journey Here It’s been a long road to reach the point where humanity can scientifically address the question: “Why does anything exist?” Humans have walked the earth for some 500,000 years. But only in the last 1% of that time, or the past 5,000 years, have we had writing. Only in the last 0.1% of that time, or the past 500 years, have we had the scientific method. And only in the past 0.01% of that time, or the past 50 years, has humanity known about universal equations. To get an answer to our question, required that humans discover numbers, equations, computation, and wrestle with topics at the foundation of mathematics, including consistency, completeness, and decidability. In the end, this led to our discovery of universal equations that define all computation. To find evidence linking this computational reality to physics, humans had to discover the expanding universe and gather evidence of the big bang. We also had to probe the smallest scales and through careful study of particles, discover the quantum nature of reality. A century ago, we had none of this understanding. #### A Strange Answer We can’t help but notice how strange this answer is. But perhaps we should have expected this. Would we expect that the final answer to the greatest mystery of the cosmos would be ordinary? Now, my own suspicion is that the universe is not only queerer than we suppose, but queerer than we can suppose. J. B. S. Haldane in “Possible Worlds and Other Essays” (1927) Whatever may be the truth about the universe, it is bound to be astonishing. Bertrand Russell We will first understand how simple the universe is when we recognize how strange it is. John Archibald Wheeler in “Geons, Black Holes, and Quantum Foam” (1998) Tegmark cautions against rejecting theories just for being weird. And admits he would be disappointed if the answer weren’t a bit weird. It’s very important for us physicists to not dismiss ideas just because they are weird, because if we did we would have already dismissed atoms, black holes, and all sorts of other marvelous things. And actually, you know when you ask a basic question about the nature of reality, you know, don’t you expect an answer which is a bit weird? I think anything but weird would be a big letdown. Max Tegmark in “What We Still Don’t Know: Are We Real?” (2004) #### A Triumph of Human Reason I believe when the history of science is written, then what’s being discovered about our universe in the last decade or two will be one of the most exciting chapters. Martin Rees in “What We Still Don’t Know: Are We Real?” (2004) We now have viable answers to great questions of existence: • Leibniz’s question: Why is there something rather than nothing? • Einstein’s question: Why is the universe so comprehensible? • Wigner’s question: Why is the universe so mathematical? • Wheeler’s question: How come the quantum? • Smolin’s question: Why these laws and not others? • Feynman’s question: Why does infinite logic underlie physics? • Hawking’s question: What breathes fire into the equations? It required us to assume math, rather than matter, is fundamental. Given the evidence supporting this view, we might consider the 2,400-year-old debate between Plato and Aristotle as settled. If we do discover a complete theory, it should in time be understandable in broad principle by everyone, not just a few scientists. Then we shall all, philosophers, scientists, and just ordinary people, be able to take part in the discussion of the question of why it is that we and the universe exist. If we find the answer to that, it would be the ultimate triumph of human reason — for then we should know the mind of God. Stephen Hawking in “A Brief History of Time” (1988) Hawking believed if we could discover what breathes fire into the equations, then we should know the mind of God. But do we? By postulating infinite, eternal, mathematical truth as the ultimate explanation, and the cause and source of reality, have we succeeded in explaining God, or have we explained God away? ### Open Questions While this theory provides answers to many questions, it does not answer everything, and much additional work is required. #### Room for God This theory provides a purely natural and rational account for why anything exists. Is there any room for God in this picture? We now have a view of reality where everything emerges from absolute truth. This infinite truth embodies all knowledge. Being a container of all knowledge, as well as all minds and things, can we compare this infinite set of truth to an omniscient mind? This truth is infinite and incomprehensible, eternal and indestructible, without a beginning or end. It is uncreated and self-existent. It is transcendent, immaterial, immanent, and indivisible. It’s the reason and cause behind all things. It serves as the creator, source, and ground of being, supporting us and the material universe. Does this infinite truth or ‘omniscient mind‘ lead to the existence of God? Might it even be God? It’s not a simple question. But knowing why anything exists, leaves us in a better position to answer questions about what exists and what doesn’t. (See: “Does God Exist?“) #### Deriving Physical Law How much of physical law can we derive from the assumption of all computations together with the requirement of life-friendliness? Can we predict things like types of particles and forces, or the dimensionality of spacetime? Might we even be able to predict values of constants like particle masses and force strengths? What really interests me is whether God could have created the world any differently; in other words, whether the requirement of logical simplicity admits a margin of freedom. Albert Einstein It remains to be seen how much of physical law is universal (applying to all observers in all computational histories), and how much is geographical (depending on which histories an observer belongs to. As a theoretical physicist, I would like to see us able to make precise predictions, not vague statements that certain constants have to be in a range that is more or less favorable to life. I hope that string theory really will provide a basis for a final theory and that this theory will turn out to have enough predictive power to be able to prescribe values for all the constants of nature including the cosmological constant. We shall see. Steven Weinberg in “Dreams of a Final Theory” (1992) But this hope, of deriving every aspect of physics, is waning. Max Tegmark recounts, “as recently as 1997, the famous string theorist Ed Witten told me that he thought string theory would one day predict how many times lighter an electron is than a proton. Yet when I last saw him at Andrei Linde’s sixtieth birthday party [in 2008], he confessed after some wine that he’d given up on ever predicting all the constants of nature.” ### Implications If all computations exist, and if those computations explain our observed reality, it leads to many surprising implications. #### The Universe is a Dream The theory lends support to the ancient idea, expressed by Taoist, Greek, and Christian philosophers, and a tenet of Hindu and Buddhist belief: that the material universe is a kind of dream or illusion. It implies that the material and physical are byproducts of mind. Collective karmic impressions, accumulated individually, are at the origin of the creation of a world. […] The outside world appears as a result of the acts of sentient beings who use this world. […] The “creator of the world,” basically is the mind. The 14th Dalai Lama in “Beyond Dogma” (1994) For the things which one thinks are most real, are the least real. Plotinus in “The Enneads V.5.11” (270 A.D.) Only recently have modern scientists begun to embrace this view, with a few even doubting the “realness” of physical existence. Neils Bohr said, “Everything we call real is made of things that cannot be regarded as real.” In an interview, Marvin Minsky admitted, “We don’t know that we exist because […] maybe we’re just what a program would do if the computer were turned on and it’s not even running.” #### We Live in a Simulation The simulation hypothesis and simulation argument raise the question of whether or not we inhabit a vast computer simulation. If we exist as a consequence of mathematical truth, the simulation hypothesis is made true by default. For we would then find ourselves living within the infinite set of computationally generated histories. This blurs the distinction between virtual reality and real reality. It remains an open question: is anyone in control of the simulation we happen to be in? (See: “Are we living in a computer simulation?”) #### Our Place in Reality With an answer to why anything exists, we can orientate ourselves in reality. We now understand our position and place in it. Mathematical truth implies the existence of all computations. The existence of all computations implies the existence of all observers. The existence of all observers leads to a quantum mechanical reality populated with all possibilities and ruled by simple laws. So what exists? Almost everything. Reality becomes so big and so comprehensive that it includes everything and everyone that can be. Every thought that can be had and every experience. Every story and scenario plays out, eventually and somewhere. Actually, they all recur an infinite number of times. Indeed, in this view, reality is so large that it guarantees the existence of an afterlife. See (“Is there life after death?“) Confession: if I love [this theory], it is because it entails the existence of many things not “physically present”, notably those incredible deep universal dreamers which keep [losing] themselves in an incredible labyrinth of partially sharable dreams, meeting ladders and ladders of surprises, self-multiplying and self-fusing, and which are partially terrestrial and partially divine creatures. Bruno Marchal in discussion list (2011) Reasoned study of the mysteries of existence has brought us to a coherent theory of why there is something rather than nothing. The best evidence suggests our universe is one among an infinite number of possible realms, with the full extent of reality being unbounded. The source of this reality is logical necessity, via infinite mathematical truths which are independent of any material universe. We can count ourselves among the first generation of humans able to reason logically, with the support of observational evidence, to arrive at answers for why our universe has the laws it does, why we are here, and why there is something rather than nothing. ### Related articles: ## 645 Replies to “Why does anything exist?” 1. Guilherme Monteiro Jr. says: O Governo Bolsonaro foi denunciado no *Tribunal Penal Internacional* em Haia na Holanda por causa da Pandemia e é justamente lá que foi interceptado um *Espião Russo* com documentação brasileira falsa e um histórico, bastante suspeito, de moradia em Brasília como evidenciado na suas redes sociais! Lembremos que a família Bolsonaro tinha fortes suspeitas de aquisição de um *Robô de espionagem Russo* quando a visita ao presidente Putin em Moscou e o desaparecimento do filho do presidente Carlos Bolsonaro em uma agenda não declarada… Para ler essa reportagem completa: Vai nos três pontinhos e ativa o comando de *Traduzir*. https://www.bellingcat.com/news/americas/2022/06/16/the-brazilian-candidate-the-studious-cover-identity-of-an-alleged-russian-spy/ JHerdez 17 JunThe Bolsonaro Government was denounced at the *International Criminal Court* in The Hague in the Netherlands because of the Pandemic and it is precisely there that a *Russian Spy* was intercepted with false Brazilian documentation and a very suspicious history of living in Brasília as evidenced in his statements. social networks! Let us remember that the Bolsonaro family had strong suspicions of acquiring a *Russian spy robot* when the visit to President Putin in Moscow and the disappearance of President Carlos Bolsonaro’s son in an undeclared agenda… To read this full report: Go to the three dots and activate the *Translate* command. https://www.bellingcat.com/news/americas/2022/06/16/the-brazilian-candidate-the-studious-cover-identity-of-an-alleged-russian-spy/ JHerdez 17 JunO Governo Bolsonaro foi denunciado no *Tribunal Penal Internacional* em Haia na Holanda por causa da Pandemia e é justamente lá que foi interceptado um *Espião Russo* com documentação brasileira falsa e um histórico, bastante suspeito, de moradia em Brasília como evidenciado na suas ¡redes sociales! Recordemos que la familia Bolsonaro tenía fuertes sospechas de adquirir un *robot espía ruso* cuando la visita al presidente Putin en Moscú y la desaparición del hijo del presidente Carlos Bolsonaro en una agenda no declarada… Para leer este informe completo: Vaya a los tres puntos y active el comando *Traducir*. https://www.bellingcat.com/news/americas/2022/06/16/the-brazilian-candidate-the-studious-cover-identity-of-an-presunto-russian-spy/ JHerdez 17 jun.Le gouvernement Bolsonaro a été dénoncé à la *Cour pénale internationale* de La Haye aux Pays-Bas à cause de la pandémie et c’est précisément là qu’un *espion russe* a été intercepté avec de faux documents brésiliens et une histoire très suspecte de vie à Brasilia comme en témoigne dans ses déclarations sur les réseaux sociaux ! Rappelons que la famille Bolsonaro avait de forts soupçons d’acquérir un *robot espion russe* lors de la visite du président Poutine à Moscou et de la disparition du fils du président Carlos Bolsonaro dans un agenda non déclaré… Pour lire ce rapport complet : Accédez aux trois points et activez la commande *Traduire*. https://www.bellingcat.com/news/americas/2022/06/16/the-brazilian-candidate-the-studious-cover-identity-of-an-alleged-russian-spy/ JHerdez 17 juinDie Bolsonaro-Regierung wurde wegen der Pandemie vor dem *Internationalen Strafgerichtshof* in Den Haag in den Niederlanden angezeigt, und genau dort wurde ein *russischer Spion* mit falschen brasilianischen Dokumenten und einer sehr verdächtigen Lebensgeschichte in Brasília als Beweismittel abgefangen in seinen Aussagen Soziale Netzwerke! Erinnern wir uns daran, dass die Familie Bolsonaro den starken Verdacht hatte, einen *russischen Spionageroboter* zu erwerben, als der Besuch bei Präsident Putin in Moskau und das Verschwinden des Sohnes von Präsident Carlos Bolsonaro in einer nicht erklärten Agenda … Um diesen vollständigen Bericht zu lesen: Gehen Sie zu den drei Punkten und aktivieren Sie den Befehl *Übersetzen*. https://www.bellingcat.com/news/americas/2022/06/16/the-brazilian-candidate-the-studious-cover-identity-of-an-mutual-russian-spy/ JHerdez 17. JuniDe regering van Bolsonaro werd aangeklaagd bij het *Internationaal Strafhof* in Den Haag in Nederland vanwege de pandemie en het is precies daar dat een *Russische spion* werd onderschept met valse Braziliaanse documentatie en een zeer verdachte geschiedenis van het leven in Brasília, zoals blijkt in zijn verklaringen sociale netwerken! Laten we niet vergeten dat de familie Bolsonaro sterke vermoedens had van het verwerven van een *Russische spionagerobot* toen het bezoek aan president Poetin in Moskou en de verdwijning van de zoon van president Carlos Bolsonaro in een niet-aangegeven agenda… Om dit volledige rapport te lezen: Ga naar de drie puntjes en activeer de opdracht *Vertalen*. https://www.bellingcat.com/news/americas/2022/06/16/the-brazilian-candidate-the-studious-cover-identity-of-an-alleged-russian-spy/ JHerdez 17 juniIl governo Bolsonaro è stato denunciato alla *Corte Penale Internazionale* dell’Aia nei Paesi Bassi a causa della Pandemia ed è proprio lì che una *Spia Russa* è stata intercettata con falsa documentazione brasiliana e una storia molto sospetta di vita a Brasilia come evidenziato nelle sue dichiarazioni social network! Ricordiamoci che la famiglia Bolsonaro aveva forti sospetti di acquisizione di un *robot spia russo* quando la visita al presidente Putin a Mosca e la scomparsa del figlio del presidente Carlos Bolsonaro in un’agenda non dichiarata… Per leggere questo rapporto completo: Vai ai tre punti e attiva il comando *Traduci*. https://www.bellingcat.com/news/americas/2022/06/16/the-brazilian-candidate-the-studious-cover-identity-of-an-presunta-spia-russa/ JHerdez 17 giuПравительство Болсонару было осуждено в «Международном уголовном суде» в Гааге в Нидерландах из-за пандемии, и именно там был перехвачен «российский шпион» с поддельными бразильскими документами и очень подозрительной историей проживания в Бразилиа, о чем свидетельствует в своих высказываниях в социальных сетях! Давайте вспомним, что у семьи Болсонару были серьезные подозрения в приобретении *российского робота-шпиона*, когда визит президента Путина в Москву и исчезновение сына президента Карлоса Болсонару по незадекларированной повестке дня… Чтобы прочитать этот полный отчет: Перейдите к трем точкам и активируйте команду *Перевести*. https://www.bellingcat.com/news/americas/2022/06/16/the-brazilian-candidate-the-studious-cover-identity-of-an-alleged-russian-spy/ 17 июнУряд Болсонару був засуджений у *Міжнародному кримінальному суді* в Гаазі в Нідерландах через пандемію, і саме там був перехоплений *російський шпигун* з фальшивими бразильськими документами та дуже підозрілою історією проживання в Бразиліа, як свідчать. у своїх заявах.соціальні мережі! Згадаймо, що родина Болсонару мала серйозні підозри щодо придбання *російського робота-шпигуна*, коли візит до президента Путіна в Москві та зникнення сина президента Карлоса Болсонару в неоголошеному порядку денному… Щоб прочитати повний звіт: перейдіть до трьох крапок і активуйте команду *Перекласти*. https://www.bellingcat.com/news/americas/2022/06/16/the-brazilian-candidate-the-studious-cover-identity-of-an-alleged-russian-spy/ Джердес 17 черв由于大流行，博尔索纳罗政府在荷兰海牙的*国际刑事法院*受到谴责，而正是在那里，一名*俄罗斯间谍*被截获了虚假的巴西文件和非常可疑的巴西利亚生活历史。在他的声明中。社交网络！ 让我们记住，当普京总统在莫斯科访问以及卡洛斯·博尔索纳罗总统的儿子在未公开的议程中失踪时，博尔索纳罗家族强烈怀疑获得*俄罗斯间谍机器人*… 要阅读此完整报告：转到三个点并激活 *Translate* 命令。 https://www.bellingcat.com/news/americas/2022/06/16/the-brazilian-candidate-the-studious-cover-identity-of-an-alleged-russian-spy/ 赫尔德兹 6 月 17 日ボルソナロ政府は、パンデミックのためにオランダのハーグの*国際刑事裁判所*で非難されました。証拠として、*ロシアのスパイ*が誤ったブラジルの文書とブラジリアでの生活の非常に疑わしい歴史で傍受されたのはまさにそこです。彼の声明の中で。ソーシャルネットワーク！ モスクワのプーチン大統領を訪問し、カルロス・ボルソナロ大統領の息子が宣言されていない議題で失踪したとき、ボルソナロ一家は*ロシアのスパイロボット*を入手した疑いが強いことを思い出してください… この完全なレポートを読むには：3つのドットに移動し、*翻訳*コマンドをアクティブにします。 https://www.bellingcat.com/news/americas/2022/06/16/the-brazilian-candidate-the-studious-cover-identity-of-an-alleged-russian-spy/ JHerdez6月17日नीदरलैंड के हेग में *अंतर्राष्ट्रीय आपराधिक न्यायालय* में महामारी के कारण बोल्सोनारो सरकार की निंदा की गई थी और यह ठीक वहीं है कि एक *रूसी जासूस* को ब्राजील के झूठे दस्तावेजों और ब्रासीलिया में रहने के एक बहुत ही संदिग्ध इतिहास के साथ पकड़ा गया था, जैसा कि इसका सबूत है। उनके बयानों में सामाजिक नेटवर्क! हमें याद रखना चाहिए कि बोल्सोनारो परिवार को एक *रूसी जासूसी रोबोट* प्राप्त करने का प्रबल संदेह था जब मास्को में राष्ट्रपति पुतिन की यात्रा और एक अघोषित एजेंडे में राष्ट्रपति कार्लोस बोल्सोनारो के बेटे के लापता होने पर … इस पूरी रिपोर्ट को पढ़ने के लिए: तीन बिंदुओं पर जाएं और *Translate* कमांड को सक्रिय करें। https://www.bellingcat.com/news/americas/2022/06/16/the-brazilian-candidate-the-studio-cover-identity-of-an-alleged-russian-spy/ जेहेर्डेज़ 17 जूनتم استنكار حكومة بولسونارو في * المحكمة الجنائية الدولية * في لاهاي بهولندا بسبب الوباء وهناك بالتحديد تم اعتراض * جاسوس روسي * بوثائق برازيلية مزيفة وتاريخ مشبوه للغاية للعيش في برازيليا كما ثبت في تصريحاته .. مواقع التواصل الاجتماعي! دعونا نتذكر أن عائلة بولسونارو كانت لديها شكوك قوية في الحصول على * روبوت تجسس روسي * عند زيارة الرئيس بوتين في موسكو واختفاء نجل الرئيس كارلوس بولسونارو في جدول أعمال غير معلن … لقراءة هذا التقرير الكامل: انتقل إلى النقاط الثلاث وقم بتنشيط الأمر * Translate *. 2. Guilherme Monteiro Jr. says: [21/6 20:44] Guilherme Monteiro: @⁨Spinassé – Sou Bahá’í⁩ pode eu e a @⁨Lislei⁩ escrevermos sobre filosofia da gemologia e sociologia da gemologia no exercício 6? Ambos são conceitos que eu fui pensando e teorizando já a algumas semanas. E queria muito apresentar os mesmos para alguém. Em tese, a filosofia da gemologia busca estudar o lado filosófico da gemologia, joias, gemas, mineralogia, cristalografia e areas relacionadas e as suas relações quanto a parte de conhecimento e a parte crítica das mesmas. Já a sociologia da gemologia trata das relações entre gemologia e a sociedade. E as relações que a gemologia, gemas, joias, mineralogia, cristalografia e áreas relacionadas com a sociedade. Tanto na parte social, cultural, midiática, popular-cultural, psicológica e de tendência. E quem se interessar no tema. Fique a vontade para escrever sobre ou até mesmo elaborar trabalhos sobre estes temas. É um tema bem interessante e que merece sim desenvolvimento. Igual como o tema de inglês gemológico, espanhol gemológico, francês gemológico etc. Assim como que pode inspirar outras áreas também. [21/6 21:39] Spinassé – Sou Bahá’í: Grande reflexão, Guilherme. Penso que a gema, o metal conformado em adorno tem força simbólica. Este poder evoca de nossas mentes e corações aquilo que não podemos expressar .. nós só sentimos. Esta energia que inspira os saberes da filosofia, da sociologia e outras ciências e advém dos materiais gemológicos e metálicos que adorna e enfeita os corpos e espaços está a cada dia mais indo para o porão humano. Guilherme, veja o que diz Mário Ferreira dos Santos sobre o nosso lado simbólico e, consecutivamente, das joias! “O homem moderno predominantemente metropolitano, que perdeu os nexos simbólicos dos factos, não vê bem a significabilidade das cosias. Elas apenas são factos do seu mundo sensível, ou, quando muito, intelectualizados através dos sinais e símbolos matemáticos. Tal facto não revela uma superioridade do homem moderno, porque nesse preciso momento em que êle esquece a via symbólica, ou que êle a perde totalmente, *encontra-se só, coisa entre coisas, e a angústia que o avassala é mais o sentir de um vazio*, de uma falta, que o homem, por desconhecê-la, traduz pelo conceito que expressa a sua ausência: nada. E se lhe perguntarem por que se angustia, entre espantado e atônito êle balbuciará apenas: *“não sei, angustio-me por nada”* Mario Ferreira dos Santos em Tratado de Simbólica pg. 120 (2007)[21/6 20:44] Guilherme Monteiro: @Spinassé – I am a Bahá’í can @Lislei and I write about philosophy of gemology and sociology of gemology in exercise 6? Both are concepts that I’ve been thinking about and theorizing for a few weeks now. And I really wanted to introduce them to someone. In theory, the philosophy of gemology seeks to study the philosophical side of gemology, jewelry, gemstones, mineralogy, crystallography and related areas and their relationships between the knowledge part and the critical part of them. The sociology of gemology, on the other hand, deals with the relationships between gemology and society. And the relationships that gemology, gemstones, jewelry, mineralogy, crystallography and related areas of society. Both in the social, cultural, media, popular-cultural, psychological and trend part. And anyone interested in the topic. Feel free to write about or even create works on these topics. It is a very interesting topic and one that deserves further development. Same as Gemological English Theme, Gemological Spanish, Gemological French etc. As well as that can inspire other areas as well. [21/6 21:39] Spinasse – I am Bahá’í: Great reflection, William. I think that the gem, the metal formed into an adornment, has symbolic force. This power evokes from our minds and hearts what we cannot express..we only feel. This energy that inspires the knowledge of philosophy, sociology and other sciences and comes from the gemological and metallic materials that adorn and adorn bodies and spaces is increasingly going to the human basement. Guilherme, see what Mário Ferreira dos Santos says about our symbolic side and, consecutively, about jewelry! “The predominantly metropolitan modern man, who has lost the symbolic nexus of facts, does not see well the significance of things. They are just facts of his sensible world, or, at the most, intellectualized through mathematical signs and symbols. This fact does not reveal the superiority of modern man, because at that precise moment when he forgets the symbolic path, or when he loses it completely, *he finds himself alone, a thing among things, and the anguish that overwhelms him is more the feeling of an emptiness*, of a lack, which man, for not knowing it, translates by the concept that expresses its absence: nothing. And if they ask him why he is anguished, between amazed and astonished he will just stammer: *“I don’t know, I’m anguished for nothing”* Mario Ferreira dos Santos in Tractate of Symbolic pg. 120 (2007)[21/6 20:44] Guilherme Monteiro: @Spinassé – ¿Soy bahá’í can @Lislei y escribo sobre filosofía de la gemología y sociología de la gemología en el ejercicio 6? Ambos son conceptos sobre los que he estado pensando y teorizando desde hace unas semanas. Y realmente quería presentárselos a alguien. En teoría, la filosofía de la gemología busca estudiar el lado filosófico de la gemología, la joyería, las piedras preciosas, la mineralogía, la cristalografía y áreas afines y sus relaciones entre la parte del conocimiento y la parte crítica de las mismas. La sociología de la gemología, por otro lado, se ocupa de las relaciones entre la gemología y la sociedad. Y las relaciones que la gemología, piedras preciosas, joyería, mineralogía, cristalografía y áreas relacionadas de la sociedad. Tanto en la parte social, cultural, mediática, popular-cultural, psicológica y de tendencias. Y cualquier persona interesada en el tema. Siéntase libre de escribir o incluso crear trabajos sobre estos temas. Es un tema muy interesante y que merece un mayor desarrollo. Igual que Gemological English Theme, Gemological Spanish, Gemological French, etc. Además de eso, también puede inspirar a otras áreas. [21/6 21:39] Spinasse – Soy bahá’í: Gran reflexión, William. Pienso que la gema, el metal convertido en adorno, tiene fuerza simbólica. Este poder evoca de nuestras mentes y corazones lo que no podemos expresar… solo sentimos. Esta energía que inspira el conocimiento de la filosofía, la sociología y otras ciencias y que proviene de los materiales gemológicos y metálicos que adornan y adornan los cuerpos y los espacios va cada vez más al subsuelo humano. ¡Guilherme, vea lo que dice Mário Ferreira dos Santos sobre nuestro lado simbólico y, consecutivamente, sobre las joyas! “El hombre moderno predominantemente metropolitano, que ha perdido el nexo simbólico de los hechos, no ve bien el significado de las cosas. Son solo hechos de tu mundo sensible o, a lo sumo, intelectualizados a través de signos y símbolos matemáticos. Este hecho no revela la superioridad del hombre moderno, porque en ese preciso momento en que olvida el camino simbólico, o cuando lo pierde por completo, *se encuentra solo, una cosa entre las cosas, y la angustia que lo embarga es más la sentimiento de un vacío*, de una carencia, que el hombre, por no saberlo, traduce por el concepto que expresa su ausencia: nada. Y si le preguntan por qué se angustia, entre estupefacto y asombrado sólo tartamudea: *“No sé, por nada me angustia”* Mario Ferreira dos Santos en Tratado de Simbólica pág. 120 (2007)[21/6 20:44] Guilherme Monteiro : @Spinassé – Je suis bahá’í puis @Lislei et j’écris sur la philosophie de la gemmologie et la sociologie de la gemmologie dans l’exercice 6 ? Ce sont deux concepts auxquels je réfléchis et que je théorise depuis quelques semaines maintenant. Et je voulais vraiment les présenter à quelqu’un. En théorie, la philosophie de la gemmologie cherche à étudier le côté philosophique de la gemmologie, des bijoux, des pierres précieuses, de la minéralogie, de la cristallographie et des domaines connexes et leurs relations entre la partie connaissance et la partie critique de celles-ci. La sociologie de la gemmologie, quant à elle, traite des relations entre la gemmologie et la société. Et les relations que la gemmologie, les pierres précieuses, les bijoux, la minéralogie, la cristallographie et les domaines connexes de la société. Tant dans le volet social, culturel, médiatique, populaire-culturel, psychologique et tendance. Et toute personne intéressée par le sujet. N’hésitez pas à écrire ou même à créer des œuvres sur ces sujets. C’est un sujet très intéressant et qui mérite d’être développé. Identique au thème anglais gemmologique, espagnol gemmologique, français gemmologique, etc. De plus, cela peut également inspirer d’autres domaines. [21/6 21:39] Spinasse – Je suis baha’i : Grande réflexion, William. Je pense que la gemme, le métal façonné en parure, a une force symbolique. Ce pouvoir évoque de nos esprits et de nos cœurs ce que nous ne pouvons pas exprimer… nous ne faisons que ressentir. Cette énergie qui inspire la connaissance de la philosophie, de la sociologie et d’autres sciences et provient des matériaux gemmologiques et métalliques qui ornent et ornent les corps et les espaces va de plus en plus vers le sous-sol humain. Guilherme, voyez ce que dit Mário Ferreira dos Santos sur notre côté symbolique et, consécutivement, sur les bijoux ! « L’homme moderne majoritairement métropolitain, qui a perdu le lien symbolique des faits, ne voit pas bien la signification des choses. Ce ne sont que des faits de votre monde sensible, ou, tout au plus, intellectualisés à travers des signes et des symboles mathématiques. Ce fait ne révèle pas la supériorité de l’homme moderne, car à ce moment précis où il oublie la voie symbolique, ou qu’il la perd complètement, *il se retrouve seul, une chose parmi les choses, et l’angoisse qui l’envahit est plutôt la sentiment d’un vide*, d’un manque, que l’homme, pour ne pas le savoir, traduit par le concept qui exprime son absence : rien. Et s’ils lui demandent pourquoi il est angoissé, entre stupéfaction et étonnement il ne fera que balbutier : *« Je ne sais pas, je suis angoissé pour rien »* Mario Ferreira dos Santos dans Tractate of Symbolic pg. 120 (2007)[21/6 20:44] Guilherme Monteiro: @Spinassé – ich bin Bahá’í, kann @Lislei und ich in Übung 6 über die Philosophie der Edelsteinkunde und die Soziologie der Edelsteinkunde schreiben? Beides sind Konzepte, über die ich seit einigen Wochen nachdenke und theoretisiere. Und ich wollte sie wirklich jemandem vorstellen. Theoretisch versucht die Philosophie der Gemmologie, die philosophische Seite von Gemmologie, Schmuck, Edelsteinen, Mineralogie, Kristallographie und verwandten Bereichen und ihre Beziehungen zwischen dem Wissensteil und dem kritischen Teil davon zu studieren. Die Soziologie der Gemmologie hingegen befasst sich mit den Beziehungen zwischen Gemmologie und Gesellschaft. Und die Beziehungen, die Gemmologie, Edelsteine, Schmuck, Mineralogie, Kristallographie und verwandte Bereiche der Gesellschaft. Sowohl im sozialen, kulturellen, medialen, populärkulturellen, psychologischen als auch im trendigen Teil. Und alle, die sich für das Thema interessieren. Fühlen Sie sich frei, über diese Themen zu schreiben oder sogar Arbeiten zu diesen Themen zu erstellen. Es ist ein sehr interessantes Thema, das eine Weiterentwicklung verdient. Gleich wie Gemological English Theme, Gemological Spanish, Gemological French etc. Außerdem kann das auch andere Bereiche inspirieren. [21/6 21:39] Spinasse – Ich bin Bahá’í: Große Reflexion, William. Ich denke, dass der Edelstein, das zu einem Schmuck geformte Metall, symbolische Kraft hat. Diese Kraft ruft in unserem Verstand und Herzen hervor, was wir nicht ausdrücken können … wir fühlen nur. Diese Energie, die das Wissen der Philosophie, Soziologie und anderer Wissenschaften inspiriert und aus den gemmologischen und metallischen Materialien stammt, die Körper und Räume schmücken und schmücken, geht zunehmend in den menschlichen Keller. Guilherme, sehen Sie, was Mário Ferreira dos Santos über unsere symbolische Seite und anschließend über Schmuck sagt! „Der überwiegend großstädtische moderne Mensch, der den symbolischen Zusammenhang von Tatsachen verloren hat, sieht die Bedeutung der Dinge nicht gut. Sie sind nur Tatsachen eurer sinnlichen Welt oder höchstens intellektualisiert durch mathematische Zeichen und Symbole. Diese Tatsache offenbart nicht die Überlegenheit des modernen Menschen, denn genau in dem Moment, in dem er den symbolischen Weg vergisst oder ihn vollständig verliert, findet er sich allein wieder, ein Ding unter den Dingen, und die Angst, die ihn überwältigt, ist mehr als das Gefühl einer Leere*, eines Mangels, das der Mensch, weil er es nicht kennt, mit dem Begriff übersetzt, der seine Abwesenheit ausdrückt: nichts. Und wenn sie ihn fragen, warum er sich quält, stammelt er zwischen Verwunderung und Verwunderung nur: *„Ich weiß nicht, ich quäle mich umsonst“* Mario Ferreira dos Santos in Tractate of Symbolic pg. 120 (2007)[21/6 20:44] Guilherme Monteiro: @Spinassé – Ik ben Bahá’í kan @Lislei en ik schrijven over filosofie van de edelsteenkunde en sociologie van edelsteenkunde in oefening 6? Beide zijn concepten waar ik nu al een paar weken over nadenk en theoretiseer. En ik wilde ze heel graag aan iemand voorstellen. In theorie probeert de filosofie van de edelsteenkunde de filosofische kant van edelsteenkunde, sieraden, edelstenen, mineralogie, kristallografie en aanverwante gebieden en hun relaties tussen het kennisgedeelte en het kritische gedeelte daarvan te bestuderen. De sociologie van de edelsteenkunde daarentegen houdt zich bezig met de relaties tussen de edelsteenkunde en de samenleving. En de relaties die gemologie, edelstenen, sieraden, mineralogie, kristallografie en aanverwante gebieden van de samenleving. Zowel op sociaal, cultureel, media, populair-cultureel, psychologisch als trendgebied. En iedereen die geïnteresseerd is in het onderwerp. Voel je vrij om over deze onderwerpen te schrijven of zelfs werken te maken. Het is een zeer interessant onderwerp dat verdere ontwikkeling verdient. Hetzelfde als Gemologisch Engels thema, Gemologisch Spaans, Gemologisch Frans enz. En dat kan ook andere gebieden inspireren. [21/6 21:39] Spinasse – Ik ben Bahá’í: Grote reflectie, William. Ik denk dat de edelsteen, het metaal dat tot een sieraad is gevormd, symbolische kracht heeft. Deze kracht roept in onze geest en hart op wat we niet kunnen uitdrukken..we voelen alleen. Deze energie die de kennis van filosofie, sociologie en andere wetenschappen inspireert en afkomstig is van de gemologische en metalen materialen die lichamen en ruimtes sieren en versieren, gaat steeds meer naar de menselijke kelder. Guilherme, kijk wat Mário Ferreira dos Santos zegt over onze symbolische kant en vervolgens over sieraden! “De overwegend grootstedelijke moderne mens, die de symbolische samenhang van feiten heeft verloren, ziet de betekenis van dingen niet goed. Het zijn slechts feiten van uw waarneembare wereld, of hoogstens geintellectualiseerd door middel van wiskundige tekens en symbolen. Dit feit onthult niet de superioriteit van de moderne mens, want op dat precieze moment waarop hij het symbolische pad vergeet, of wanneer hij het volledig verliest, *vindt hij zichzelf alleen, een ding tussen de dingen, en de angst die hem overweldigt, is meer de gevoel van leegte*, van gemis, dat de mens, omdat hij het niet kent, vertaalt met het concept dat zijn afwezigheid uitdrukt: niets. En als ze hem vragen waarom hij gekweld is, tussen verbaasd en verbaasd in, zal hij alleen maar stamelen: *“Ik weet het niet, ik ben gekweld voor niets”* Mario Ferreira dos Santos in Tractate of Symbolic pg. 120 (2007)[21/6 20:44] Guilherme Monteiro: @Spinassé – Sono bahá’í, @Lislei e io possiamo scrivere di filosofia della gemmologia e sociologia della gemmologia nell’esercizio 6? Entrambi sono concetti su cui sto pensando e teorizzando da alcune settimane. E volevo davvero presentarli a qualcuno. In teoria, la filosofia della gemmologia cerca di studiare il lato filosofico della gemmologia, della gioielleria, delle pietre preziose, della mineralogia, della cristallografia e delle aree correlate e delle loro relazioni tra la parte della conoscenza e la parte critica di esse. La sociologia della gemmologia, invece, si occupa delle relazioni tra gemmologia e società. E le relazioni che la gemmologia, le pietre preziose, la gioielleria, la mineralogia, la cristallografia e le relative aree della società. Sia nella parte sociale, culturale, mediatica, popolare-culturale, psicologica e di tendenza. E chiunque sia interessato all’argomento. Sentiti libero di scrivere o persino creare lavori su questi argomenti. È un argomento molto interessante e che merita un ulteriore sviluppo. Come il tema inglese gemmologico, lo spagnolo gemmologico, il francese gemmologico ecc. Inoltre, può ispirare anche altre aree. [21/6 21:39] Spinasse – Io sono bahá’í: Grande riflessione, William. Penso che la gemma, il metallo formato in un ornamento, abbia una forza simbolica. Questo potere evoca dalle nostre menti e dai nostri cuori ciò che non possiamo esprimere… sentiamo solo. Questa energia che ispira la conoscenza della filosofia, della sociologia e delle altre scienze e proviene dai materiali gemmologici e metallici che adornano e adornano corpi e spazi sta andando sempre più nel seminterrato umano. Guilherme, guarda cosa dice Mário Ferreira dos Santos sul nostro lato simbolico e, di conseguenza, sui gioielli! “L’uomo moderno prevalentemente metropolitano, che ha perso il nesso simbolico dei fatti, non vede bene il significato delle cose. Sono solo fatti del tuo mondo sensibile, o, al massimo, intellettualizzati attraverso segni e simboli matematici. Questo fatto non rivela la superiorità dell’uomo moderno, perché in quel preciso momento in cui dimentica la via simbolica, o quando la perde del tutto, *si ritrova solo, cosa tra le cose, e l’angoscia che lo travolge è più la sentimento di un vuoto*, di una mancanza, che l’uomo, per non conoscerlo, traduce con il concetto che ne esprime l’assenza: il nulla. E se gli chiedono perché è angosciato, tra lo stupore e lo stupore non farà che balbettare: *“Non lo so, sono angosciato per niente”* Mario Ferreira dos Santos in Tractate of Symbolic pg. 120 (2007)[21/6 20:44] Гильерме Монтейро: @Spinassé — Я бахаи, можем ли @Lislei и я написать о философии геммологии и социологии геммологии в упражнении 6? Обе концепции я обдумывал и теоретизировал в течение нескольких недель. И мне очень хотелось их с кем-нибудь познакомить. Теоретически философия геммологии направлена ​​на изучение философской стороны геммологии, ювелирных изделий, драгоценных камней, минералогии, кристаллографии и смежных областей, а также их взаимосвязей между знанием и критической частью. Социология геммологии, с другой стороны, имеет дело с отношениями между геммологией и обществом. И отношения, что геммология, драгоценные камни, ювелирные изделия, минералогия, кристаллография и смежные области общества. И в социальной, и в культурной, и в медийной, и в культурно-популярной, и в психологической, и в трендовой части. И кому интересна тема. Не стесняйтесь писать или даже создавать работы на эти темы. Тема очень интересная и заслуживает дальнейшего развития. То же, что и геммологическая английская тема, геммологический испанский, геммологический французский и т. д. Кроме того, это может вдохновить и другие области. [21/6 21:39] Спинасс – Я бахаи: Отличное размышление, Уильям. Я думаю, что драгоценный камень, металл, превращенный в украшение, имеет символическую силу. Эта сила пробуждает в наших умах и сердцах то, что мы не можем выразить… мы только чувствуем. Эта энергия, вдохновляющая на познание философии, социологии и других наук и исходящая от геммологических и металлических материалов, украшающих и украшающих тела и пространства, все больше уходит в подвал человека. Гильерме, посмотри, что Марио Феррейра душ Сантуш говорит о нашей символической стороне и, соответственно, о ювелирных изделиях! «Преимущественно столичный современный человек, утративший символическую связь фактов, плохо видит значение вещей. Это просто факты вашего чувственного мира или, в лучшем случае, интеллектуализированные с помощью математических знаков и символов. Этот факт не раскрывает превосходства современного человека, потому что именно в тот момент, когда он забывает символический путь или полностью теряет его, он оказывается один, вещь среди вещей, и тоска, которая его переполняет, более чувство пустоты*, нехватки, которое человек, не зная его, переводит понятием, выражающим его отсутствие: ничто. И если его спросят, почему он тоскует, то между изумлением и изумлением он только заикается: «Я не знаю, я зря тоскую»* Марио Феррейра душ Сантуш в «Трактате символики», стр. 120 (2007)[21/6 20:44] Гільєрме Монтейру: @Spinassé – Я бахаї чи можу ми з @Lislei писати про філософію геммології та соціологію геммології у вправі 6? Обидва – це концепції, про які я думаю і теоретизую вже кілька тижнів. І я дуже хотів їх з кимось познайомити. У теорії філософія гемології прагне до вивчення філософської сторони геммології, ювелірних виробів, дорогоцінних каменів, мінералогії, кристалографії та суміжних областей та їх взаємозв’язків між частиною знань і критичною їх частиною. З іншого боку, соціологія гемології займається взаємовідносинами між геммологією та суспільством. І взаємини, що геммологія, дорогоцінне каміння, ювелірні вироби, мінералогія, кристалографія та суміжні сфери суспільства. Як у соціальній, культурній, медійній, популярно-культурній, психологічній та трендовій частині. І всім, хто цікавиться темою. Не соромтеся писати або навіть створювати роботи на ці теми. Це дуже цікава тема, яка заслуговує подальшого розвитку. Так само, як і гемологічна англійська тема, гемологічна іспанська, гемологічна французька тощо. Крім того, це може надихнути й інші сфери. [21/6 21:39] Спінассе – Я бахаї: Велике роздуми, Вільяме. Я думаю, що дорогоцінний камінь, метал, сформований у прикрасу, має символічну силу. Ця сила викликає у наших розумах і серцях те, що ми не можемо висловити..ми тільки відчуваємо. Ця енергія, яка надихає на знання філософії, соціології та інших наук і походить з геммологічних і металевих матеріалів, які прикрашають і прикрашають тіла і простори, все частіше йде в підвал людини. Гільєрме, подивіться, що Маріу Феррейра душ Сантуш каже про нашу символічну сторону і, відповідно, про ювелірні вироби! «Сучасна людина переважно столична, яка втратила символічний зв’язок фактів, погано бачить значення речей. Це лише факти вашого чуттєвого світу, або, щонайбільше, інтелектуалізовані через математичні знаки та символи. Цей факт не виявляє переваги сучасної людини, тому що саме в той момент, коли вона забуває символічний шлях, або коли він повністю втрачає його, *він опиняється самотнім, річчю серед речей, і страждання, що охоплює його, є більше відчуття порожнечі*, нестачі, яке людина, не знаючи цього, перекладає поняттям, що виражає її відсутність: ніщо. І якщо його запитають, чому він страждає, між здивованим і здивованим, він лише запинається: *“Я не знаю, я мучуся даремно”* Маріо Феррейра душ Сантуш у «Трактаті символічного» стор. 120 (2007) 1. Guilherme Monteiro Jr. says: [21/6 20:44] Guilherme Monteiro：@Spinassé – 我是巴哈伊可以@Lislei 和我在练习 6 中写关于宝石学哲学和宝石学社会学的文章吗？ 这两个都是我几个星期以来一直在思考和理论化的概念。 我真的很想把他们介绍给某人。 从理论上讲，宝石学哲学旨在研究宝石学、珠宝、宝石学、矿物学、晶体学和相关领域的哲学方面及其知识部分与关键部分之间的关​​系。 另一方面，宝石学社会学处理宝石学与社会之间的关系。 以及宝石学、宝石学、珠宝学、矿物学、晶体学和相关社会领域的关系。 无论是在社会、文化、媒体、流行文化、心理和趋势部分。 以及对该主题感兴趣的任何人。 随意撰写或什至创作有关这些主题的作品。 这是一个非常有趣的话题，值得进一步发展。 与宝石学英语主题、宝石学西班牙语、宝石学法语等相同。 除此之外，这也可以激发其他领域。 [21/6 21:39] Spinasse – 我是巴哈伊：伟大的反思，威廉。 我认为宝石，作为装饰的金属，具有象征意义。 这种力量从我们的思想和心灵中唤起我们无法表达的东西……我们只是感觉到。 这种激发哲学、社会学和其他科学知识的能量，来自装饰和装饰身体和空间的宝石和金属材料，正越来越多地流向人类的地下室。 Guilherme，看看马里奥·费雷拉·多斯桑托斯对我们的象征性一面，以及关于珠宝的看法！ “以大都市为主的现代人失去了事实的象征联系，看不到事物的意义。 它们只是你的可感知世界的事实，或者最多是通过数学符号和符号来理智化的。 这个事实并不能揭示现代人的优越性，因为在他忘记象征性道路，或者完全失去象征性道路的那一刻，*他发现自己是孤独的，是事物中的一员，而压倒他的痛苦更多是一种空虚*，一种缺乏的感觉，因为人们不知道它，所以用表达它的缺失的概念来翻译：什么都没有。 如果他们问他为什么痛苦，在惊讶和惊讶之间，他只会结结巴巴：*“我不知道，我无缘无故地痛苦”* Mario Ferreira dos Santos in Tractate of Symbolic pg。 120 (2007)[21/6 20:44]ギレルメ・モンテイロ：@Spinassé-私はバハイ教徒です@Lisleiと私は宝石学の哲学と宝石学の社会学について演習6で書いていますか？ どちらも私が数週間考え、理論化してきた概念です。 そして、私は本当にそれらを誰かに紹介したかったのです。 理論的には、宝石学の哲学は、宝石学、宝石、宝石、鉱物学、結晶学および関連分野の哲学的側面と、それらの知識部分と重要な部分との関係を研究しようとしています。 一方、宝石学の社会学は、宝石学と社会の関係を扱っています。 そして、宝石学、宝石、宝石、鉱物学、結晶学、および社会の関連分野との関係。 社会的、文化的、メディア、大衆文化的、心理的、そしてトレンドの両方の部分で。 そして、そのトピックに興味のある人は誰でも。 これらのトピックについて自由に書いたり、作品を作成したりしてください。 これは非常に興味深いトピックであり、さらに発展させる価値があります。 宝石学の英語のテーマ、宝石学のスペイン語、宝石学のフランス語などと同じです。 それだけでなく、他の分野にも刺激を与えることができます。 [21/6 21:39]スピナス-私はバハイ教徒です：素晴らしい反省、ウィリアム。 装飾品になっている金属である宝石には、象徴的な力があると思います。 この力は、私たちが表現できないことを私たちの心と心から呼び起こします。私たちは感じるだけです。 哲学、社会学、その他の科学の知識を刺激し、身体や空間を飾り、飾る宝石学や金属の材料から来るこのエネルギーは、ますます人間の地下室に行きます。 ギエルメ、マリオフェレイラドスサントスが私たちの象徴的な側面について、そして連続してジュエリーについて言っていることを見てください！ 「事実の象徴的なつながりを失った、主に大都市の現代人は、物事の重要性をよく理解していません。 それらはあなたの賢明な世界の単なる事実であるか、せいぜい数学的記号や記号を通して知的化されています。 この事実は現代人の優位性を明らかにしていません。なぜなら、彼が象徴的な道を忘れたとき、または彼がそれを完全に失ったとき、*彼は自分自身を一人で見つけ、とりわけ彼を圧倒する苦悩はもっと空虚*、欠如の感覚、それを知らないために、人はその不在を表現する概念によって翻訳されます：何もない。 そして、なぜ彼が苦しんでいるのかと尋ねられた場合、驚いたことと驚いたことの間で、彼は吃音するだけです。 120（2007）[21/6 20:44] गुइलहर्मे मोंटेइरो: @ स्पिनसे – मैं बहाई कैन @ लिस्ली हूं और मैं अभ्यास 6 में जेमोलॉजी के दर्शन और जेमोलॉजी के समाजशास्त्र के बारे में लिखता हूं? दोनों अवधारणाएं हैं जिनके बारे में मैं कुछ हफ्तों से सोच रहा हूं और सिद्धांत बना रहा हूं। और मैं वास्तव में उन्हें किसी से मिलवाना चाहता था। सिद्धांत रूप में, जेमोलॉजी का दर्शन रत्न विज्ञान, गहने, रत्न, खनिज विज्ञान, क्रिस्टलोग्राफी और संबंधित क्षेत्रों के दार्शनिक पक्ष और ज्ञान भाग और उनके महत्वपूर्ण भाग के बीच उनके संबंधों का अध्ययन करना चाहता है। दूसरी ओर, जेमोलॉजी का समाजशास्त्र, जेमोलॉजी और समाज के बीच संबंधों से संबंधित है। और वह संबंध जो रत्न विज्ञान, रत्न, आभूषण, खनिज विज्ञान, क्रिस्टलोग्राफी और समाज के संबंधित क्षेत्रों से संबंधित है। दोनों सामाजिक, सांस्कृतिक, मीडिया, लोकप्रिय-सांस्कृतिक, मनोवैज्ञानिक और प्रवृत्ति भाग में। और विषय में रुचि रखने वाला कोई भी। बेझिझक लिखें या इन विषयों पर रचनाएँ बनाएँ। यह एक बहुत ही रोचक विषय है और आगे विकास के योग्य है। जेमोलॉजिकल इंग्लिश थीम, जेमोलॉजिकल स्पैनिश, जेमोलॉजिकल फ्रेंच आदि के समान। साथ ही यह अन्य क्षेत्रों को भी प्रेरित कर सकता है। [21/6 21:39] स्पिनसे – आई एम बहाई: ग्रेट रिफ्लेक्शन, विलियम। मुझे लगता है कि रत्न, एक अलंकरण में गठित धातु, प्रतीकात्मक शक्ति है। यह शक्ति हमारे दिमाग और दिल से निकलती है जिसे हम व्यक्त नहीं कर सकते..हम केवल महसूस करते हैं। यह ऊर्जा जो दर्शन, समाजशास्त्र और अन्य विज्ञानों के ज्ञान को प्रेरित करती है और शरीर और रिक्त स्थान को सजाने और सुशोभित करने वाली जेमोलॉजिकल और धातु सामग्री से आती है, वह तेजी से मानव तहखाने में जा रही है। गुइलहर्मे, देखें कि मारियो फरेरा डॉस सैंटोस हमारे प्रतीकात्मक पक्ष के बारे में और, लगातार, गहनों के बारे में क्या कहते हैं! “मुख्य रूप से महानगरीय आधुनिक आदमी, जिसने तथ्यों की प्रतीकात्मक गठजोड़ खो दिया है, चीजों के महत्व को अच्छी तरह से नहीं देखता है। वे सिर्फ आपकी समझदार दुनिया के तथ्य हैं, या, अधिक से अधिक, गणितीय संकेतों और प्रतीकों के माध्यम से बौद्धिक हैं। यह तथ्य आधुनिक मनुष्य की श्रेष्ठता को प्रकट नहीं करता है, क्योंकि उस सटीक क्षण में जब वह प्रतीकात्मक मार्ग को भूल जाता है, या जब वह इसे पूरी तरह से खो देता है, *वह अपने आप को अकेला पाता है, चीजों के बीच एक चीज, और जो पीड़ा उसे अभिभूत करती है, वह अधिक है एक खालीपन*, एक कमी की भावना, जिसे मनुष्य, इसे न जानने के लिए, उस अवधारणा द्वारा अनुवादित करता है जो इसकी अनुपस्थिति को व्यक्त करती है: कुछ भी नहीं। और अगर वे उससे पूछें कि वह क्यों दुखी है, चकित और चकित के बीच वह केवल हकलाएगा: * “मुझे नहीं पता, मैं कुछ भी नहीं के लिए पीड़ित हूं” * प्रतीकात्मक पीजी के ट्रैक्टेट में मारियो फेरेरा डॉस सैंटोस। 120 (2007)[21/6 20:44] Guilherme Monteiro: @ Spinassé – أنا بهائي يمكننيLislei وأكتب عن فلسفة علم الأحجار الكريمة وعلم اجتماع الأحجار الكريمة في التمرين 6؟ كلاهما مفهومان كنت أفكر فيه وأقوم بتنظيرهما لبضعة أسابيع حتى الآن. وأردت حقًا أن أقدمهم إلى شخص ما. من الناحية النظرية ، تسعى فلسفة علم الأحجار الكريمة إلى دراسة الجانب الفلسفي لعلم الأحجار الكريمة والمجوهرات والأحجار الكريمة وعلم المعادن وعلم البلورات والمجالات ذات الصلة وعلاقاتها بين الجزء المعرفي والجزء المهم منها. من ناحية أخرى ، يتعامل علم اجتماع الأحجار الكريمة مع العلاقات بين علم الأحجار الكريمة والمجتمع. والعلاقات التي تتعلق بالجواهر والأحجار الكريمة والمجوهرات وعلم المعادن وعلم البلورات والمجالات ذات الصلة بالمجتمع. سواء في الجانب الاجتماعي والثقافي والإعلامي والشعبي والثقافي والنفسي والاتجاه. وأي شخص مهتم بالموضوع. لا تتردد في الكتابة أو حتى إنشاء أعمال حول هذه الموضوعات. إنه موضوع مثير للاهتمام للغاية ويستحق المزيد من التطوير. نفس الموضوع الإنجليزي لعلم الأحجار الكريمة ، الأسبانية الأحجار الكريمة ، الفرنسية الأحجار الكريمة ، إلخ. بالإضافة إلى أن ذلك يمكن أن يلهم مجالات أخرى أيضًا. [21/6 21:39] Spinasse – أنا بهائي: تأمل عظيم ، ويليام. أعتقد أن الجوهرة ، المعدن الذي تشكل زينة ، لها قوة رمزية. تستحضر هذه القوة من عقولنا وقلوبنا ما لا نستطيع التعبير عنه .. نشعر به فقط. هذه الطاقة التي تلهم معرفة الفلسفة وعلم الاجتماع والعلوم الأخرى وتأتي من المواد الأحجار الكريمة والمعدنية التي تزين وتزين الأجسام والمساحات تذهب بشكل متزايد إلى الطابق السفلي البشري. Guilherme ، شاهد ما يقوله ماريو فيريرا دوس سانتوس عن جانبنا الرمزي ، وعلى التوالي ، عن المجوهرات! إن الإنسان الحديث الذي يغلب عليه الطابع الحضري ، والذي فقد الرابطة الرمزية للحقائق ، لا يرى جيدًا أهمية الأشياء. إنها مجرد حقائق عن عالمك المعقول ، أو ، على الأكثر ، مفكرة من خلال العلامات والرموز الرياضية. هذه الحقيقة لا تكشف عن تفوق الإنسان المعاصر ، لأنه في تلك اللحظة الدقيقة عندما ينسى المسار الرمزي ، أو عندما يفقده تمامًا * يجد نفسه وحيدًا ، شيئًا من بين الأشياء ، والألم الذي يغمره هو أكثر من الشعور بالفراغ * ، بالافتقار ، والذي يترجمه الإنسان لعدم معرفته بالمفهوم الذي يعبر عن غيابه: لا شيء. وإذا سألوه لماذا يشعر بالقلق ، بين الذهول والدهشة سيتلعثم فقط: * “لا أعرف ، أنا منزعج من أجل لا شيء” * ماريو فيريرا دوس سانتوس في Tractate of Symbolic pg. 120 (2007)[21/6 20:44] Guilherme Monteiro: @Spinassé – 저는 Bahá’í입니다 @Lislei 수 있으며 운동 6에서 보석학 철학과 보석학 사회학에 대해 글을 쓰고 있습니까? 둘 다 제가 지금 몇 주 동안 생각하고 이론화한 개념입니다. 그리고 정말 누군가에게 소개하고 싶었습니다. 이론적으로 보석 철학은 보석, 보석, 보석, 광물학, 결정학 및 관련 분야의 철학적 측면과 지식 부분과 중요한 부분 사이의 관계를 연구합니다. 반면 보석사회학은 보석과 사회의 관계를 다룬다. 그리고 보석학, 보석, 보석, 광물학, 결정학 및 사회의 관련 분야와의 관계. 사회, 문화, 미디어, 대중 문화, 심리 및 트렌드 부분 모두. 그리고 주제에 관심이 있는 모든 사람. 이 주제에 대해 자유롭게 글을 쓰거나 작품을 만들 수도 있습니다. 이것은 매우 흥미로운 주제이며 더 발전할 가치가 있는 주제입니다. Gemological English Theme, Gemological Spanish, Gemological French 등과 동일합니다. 뿐만 아니라 다른 영역에도 영감을 줄 수 있습니다. [21/6 21:39] Spinasse – I am Bahá’í: 훌륭한 반성, 윌리엄. 장신구로 만들어진 금속인 보석에는 상징적인 힘이 있다고 생각합니다. 이 힘은 우리의 생각과 마음에서 우리가 표현할 수 없는..느끼는 것만을 불러일으킨다. 철학, 사회학 및 기타 과학의 지식에 영감을 주고 신체와 공간을 장식하고 장식하는 보석 및 금속 재료에서 나오는 이 에너지는 점점 더 인간의 지하로 가고 있습니다. Guilherme, Mário Ferreira dos Santos가 우리의 상징적인 면과 계속해서 보석에 대해 말하는 것을 보십시오! “사실의 상징적 연결을 상실한 대도시의 현대인은 사물의 중요성을 잘 보지 못한다. 그것들은 단지 당신의 감각적 세계의 사실이거나, 기껏해야 수학적 기호와 기호를 통해 지능화된 것입니다. 이 사실이 현대인의 우월함을 드러내는 것은 아니다. 왜냐하면 상징적 길을 잊어버리거나 완전히 잃어버리는 바로 그 순간, 그는 사물들 사이에 홀로 존재하는 자신을 발견하고 그를 압도하는 고뇌가 더 크다는 것을 알게 되기 때문이다. 공허함*, 결핍감, 인간은 그것을 알지 못하기 때문에 그 부재를 표현하는 개념으로 번역합니다. 그리고 그들이 그에게 왜 그가 괴로워하는지 묻는다면, 놀라움과 놀라움 사이에서 그는 단지 더듬을 것입니다. 120 (2007)[21/6 20:44] Guilherme Monteiro: @Spinassé – Men Bahaiman mumkinmi @Lisley va men 6-mashqda gemologiya falsafasi va gemologiya sotsiologiyasi haqida yozaman? Ikkalasi ham men bir necha haftadan beri o’ylayotgan va nazariya qilgan tushunchalar. Va men ularni kimgadir tanishtirmoqchi edim. Nazariy jihatdan, gemologiya falsafasi gemologiya, zargarlik buyumlari, qimmatbaho toshlar, mineralogiya, kristallografiya va tegishli sohalarning falsafiy tomonini va ularning bilim qismi va ularning muhim qismi o’rtasidagi munosabatlarini o’rganishga intiladi. Boshqa tomondan, gemologiya sotsiologiyasi gemologiya va jamiyat o’rtasidagi munosabatlar bilan shug’ullanadi. Va gemologiya, qimmatbaho toshlar, zargarlik buyumlari, mineralogiya, kristallografiya va jamiyatning tegishli sohalari bilan bog’liq. Ijtimoiy, madaniy, ommaviy axborot vositalari, ommaviy-madaniy, psixologik va trend qismida ham. Va mavzuga qiziqqan har bir kishi. Bemalol ushbu mavzular haqida yozing yoki hatto asarlar yarating. Bu juda qiziqarli mavzu va uni yanada rivojlantirishga loyiqdir. Gemologik ingliz mavzusi, gemologik ispan, gemologik frantsuz va boshqalar bilan bir xil. Shuningdek, bu boshqa sohalarni ham ilhomlantirishi mumkin. [21/6 21:39] Spinasse – Men Bahoiyman: Ajoyib mulohaza, Uilyam. O’ylaymanki, qimmatbaho tosh, zeb-ziynatga aylangan metall ramziy kuchga ega. Bu kuch ongimiz va qalbimizdan biz ifoda eta olmaydigan narsalarni uyg’otadi..biz faqat his qilamiz. Falsafa, sotsiologiya va boshqa fanlar bo’yicha bilimlarni ilhomlantiradigan va jismlar va bo’shliqlarni bezab turgan gemologik va metall materiallardan kelib chiqadigan bu energiya tobora ko’proq inson podvaliga boradi. Gilyerme, qarang, Mario Ferreyra dos Santos bizning ramziy tomonimiz va ketma-ket zargarlik buyumlari haqida nima deyapti! “Faktlarning ramziy aloqasini yo’qotgan, asosan metropolitan zamonaviy odam, narsalarning ahamiyatini yaxshi tushunmaydi. Ular sizning aqlli dunyongizning faktlari yoki, eng ko’p, matematik belgilar va belgilar orqali aqliylashtirilgan. Bu haqiqat zamonaviy insonning ustunligini ochib bermaydi, chunki u ramziy yo’lni unutganda yoki uni butunlay yo’qotganda, * u o’zini yolg’iz, narsalar orasida bir narsa deb topadi va uni bosib olgan iztirob ko’proq bo’ladi. bo’shliq*, kamchilik tuyg’usi, buni odam bilmagani uchun uning yo’qligini ifodalovchi tushuncha bilan tarjima qiladi: hech narsa. Agar undan nega qiynalayotganini so’rashsa, hayrat va hayrat orasida faqat duduqlanadi: *”Bilmayman, men bekorga qiynaldim”* Mario Ferreyra dos Santos “Symbolic Tractate of Symbolic” sahifasida. 120 (2007)[21/6 20:44] Guilherme Monteiro: @Spinassé – Jestem bahaickiem, czy @Lislei piszę o filozofii gemologii i socjologii gemologii w ćwiczeniu 6? Oba są pojęciami, o których myślę i teoretyzuję od kilku tygodni. I naprawdę chciałem je komuś przedstawić. Teoretycznie filozofia gemologii ma na celu zbadanie filozoficznej strony gemologii, biżuterii, kamieni szlachetnych, mineralogii, krystalografii i dziedzin pokrewnych oraz ich relacji między częścią wiedzy a częścią krytyczną. Z kolei socjologia gemologii zajmuje się związkami między gemologią a społeczeństwem. A relacje to gemologia, kamienie jubilerskie, biżuteria, mineralogia, krystalografia i pokrewne obszary społeczeństwa. Zarówno w części społecznej, kulturowej, medialnej, popularno-kulturowej, psychologicznej, jak i trendowej. I wszystkich zainteresowanych tematem. Zapraszam do pisania lub nawet tworzenia prac na te tematy. To bardzo ciekawy temat i zasługuje na dalszy rozwój. Taki sam jak Gemological English Theme, Gemological Spanish, Gemological French itp. Jak również może zainspirować inne obszary. [21/6 21:39] Spinasse – Jestem bahaitem: Świetna refleksja, Williamie. Myślę, że klejnot, metal uformowany w ozdobę, ma siłę symboliczną. Ta moc ewokuje z naszych umysłów i serc to, czego nie możemy wyrazić… my tylko czujemy. Ta energia, która inspiruje wiedzę z zakresu filozofii, socjologii i innych nauk, a pochodzi z gemmologicznych i metalicznych materiałów, które zdobią i zdobią ciała i przestrzenie, coraz częściej trafia do ludzkich piwnic. Guilherme, zobacz, co mówi Mário Ferreira dos Santos o naszej symbolicznej stronie, a co za tym idzie o biżuterii! „Przeważnie metropolitalny człowiek współczesny, który utracił symboliczny splot faktów, nie dostrzega dobrze znaczenia rzeczy. Są to tylko fakty z waszego sensownego świata lub co najwyżej zintelektualizowane za pomocą matematycznych znaków i symboli. Fakt ten nie świadczy o wyższości współczesnego człowieka, ponieważ w tym właśnie momencie, kiedy zapomina o symbolicznej ścieżce lub kiedy całkowicie ją traci, *znajduje się sam, rzecz pośród rzeczy, a udręka, która go ogarnia, jest bardziej poczucie pustki*, braku, które człowiek, nie znając go, tłumaczy pojęciem wyrażającym jego brak: nic. A jeśli zapytają go, dlaczego cierpi, między zdumieniem a zdziwieniem będzie tylko jąkał: *„Nie wiem, cierpię o nic”* Mario Ferreira dos Santos w Tractate of Symbolic str. 120 (2007)[21/6 20:44] Guilherme Monteiro: @Spinassé – Saya Bahá’í dapatkah @Lislei dan saya menulis tentang filosofi gemologi dan sosiologi gemologi dalam latihan 6? Keduanya adalah konsep yang telah saya pikirkan dan teorikan selama beberapa minggu sekarang. Dan saya benar-benar ingin memperkenalkan mereka kepada seseorang. Secara teori, filsafat gemologi berusaha mempelajari sisi filosofis gemologi, perhiasan, batu permata, mineralogi, kristalografi dan bidang terkait serta hubungannya antara bagian pengetahuan dan bagian kritisnya. Sosiologi gemologi, di sisi lain, berkaitan dengan hubungan antara gemologi dan masyarakat. Dan hubungan yang gemologi, batu permata, perhiasan, mineralogi, kristalografi dan bidang terkait masyarakat. Baik di bagian sosial, budaya, media, budaya populer, psikologis, dan tren. Dan siapa pun yang tertarik dengan topik tersebut. Jangan ragu untuk menulis atau bahkan membuat karya tentang topik ini. Ini adalah topik yang sangat menarik dan perlu dikembangkan lebih lanjut. Sama seperti Tema Bahasa Inggris Gemologis, Bahasa Spanyol Gemologis, Bahasa Prancis Gemologis, dll. Selain itu bisa menginspirasi daerah lain juga. [21/6 21:39] Spinasse – I am Bahá’í: Refleksi yang bagus, William. Saya pikir permata itu, logam yang dibentuk menjadi perhiasan, memiliki kekuatan simbolis. Kekuatan ini membangkitkan dari pikiran dan hati kita apa yang tidak bisa kita ungkapkan.. yang hanya kita rasakan. Energi yang mengilhami ilmu filsafat, sosiologi dan ilmu-ilmu lainnya dan berasal dari bahan-bahan gemologi dan logam yang menghiasi dan menghiasi tubuh dan ruang semakin menuju ke ruang bawah tanah manusia. Guilherme, lihat apa yang Mário Ferreira dos Santos katakan tentang sisi simbolis kita dan, berturut-turut, tentang perhiasan! “Manusia modern metropolitan yang dominan, yang telah kehilangan hubungan simbolis fakta, tidak melihat dengan baik pentingnya berbagai hal. Mereka hanyalah fakta dari dunia Anda yang masuk akal, atau, paling banyak, diintelektualisasikan melalui tanda dan simbol matematika. Fakta ini tidak mengungkapkan superioritas manusia modern, karena pada saat yang tepat ketika dia melupakan jalan simbolik, atau ketika dia kehilangannya sama sekali, dia mendapati dirinya sendiri, sesuatu di antara banyak hal, dan penderitaan yang menguasainya lebih merupakan perasaan kekosongan*, kekurangan, yang manusia, karena tidak mengetahuinya, diterjemahkan dengan konsep yang mengungkapkan ketidakhadirannya: tidak ada. Dan jika mereka bertanya mengapa dia sedih, antara kagum dan heran dia hanya akan tergagap: *“Saya tidak tahu, saya sedih untuk apa-apa”* Mario Ferreira dos Santos dalam Tractate of Symbolic hal. 120 (2007) 1. Guilherme Monteiro Jr. says: [21/6 20:44] Guilherme Monteiro: @Spinassé – אני בהא יכול @Lislei ואני לכתוב על פילוסופיה של גמולוגיה וסוציולוגיה של גמולוגיה בתרגיל 6? שניהם מושגים שחשבתי עליהם וחשבתי עליהם כבר כמה שבועות. ובאמת רציתי להכיר אותם למישהו. בתיאוריה, הפילוסופיה של הגמולוגיה מבקשת לחקור את הצד הפילוסופי של הגמולוגיה, תכשיטים, אבני חן, מינרלוגיה, קריסטלוגרפיה ותחומים נלווים ויחסיהם בין חלק הידע לחלק הקריטי שבהם. הסוציולוגיה של הגמולוגיה, לעומת זאת, עוסקת ביחסים בין הגמולוגיה לחברה. והיחסים בין גמולוגיה, אבני חן, תכשיטים, מינרלוגיה, קריסטלוגרפיה ותחומים קשורים בחברה. הן בחלק החברתי, התרבותי, התקשורתי, הפופולרי-תרבותי, הפסיכולוגי והטרנדי. וכל מי שמתעניין בנושא. אתם מוזמנים לכתוב על או אפילו ליצור עבודות בנושאים אלו. זה נושא מאוד מעניין וראוי להמשך פיתוח. זהה לנושא אנגלית גמולוגית, ספרדית גמולוגית, צרפתית גמולוגית וכו’. כמו גם זה יכול לעורר השראה גם בתחומים אחרים. [21/6 21:39] ספינאס – אני בהאי: השתקפות נהדרת, וויליאם. אני חושב שלאבן החן, המתכת שנוצרה לקישוט, יש כוח סמלי. הכוח הזה מעורר מהמוח והלב שלנו את מה שאנחנו לא יכולים לבטא.. אנחנו רק מרגישים. האנרגיה הזו שמעוררת השראה בידע של פילוסופיה, סוציולוגיה ומדעים אחרים ומגיעה מהחומרים הגמולוגיים והמתכתיים המעטרים ומקשטים גופים וחללים, הולכת יותר ויותר אל המרתף האנושי. גילהרמה, ראה מה אומר מריו פריירה דוס סנטוס על הצד הסמלי שלנו, ובאופן רצוף, על תכשיטים! “האדם המודרני המטרופולין ברובו, שאיבד את הקשר הסמלי של עובדות, אינו רואה היטב את המשמעות של הדברים. הן רק עובדות של עולמך ההגיוני, או, לכל היותר, אינטלקטואליות באמצעות סימנים וסמלים מתמטיים. עובדה זו אינה חושפת את עליונותו של האדם המודרני, כי באותו רגע שבו הוא שוכח את הדרך הסמלית, או כאשר הוא מאבד אותה לחלוטין, *הוא מוצא את עצמו לבדו, דבר בין הדברים, והייסורים המציפים אותו הם יותר תחושת ריקנות*, של חוסר, שהאדם, על שלא ידע זאת, מתרגם במושג המבטא את היעדרו: כלום. ואם ישאלו אותו למה הוא כועס, בין נדהם לתדהמה הוא רק יגמגם: *”אני לא יודע, אני כועס על כלום”* מריו פריירה דוס סנטוס במסכת סימבולית עמ’. 120 (2007)[21/6 20:44] Guilherme Monteiro: @ Spinassé – Tôi là Bahá’í có thể @Lislei và tôi viết về triết học đá quý và xã hội học đá quý trong bài tập 6 không? Cả hai đều là những khái niệm mà tôi đã suy nghĩ và lý thuyết trong vài tuần nay. Và tôi thực sự muốn giới thiệu họ với ai đó. Về lý thuyết, triết học đá quý tìm cách nghiên cứu khía cạnh triết học của đá quý, đồ trang sức, đá quý, khoáng vật học, tinh thể học và các lĩnh vực liên quan và mối quan hệ của chúng giữa phần tri thức và phần quan trọng của chúng. Mặt khác, xã hội học đá quý học giải quyết các mối quan hệ giữa đá quý học và xã hội. Và các mối quan hệ mà đá quý, đá quý, đồ trang sức, khoáng vật học, tinh thể học và các lĩnh vực liên quan của xã hội. Cả về phần xã hội, văn hóa, phương tiện truyền thông, văn hóa đại chúng, tâm lý và xu hướng. Và bất cứ ai quan tâm đến chủ đề. Hãy thoải mái viết về hoặc thậm chí tạo ra các tác phẩm về những chủ đề này. Đó là một chủ đề rất thú vị và đáng được phát triển hơn nữa. Tương tự như Chủ đề Gemological tiếng Anh, Gemological Tây Ban Nha, Gemological Pháp, v.v. Cũng như điều đó có thể truyền cảm hứng cho các lĩnh vực khác. [21/6 21:39] Spinasse – Tôi là Bahá’í: Sự phản chiếu tuyệt vời, William. Tôi nghĩ rằng đá quý, kim loại được tạo thành một vật trang sức, có sức mạnh tượng trưng. Sức mạnh này gợi lên từ tâm trí và trái tim của chúng ta những gì chúng ta không thể thể hiện..chúng ta chỉ cảm nhận được. Năng lượng truyền cảm hứng cho kiến ​​thức triết học, xã hội học và các ngành khoa học khác và đến từ các vật liệu kim loại và đá quý vốn tô điểm và tô điểm cho các cơ thể và không gian đang ngày càng đi vào tầng hầm của con người. Guilherme, hãy xem Mário Ferreira dos Santos nói gì về khía cạnh biểu tượng của chúng ta và liên tiếp, về đồ trang sức! “Con người hiện đại chủ yếu ở thành thị, người đã đánh mất mối liên hệ biểu tượng của sự thật, không thấy rõ ý nghĩa của mọi thứ. Chúng chỉ là sự thật về thế giới hợp lý của bạn, hoặc nhiều nhất, được trí tuệ hóa thông qua các dấu hiệu và biểu tượng toán học. Sự thật này không cho thấy sự ưu việt của con người hiện đại, bởi vì vào thời điểm chính xác đó khi anh ta quên mất con đường biểu tượng, hoặc khi anh ta đánh mất nó hoàn toàn, * anh ta thấy mình cô độc, một thứ trong số mọi thứ, và nỗi thống khổ bao trùm anh ta càng là cảm giác trống rỗng *, về sự thiếu thốn, mà con người, vì không biết điều đó, đã dịch ra bằng khái niệm thể hiện sự vắng mặt của nó: không có gì. Và nếu họ hỏi anh ta tại sao anh ta lại đau khổ, giữa ngạc nhiên và ngạc nhiên, anh ta sẽ chỉ lắp bắp: * “Tôi không biết, tôi đau khổ vì vô cớ” * Mario Ferreira dos Santos trong trang Tractate of Symbolic. 120 (2007)[21/6 20:44] Guilherme Monteiro: @Spinassé – Είμαι Μπαχάι μπορεί ο @Lislei και να γράψω για τη φιλοσοφία της γεμολογίας και την κοινωνιολογία της γεμολογίας στην άσκηση 6; Και οι δύο είναι έννοιες που σκέφτομαι και θεωρητικοποιώ εδώ και μερικές εβδομάδες. Και ήθελα πολύ να τους συστήσω σε κάποιον. Θεωρητικά, η φιλοσοφία της γεμολογίας επιδιώκει να μελετήσει τη φιλοσοφική πλευρά της γεμολογίας, του κοσμήματος, των πολύτιμων λίθων, της ορυκτολογίας, της κρυσταλλογραφίας και συναφών περιοχών και τις σχέσεις τους μεταξύ του γνωστικού και του κρίσιμου μέρους τους. Η κοινωνιολογία της γεμολογίας, από την άλλη πλευρά, ασχολείται με τις σχέσεις μεταξύ της γεμολογίας και της κοινωνίας. Και οι σχέσεις που έχουν η γεωμολογία, οι πολύτιμοι λίθοι, το κόσμημα, η ορυκτολογία, η κρυσταλλογραφία και συναφείς τομείς της κοινωνίας. Τόσο στο κοινωνικό, πολιτιστικό, μιντιακό, λαϊκό-πολιτιστικό, ψυχολογικό και trend κομμάτι. Και όποιος ενδιαφέρεται για το θέμα. Μη διστάσετε να γράψετε ή ακόμα και να δημιουργήσετε έργα για αυτά τα θέματα. Είναι ένα πολύ ενδιαφέρον θέμα και ένα θέμα που αξίζει περαιτέρω ανάπτυξη. Το ίδιο με το Gemological English Theme, Gemological Spanish, Gemological French κ.λπ. Καθώς και αυτό μπορεί να εμπνεύσει και άλλους τομείς. [21/6 21:39] Spinasse – Είμαι Μπαχάι: Μεγάλη σκέψη, Γουίλιαμ. Νομίζω ότι το πετράδι, το μέταλλο που διαμορφώνεται σε στολισμό, έχει συμβολική δύναμη. Αυτή η δύναμη προκαλεί από το μυαλό και την καρδιά μας αυτό που δεν μπορούμε να εκφράσουμε.. μόνο νιώθουμε. Αυτή η ενέργεια που εμπνέει τη γνώση της φιλοσοφίας, της κοινωνιολογίας και άλλων επιστημών και προέρχεται από τα γεμολογικά και μεταλλικά υλικά που κοσμούν και κοσμούν σώματα και χώρους πηγαίνει όλο και περισσότερο στο ανθρώπινο υπόγειο. Guilherme, δες τι λέει ο Mário Ferreira dos Santos για τη συμβολική μας πλευρά και, διαδοχικά, για τα κοσμήματα! «Ο κατεξοχήν μητροπολιτικός σύγχρονος άνθρωπος, που έχει χάσει τη συμβολική σχέση των γεγονότων, δεν βλέπει καλά τη σημασία των πραγμάτων. Είναι απλώς γεγονότα του αισθητού κόσμου σας, ή, το πολύ, διανοούμενοι μέσω μαθηματικών σημείων και συμβόλων. Το γεγονός αυτό δεν αποκαλύπτει την ανωτερότητα του σύγχρονου ανθρώπου, γιατί εκείνη ακριβώς τη στιγμή που ξεχνά το συμβολικό μονοπάτι, ή όταν το χάνει τελείως, *βρίσκεται μόνος, κάτι μεταξύ των πραγμάτων, και η αγωνία που τον κυριεύει είναι περισσότερο η αίσθημα ενός κενού*, μιας έλλειψης, που ο άνθρωπος, επειδή δεν το γνωρίζει, μεταφράζει με την έννοια που εκφράζει την απουσία του: τίποτα. Και αν τον ρωτήσουν γιατί αγωνιά, μεταξύ έκπληκτος και έκπληκτος θα τραυλίσει μόνο: *«Δεν ξέρω, δεν έχω αγωνία για τίποτα»* Ο Mario Ferreira dos Santos στο Tractate of Symbolic σελ. 120 (2007)[21/6 20:44] Guilherme Monteiro: @Spinassé – Ben Bahá’í can @Lislei ve 6. alıştırmada gemoloji felsefesi ve gemoloji sosyolojisi hakkında yazıyorum? Her ikisi de birkaç haftadır düşündüğüm ve teorileştirdiğim kavramlar. Ve onları gerçekten biriyle tanıştırmak istedim. Teoride, gemoloji felsefesi gemoloji, mücevher, değerli taşlar, mineraloji, kristalografi ve ilgili alanların felsefi yanını ve bunların bilgi kısmı ile kritik kısmı arasındaki ilişkileri incelemeye çalışır. Gemoloji sosyolojisi ise gemoloji ve toplum arasındaki ilişkilerle ilgilenir. Ve gemoloji, değerli taşlar, mücevherat, mineraloji, kristalografi ve toplumun ilgili alanları arasındaki ilişkiler. Hem sosyal, kültürel, medya, popüler-kültürel, psikolojik ve trend kısmında. Ve konuyla ilgilenen herkes. Bu konular hakkında yazmaktan, hatta eserler yaratmaktan çekinmeyin. Bu çok ilginç bir konu ve daha fazla gelişmeyi hak ediyor. Gemological English Theme, Gemological İspanyolca, Gemological French vb. ile aynı. Bunun yanı sıra diğer alanlara da ilham verebilir. [21/6 21:39] Spinasse – Ben Bahá’í’yim: Harika bir düşünce William. Bir süs haline getirilmiş metal olan mücevherin sembolik bir gücü olduğunu düşünüyorum. Bu güç, ifade edemediğimiz şeyleri zihnimizde ve kalbimizde uyandırır.Biz sadece hissederiz. Felsefe, sosyoloji ve diğer bilimlerin bilgisine ilham veren, bedenleri ve mekanları süsleyen gemolojik ve metalik malzemelerden gelen bu enerji, giderek insanın bodrumuna gidiyor. Guilherme, Mário Ferreira dos Santos’un sembolik yönümüz ve sırasıyla mücevherler hakkında ne söylediğine bakın! “Olguların sembolik bağını kaybetmiş, ağırlıklı olarak metropoliten modern insan, şeylerin önemini iyi görmüyor. Onlar sadece sizin mantıklı dünyanızın gerçekleridir veya en fazla matematiksel işaretler ve semboller yoluyla entelektüelleştirilmiştir. Bu gerçek, modern insanın üstünlüğünü ortaya koymaz, çünkü tam o anda sembolik yolu unuttuğunda veya tamamen kaybettiğinde, kendini yalnız, şeyler arasında bir şey olarak bulur ve onu saran ızdırap daha çok, insanın bilmediği için yokluğunu ifade eden kavramla tercüme ettiği bir boşluk*, bir eksiklik duygusu: hiçlik. Ve ona neden ıstırap çektiğini sorarlarsa, hayret ve şaşkınlık arasında sadece kekeler: *“Bilmiyorum, boşuna ıstırap çekiyorum”* Mario Ferreira dos Santos, Tractate of Symbolic s. 120 (2007)[21/6 20:44] Guilherme Monteiro: @Spinassé – من بهائی هستم می‌توانم @Lislei و در مورد فلسفه گوهرشناسی و جامعه‌شناسی گوهرشناسی در تمرین 6 بنویسم؟ هر دو مفاهیمی هستند که من چند هفته است در مورد آنها فکر می کنم و نظریه پردازی می کنم. و من واقعاً می خواستم آنها را به کسی معرفی کنم. از لحاظ نظری، فلسفه گوهرشناسی به دنبال بررسی وجه فلسفی گوهرشناسی، جواهرات، سنگ‌های قیمتی، کانی‌شناسی، بلورشناسی و حوزه‌های مرتبط و روابط آن‌ها بین بخش دانش و بخش مهم آن‌ها است. از سوی دیگر، جامعه شناسی گوهرشناسی به روابط بین گوهرشناسی و جامعه می پردازد. و روابطی که گوهرشناسی، سنگ های قیمتی، جواهرات، کانی شناسی، کریستالوگرافی و حوزه های مرتبط با جامعه است. چه در بخش اجتماعی، فرهنگی، رسانه ای، مردمی-فرهنگی، روانی و روند. و هر کسی که به موضوع علاقه دارد. در مورد این موضوعات بنویسید یا حتی آثاری خلق کنید. موضوع بسیار جالبی است و سزاوار توسعه بیشتر است. مانند تم انگلیسی گوهرشناسی، اسپانیایی گوهرشناسی، فرانسوی گوهرشناسی و غیره. و همچنین می تواند الهام بخش دیگر حوزه ها نیز باشد. [21/6 21:39] اسپیناس – من بهائی هستم: تأمل بزرگ، ویلیام. من فکر می کنم که گوهر، فلزی که به صورت زینت در آمده، نیرویی نمادین دارد. این قدرت چیزی را از ذهن و قلب ما برمی انگیزد که نمی توانیم بیان کنیم.. ما فقط احساس می کنیم. این انرژی که الهام‌بخش دانش فلسفه، جامعه‌شناسی و سایر علوم است و از مواد گوهرشناسی و فلزی که بدن‌ها و فضاها را تزیین می‌کنند، به‌طور فزاینده‌ای به زیرزمین انسان می‌رود. گیلرمه، ببینید ماریو فریرا دوس سانتوس در مورد جنبه نمادین ما و متوالی در مورد جواهرات چه می گوید! «انسان مدرن غالباً متروپل، که پیوند نمادین حقایق را از دست داده است، اهمیت چیزها را به خوبی نمی بیند. آنها فقط حقایقی از دنیای معقول شما هستند، یا حداکثر از طریق نشانه ها و نمادهای ریاضی، عقلانی شده اند. این واقعیت برتری انسان مدرن را آشکار نمی کند، زیرا در آن لحظه که راه نمادین را فراموش می کند یا آن را به کلی از دست می دهد، *خود را تنها می بیند، چیزی در میان چیزها، و اندوهی که او را فرا می گیرد بیشتر است. احساس پوچی*، کمبودی که انسان به دلیل ندانستن آن را با مفهومی که نبود آن را بیان می کند ترجمه می کند: هیچ. و اگر از او بپرسند که چرا ناراحت است، بین حیرت و حیرت او فقط لکنت می گوید: *«نمی دانم، من برای هیچ چیز ناراحتم»* ماریو فریرا دوس سانتوس در Tractate of Symbolic pg. 120 (2007)[২১/৬ 20:44] গুইলহার্মে মন্টেইরো: @স্পিনাসে – আমি বাহাই কি @লিসলেই এবং আমি ব্যায়াম 6-এ মণিতত্ত্বের দর্শন এবং রত্নবিদ্যার সমাজবিজ্ঞান সম্পর্কে লিখতে পারি? উভয়ই ধারণা যা আমি কয়েক সপ্তাহ ধরে ভাবছি এবং তাত্ত্বিক করছি। এবং আমি সত্যিই তাদের কারো সাথে পরিচয় করিয়ে দিতে চেয়েছিলাম। তত্ত্বগতভাবে, মণিতত্ত্বের দর্শন রত্নবিদ্যা, গহনা, রত্নপাথর, খনিজবিদ্যা, স্ফটিকবিদ্যা এবং সংশ্লিষ্ট ক্ষেত্রগুলির দার্শনিক দিক এবং জ্ঞানের অংশ এবং তাদের সমালোচনামূলক অংশের মধ্যে তাদের সম্পর্কগুলি অধ্যয়ন করতে চায়। অন্যদিকে মণিবিদ্যার সমাজবিজ্ঞান, রত্নবিদ্যা এবং সমাজের মধ্যে সম্পর্ক নিয়ে কাজ করে। এবং সম্পর্ক যে রত্নবিদ্যা, রত্নপাথর, গহনা, খনিজবিদ্যা, ক্রিস্টালোগ্রাফি এবং সমাজের সংশ্লিষ্ট ক্ষেত্র. সামাজিক, সাংস্কৃতিক, মিডিয়া, জনপ্রিয়-সাংস্কৃতিক, মনস্তাত্ত্বিক এবং প্রবণতা উভয় অংশেই। এবং বিষয় আগ্রহী যে কেউ. এই বিষয়গুলি সম্পর্কে লিখতে বা এমনকি কাজ তৈরি করতে নির্দ্বিধায়৷ এটি একটি খুব আকর্ষণীয় বিষয় এবং আরও উন্নয়নের যোগ্য। জেমোলজিকাল ইংলিশ থিম, জেমোলজিকাল স্প্যানিশ, জেমোলজিক্যাল ফ্রেঞ্চ ইত্যাদির মতোই। পাশাপাশি যে অনুপ্রাণিত করতে পারে অন্যান্য এলাকায়. [21/6 21:39] স্পিনাস – আমি বাহাই: দুর্দান্ত প্রতিফলন, উইলিয়াম। আমি মনে করি যে মণি, একটি অলঙ্করণে গঠিত ধাতুটির প্রতীকী শক্তি রয়েছে। এই শক্তি আমাদের মন এবং হৃদয় থেকে উদ্ভূত হয় যা আমরা প্রকাশ করতে পারি না..আমরা কেবল অনুভব করি। এই শক্তি যা দর্শন, সমাজবিজ্ঞান এবং অন্যান্য বিজ্ঞানের জ্ঞানকে অনুপ্রাণিত করে এবং রত্নতাত্ত্বিক এবং ধাতব পদার্থ থেকে আসে যা দেহ এবং স্থানগুলিকে সজ্জিত করে এবং শোভিত করে ক্রমশ মানুষের বেসমেন্টে যাচ্ছে। গুইলহার্ম, দেখুন মারিও ফেরেইরা ডস স্যান্টোস আমাদের প্রতীকী দিক সম্পর্কে এবং পরপর, গয়না সম্পর্কে কী বলেছেন! “প্রধানত মেট্রোপলিটান আধুনিক মানুষ, যিনি সত্যের প্রতীকী সম্পর্ক হারিয়েছেন, জিনিসগুলির তাত্পর্য ভালভাবে দেখেন না। এগুলি আপনার সংবেদনশীল জগতের ঘটনা মাত্র, বা, সর্বাধিক, গাণিতিক চিহ্ন এবং চিহ্নগুলির মাধ্যমে বুদ্ধিবৃত্তিক। এই সত্যটি আধুনিক মানুষের শ্রেষ্ঠত্ব প্রকাশ করে না, কারণ সেই সুনির্দিষ্ট মুহুর্তে যখন সে প্রতীকী পথটি ভুলে যায়, বা যখন সে এটিকে সম্পূর্ণরূপে হারিয়ে ফেলে, * সে নিজেকে একা খুঁজে পায়, জিনিসগুলির মধ্যে একটি জিনিস, এবং যে যন্ত্রণা তাকে অভিভূত করে তা আরও বেশি। একটি শূন্যতার অনুভূতি*, একটি অভাব, যা মানুষ, এটি না জানার জন্য, ধারণা দ্বারা অনুবাদ করে যা তার অনুপস্থিতিকে প্রকাশ করে: কিছুই না। এবং যদি তারা তাকে জিজ্ঞাসা করে যে কেন সে ক্ষুব্ধ, বিস্মিত এবং বিস্মিত হওয়ার মধ্যে সে কেবল স্তব্ধ হয়ে যাবে: *”আমি জানি না, আমি কিছুর জন্য ব্যথিত”* মারিও ফেরেরিরা ডস সান্তোস ট্র্যাক্টেট অফ সিম্বলিক পিজিতে। 120 (2007)[21/6 20:44] Guilherme Monteiro: @Spinassé – ฉันเป็นคนบาไฮสามารถ @Lislei และฉันเขียนเกี่ยวกับปรัชญาของอัญมณีและสังคมวิทยาของอัญมณีในแบบฝึกหัดที่ 6 ได้หรือไม่? ทั้งสองเป็นแนวคิดที่ฉันคิดและตั้งทฤษฎีมาสองสามสัปดาห์แล้ว และฉันอยากจะแนะนำพวกเขาให้ใครซักคนรู้จักจริงๆ ในทางทฤษฎี ปรัชญาของอัญมณีศาสตร์พยายามที่จะศึกษาด้านปรัชญาของอัญมณีศาสตร์ เครื่องประดับ อัญมณี แร่วิทยา ผลึกศาสตร์ และสาขาที่เกี่ยวข้อง และความสัมพันธ์ระหว่างส่วนความรู้กับส่วนที่สำคัญของอัญมณีเหล่านี้ สังคมวิทยาอัญมณีศาสตร์เกี่ยวข้องกับความสัมพันธ์ระหว่างอัญมณีศาสตร์กับสังคม และความสัมพันธ์ที่เกี่ยวกับอัญมณี อัญมณี เครื่องประดับ แร่วิทยา ผลึกศาสตร์ และพื้นที่ที่เกี่ยวข้องในสังคม ทั้งในด้านสังคม วัฒนธรรม สื่อ วัฒนธรรมนิยม จิตวิทยา และกระแสนิยม และท่านใดสนใจในหัวข้อ รู้สึกอิสระที่จะเขียนหรือสร้างผลงานในหัวข้อเหล่านี้ เป็นหัวข้อที่น่าสนใจมากและเป็นหัวข้อที่สมควรพัฒนาต่อไป เช่นเดียวกับ Gemological English Theme, Gemological Spanish, Gemological French เป็นต้น รวมทั้งสามารถสร้างแรงบันดาลใจในด้านอื่นๆ ได้เช่นกัน [21/6 21:39] Spinasse – ฉันคือบาไฮ: ภาพสะท้อนที่ยอดเยี่ยม วิลเลียม ฉันคิดว่าอัญมณีซึ่งเป็นโลหะที่ประกอบเป็นเครื่องประดับมีพลังเชิงสัญลักษณ์ พลังนี้ปลุกเร้าจากความคิดและจิตใจของเราในสิ่งที่เราไม่สามารถแสดงออกได้..เราเพียงรู้สึก. พลังงานที่สร้างแรงบันดาลใจให้กับความรู้ด้านปรัชญา สังคมวิทยา และวิทยาศาสตร์อื่นๆ และมาจากวัสดุอัญมณีและโลหะที่ประดับและประดับร่างกายและช่องว่าง กำลังเพิ่มขึ้นไปยังห้องใต้ดินของมนุษย์ Guilherme ดูว่า Mário Ferreira dos Santos พูดถึงด้านสัญลักษณ์ของเราอย่างไรและเกี่ยวกับเครื่องประดับอย่างต่อเนื่อง! “คนทันสมัยในมหานครที่ครอบงำซึ่งสูญเสียการเชื่อมโยงเชิงสัญลักษณ์ของข้อเท็จจริง ไม่เห็นความสำคัญของสิ่งต่าง ๆ เป็นอย่างดี สิ่งเหล่านี้เป็นเพียงข้อเท็จจริงของโลกที่มีเหตุผลของคุณ หรืออย่างมากที่สุด ให้ปัญญาผ่านเครื่องหมายและสัญลักษณ์ทางคณิตศาสตร์ ความจริงข้อนี้ไม่ได้เปิดเผยความเหนือกว่าของคนสมัยใหม่ เพราะในขณะนั้นเองที่ลืมทางสัญลักษณ์หรือหลงทางไปจนหมดสิ้น * เขาพบว่าตัวเองอยู่ตามลำพัง มีเรื่องหนึ่ง และความปวดร้าวที่ครอบงำเขามากกว่านั้นคือ ความรู้สึกของความว่างเปล่า* ของการขาด ซึ่งมนุษย์ ไม่รู้ แปลโดยแนวคิดที่แสดงออกถึงการไม่มี: ไม่มีอะไร และหากพวกเขาถามเขาว่าทำไมเขาถึงปวดร้าว ระหว่างประหลาดใจและประหลาดใจ เขาจะพูดตะกุกตะกัก: *“ฉันไม่รู้ ฉันปวดร้าวเพราะเปล่าประโยชน์”* Mario Ferreira dos Santos ใน Tractate of Symbolic pg. 120 (2007)[21/6 20:44] Guilherme Monteiro: @Spinassé – Eu sunt Bahá’í poate @Lislei și scriu despre filosofia gemologiei și sociologia gemologiei în exercițiul 6? Ambele sunt concepte la care mă gândesc și teoretizez de câteva săptămâni. Și chiar îmi doream să le prezint cuiva. În teorie, filosofia gemologiei urmărește să studieze latura filosofică a gemologiei, bijuteriilor, pietrelor prețioase, mineralogiei, cristalografiei și domeniilor conexe și relațiile lor între partea cunoașterii și partea critică a acestora. Sociologia gemologiei, pe de altă parte, se ocupă de relațiile dintre gemologie și societate. Și relațiile care gemologie, pietre prețioase, bijuterii, mineralogie, cristalografie și domenii conexe ale societății. Atât în ​​partea socială, culturală, media, popular-culturală, psihologică și tendință. Și oricine este interesat de subiect. Simțiți-vă liber să scrieți sau chiar să creați lucrări pe aceste subiecte. Este un subiect foarte interesant și care merită dezvoltat în continuare. La fel ca tema engleză gemologică, spaniolă gemologică, franceză gemologică etc. De asemenea, asta poate inspira și alte domenii. [21/6 21:39] Spinasse – Eu sunt Bahá’í: Mare reflecție, William. Cred că bijuteria, metalul format într-o podoabă, are forță simbolică. Această putere evocă din mințile și inimile noastre ceea ce nu putem exprima… doar simțim. Această energie care inspiră cunoștințele de filosofie, sociologie și alte științe și provine din materialele gemologice și metalice care împodobesc și împodobesc corpurile și spațiile se duce din ce în ce mai mult în subsolul uman. Guilherme, vezi ce spune Mário Ferreira dos Santos despre latura noastră simbolică și, consecutiv, despre bijuterii! „Omul modern predominant metropolitan, care a pierdut legătura simbolică a faptelor, nu vede bine semnificația lucrurilor. Sunt doar fapte ale lumii tale sensibile sau, cel mult, intelectualizate prin semne și simboluri matematice. Acest fapt nu dezvăluie superioritatea omului modern, deoarece în acel moment precis în care uită calea simbolică, sau când o pierde cu totul, *se găsește singur, un lucru printre lucruri, iar angoasa care îl copleșește este mai mult sentimentul unui gol*, al unei lipsuri, pe care omul, pentru că nu îl cunoaște, îl traduce prin conceptul care exprimă absența lui: nimic. Iar dacă îl întreabă de ce este chinuit, între uimit și uimit nu va face decât să bâlbâie: *„Nu știu, degeaba sunt chinuit”* Mario Ferreira dos Santos în Tractate of Symbolic pg. 120 (2007)[21/6 20:44] Guilherme Monteiro: @Spinassé – já jsem Bahá’í může @Lislei a já psát o filozofii gemologie a sociologii gemologie ve cvičení 6? Obojí jsou pojmy, o kterých přemýšlím a teoretizuji už pár týdnů. A opravdu jsem je chtěl někomu představit. Teoreticky se filozofie gemologie snaží studovat filozofickou stránku gemologie, šperků, drahých kamenů, mineralogie, krystalografie a příbuzných oblastí a jejich vztahů mezi znalostní částí a jejich kritickou částí. Sociologie gemologie se naopak zabývá vztahy mezi gemologií a společností. A vztahy, které gemologie, drahé kameny, šperky, mineralogie, krystalografie a související oblasti společnosti. A to jak v sociální, kulturní, mediální, populárně-kulturní, psychologické i trendové části. A každého, koho toto téma zajímá. Neváhejte o těchto tématech psát nebo dokonce vytvářet díla. Je to velmi zajímavé téma, které si zaslouží další rozvoj. Stejné jako gemologické anglické téma, gemologická španělština, gemologická francouzština atd. Stejně tak to může inspirovat i další oblasti. [21/6 21:39] Spinasse – Já jsem Bahá’í: Skvělá úvaha, Williame. Myslím, že drahokam, kov zformovaný do ozdoby, má symbolickou sílu. Tato síla evokuje z našich myslí a srdcí to, co nedokážeme vyjádřit..pouze cítíme. Tato energie, která inspiruje poznatky filozofie, sociologie a dalších věd a pochází z gemologických a kovových materiálů, které zdobí a zdobí těla a prostory, stále více míří do lidských sklepů. Guilherme, podívej se, co říká Mário Ferreira dos Santos o naší symbolické stránce a následně i o špercích! „Převážně velkoměstský moderní člověk, který ztratil symbolickou souvislost faktů, nevidí dobře význam věcí. Jsou to jen fakta vašeho rozumného světa, nebo nanejvýš intelektualizovaná prostřednictvím matematických znaků a symbolů. Tato skutečnost neprozrazuje nadřazenost moderního člověka, protože právě v tu chvíli, kdy zapomene na symbolickou cestu nebo ji úplně ztratí, *ocitne se sám, věc mezi věcmi, a úzkost, která ho zaplavuje, je spíše pocit prázdnoty*, nedostatku, který člověk, protože to nezná, překládá pojmem, který vyjadřuje jeho absenci: nic. A když se ho zeptají, proč se trápí, mezi údivem a údivem jen zakoktá: *„Nevím, trápím se pro nic“* Mario Ferreira dos Santos v Tractate of Symbolic pg. 120 (2007)[21/6 20:44] Guilherme Monteiro: @Spinassé – Bahá’í vagyok @Lislei, és a gemológia filozófiájáról és a gemológia szociológiájáról írok a 6. gyakorlatban? Mindkettő olyan koncepció, amelyen már néhány hete gondolkodom és elméletileg gondolkodom. És nagyon szerettem volna bemutatni őket valakinek. Elméletileg a gemológia filozófiája a gemológia, az ékszerek, a drágakövek, az ásványtan, a krisztallográfia és a kapcsolódó területek filozófiai oldalát, valamint ezek tudásrésze és kritikus része közötti kapcsolatait kívánja tanulmányozni. A gemológia szociológiája ezzel szemben a gemológia és a társadalom kapcsolataival foglalkozik. És a gemológia, drágakövek, ékszerek, ásványtan, krisztallográfia és a társadalom kapcsolódó területei közötti kapcsolatok. Társadalmi, kulturális, média, populáris-kulturális, pszichológiai és trendi részben egyaránt. És akit érdekel a téma. Nyugodtan írhat ezekről a témákról, vagy akár alkothat műveket. Ez egy nagyon érdekes téma, amely további fejlesztést érdemel. Ugyanaz, mint a Gemological English Theme, a Gemological Spanyol, a Gemological French stb. És ez más területeken is inspirálhat. [21/6 21:39] Spinasse – Bahá’í vagyok: Remek elmélkedés, William. Szerintem a drágakőnek, a díszlé formált fémnek szimbolikus ereje van. Ez az erő előhívja elménkből és szívünkből azt, amit nem tudunk kifejezni..csak érezzük. Ez az energia, amely a filozófia, a szociológia és más tudományok ismereteit inspirálja, és a testeket és tereket díszítő és díszítő gemológiai és fémes anyagokból származik, egyre inkább az emberi pincébe kerül. Guilherme, nézze meg, mit mond Mário Ferreira dos Santos a szimbolikus oldalunkról, és így az ékszerekről! „A túlnyomórészt nagyvárosi modern ember, aki elvesztette a tények szimbolikus kapcsolatát, nem látja jól a dolgok jelentőségét. Ezek csak tények a te értelmes világodról, vagy legfeljebb matematikai jelekkel és szimbólumokkal intellektualizálva. Ez a tény nem fedi fel a modern ember felsőbbrendűségét, mert éppen abban a pillanatban, amikor elfelejti a szimbolikus utat, vagy amikor teljesen elveszíti, *egyedül találja magát, egy dolog a dolgok között, és az őt elhatalmasodó gyötrelem inkább a az üresség*, a hiány érzése, amit az ember, mivel nem ismeri, a hiányát kifejező fogalommal fordít: semmi. És ha megkérdezik tőle, hogy miért gyötrődik, a csodálkozás és a döbbenet között csak dadogni fog: *”Nem tudom, semmiért gyötrődöm”* Mario Ferreira dos Santos in Tractate of Symbolic p. 120 (2007)[21/6 20:44] Гийерме Монтейро: @Spinassé – аз съм бахай може ли @Lislei и аз да пиша за философията на гемологията и социологията на гемологията в упражнение 6? И двете са концепции, за които мисля и теоретизирам от няколко седмици. И много исках да ги запозная с някого. На теория философията на гемологията се стреми да изучава философската страна на гемологията, бижутата, скъпоценните камъни, минералогията, кристалографията и свързаните с тях области и техните връзки между частта на знанието и критичната част от тях. Социологията на гемологията, от друга страна, се занимава с връзките между гемологията и обществото. И връзките, които гемологията, скъпоценните камъни, бижутата, минералогията, кристалографията и свързаните области на обществото. И в социалната, културната, медийната, популярно-културната, психологическата и трендовата част. И всеки, който се интересува от темата. Чувствайте се свободни да пишете или дори да създавате произведения по тези теми. Това е много интересна тема и заслужава по-нататъшно развитие. Същото като Gemological English Theme, Gemological Spanish, Gemological French и др. Освен това това може да вдъхнови и други области. [21/6 21:39] Spinasse – Аз съм бахай: Страхотно отражение, Уилям. Мисля, че скъпоценният камък, металът, оформен в украса, има символична сила. Тази сила извиква от умовете и сърцата ни това, което не можем да изразим… ние само чувстваме. Тази енергия, която вдъхновява знанието по философия, социология и други науки и идва от гемологичните и метални материали, които украсяват и украсяват тела и пространства, все повече отива в мазето на човека. Гийерме, виж какво казва Марио Ферейра дос Сантуш за нашата символична страна и последователно за бижутата! „Доминиращо столичният съвременен човек, който е загубил символичната връзка на фактите, не вижда добре значението на нещата. Те са просто факти от вашия разумен свят или, най-много, интелектуализирани чрез математически знаци и символи. Този факт не разкрива превъзходството на съвременния човек, защото точно в този момент, когато забрави символичния път или когато го загуби напълно, *той се озовава сам, нещо сред нещата и мъката, която го обзема, е по-скоро усещане за празнота*, за липса, което човекът, защото не го знае, превежда с понятието, което изразява липсата му: нищо. И ако го попитат защо се мъчи, между изумен и изумен, той само ще заекне: *“Не знам, за нищо ме мъчи”* Марио Ферейра дос Сантос в Трактат на символите, стр. 120 (2007) 3. Guilherme Monteiro Jr. says: Tuesday, June 21, 2022 OUTSIDE THE HOUSE * Ana Lúcia Vacchiano.SP OUTSIDE THE HOUSE Jair Bolsonaro, the tyrant of the Central Plateau, in addition to being genocidal, prejudiced, xenophobic, cognitively dysfunctional and cruel, is also shown to be the destroyer of national heritage. In a campaign for reelection, any movement that he deems threatening, does not spare the shots. First he attacked Congress, then the STF, not satisfied, the STE, the pandemic, even the war in Ukraine, by the way. Now the ball of the time is Petrobras! HATE CABINET A close friend of Queiroz and the Silveiras of life, a devotee of chloroquine, the patriarch of the cracks, in recent days he decided to attack the oil company, since the change of presidents did not have the expected effect, and now proposes a CPI, stating that the company will lose more than 30 billion. In fact, this scene game has the objective of privatizing the company, as if that were possible. Well, if you keep this up, you won’t sell it, but deliver it at a bargain price. Bolsonaro appointed the president of the oil company and appointed six of the eleven advisers, but said that ‘Petrobras is Brazil’s biggest enemy’. Crazy beauty, no? Now, he has decided to blame the funds of American pensioners, who are shareholders of the company. And more: he wants a Parliamentary Commission of Inquiry to ‘investigate’ the new enemy. Can anyone warn you that it is a publicly traded company, with mixed capital, and already audited by giant independent companies, and not some obscure ministry of yours? The CPI that Bolsonaro proposes, and which will only disrupt and cause more damage to the company, is the same one he doesn’t want to happen regarding his corporate cards, secret funds, PIX amendments and cracks and mansions of his little ones. Bolsonaro, long out of the house, with the real fear of taking a beating in the electoral dispute, will try everything to blame others for his failure as a ruler. No, president, it’s not anyone else’s fault, it’s your fault for becoming who you are, and you will have as a legacy the title of the worst president in Brazil. Text: Ana Lúcia Vacchiano.SP Posted by FRT OFFICIAL at 00:00 No comments: Send by email Post on the blog! share on twitter share on facebook Share with Pinterest Tags : Ana Lúcia Vacchiano , Brazil , outside bolsonaro , OUT OF THE CASINHA , politics Monday, June 20, 2022 *IN OUR SISTER COLOMBIA, PEACE – UNITY TRIUMPHED, BY SUPPORTING POPULAR PARTICIPATION * Siguaraya-CBSTCCP / Venezuela *IN OUR SISTER COLOMBIA, PEACE – UNITY TRIUMPHED, BY SUPPORTING POPULAR PARTICIPATION* FRANCIA MARQUEZ The Cantevista family, in commemoration of the 92nd anniversary of its foundation, celebrates that at the same time, Bolívar’s dream begins to permeate the American UNIT, all with a beam of hope in the electoral result of Gustavo Petro as president and Francia Márquez as vice president. president of sister Colombia 🇨🇴 There are more than 200 years of pro-Yankee – San Tanderian governments, hegemonic interests foreign to peace, prone to war, drug trafficking, paramilitarism, prostitution, continuous and permanent violation of human rights, exclusion… This moment is historic, because the paths of optimism are being sown, the confidence to overcome the horrors of war. Colombia is in tune with the sister peoples of the continent, giving itself the opportunity to build a different model of government. The false positives were defeated, the disqualification (Rendón), the lie, this defeat will deepen the opposition and will only be overcome with permanent mobilization. In another order of ideas, this Monday, the 20th, at the Cantv (NEA) Caracas facilities, more than three hundred workers from all over the country will meet, not only to celebrate the 92nd anniversary of Cantv’s founding, but also to ratify the awakening of the working class as a fundamental pillar for the maintenance of our source of work and production for the Bolivarian Homeland… This massive participation is a sign that the management that is seen and felt must continue to dialogue with the foundations, so that they are increasingly solid and the new management promotes respect for their forms of organization, which cannot be interfered with. . The mobilization of tomorrow, Monday, of the entire national territory, is a re-encounter of organizational evaluation, since in 92 years we have gone through more than 26 Collective Agreements, they meant strikes, jails, dismissals, some levels of unethical inspection and we highlight that since privatization – nationalization – privatization – nationalization, we have not yet reached the structures of power and carried out a new type of governance. Today, as a Class, we are participating in this activity with the prevention delegates, the CPTT, the workers’ militia, the trade union world. Our leadership role in the company is no small thing. Our union institutions are not alien to us, the history of Cantv because we were born in it, we are the product of collective construction, where the hands and intellect of workers, retirees, pensioners and survivors continue to lay the foundations for the development, support and permanence of our entity. We recognize that this meeting serves to re-moralize our forces, restore confidence and was built by this new management, by the contribution of the combative union world, which, recognizing its failures, we have advanced quickly to take the leadership out of poverty. In the same way, we are advancing and promoting the massive participation of men and women in the natural and organic rescue of the union world. The current crisis in the system and the Covid pandemic have affected the entire labor entity, along with the grassroots organizations that nourish it, and together we are moving towards global recomposition. Thus, we congratulate everyone who attends this activity, while confirming that we remain committed to promoting, deepening organizational, training and ideological spaces, where the working class will continue to struggle to lead, govern and build different scenarios of protagonist participation. This is the year of the working class and we are moving forward without hesitation in building the unitary bases. *Ate Siguaraya* *President of FETRATEL* *Director of CBSTCCP* MORE COLOMBIA Communist Party of Brazilian Workers: CHALLENGES AFTER GUSTAVO PETRO’S VICTORY * Fernando Rivero / VEN *** Posted by FRT OFFICIAL at 09:45 No comments: Send by email Post on the blog! share on twitter share on facebook Share with Pinterest Tags: francia marquez , gustavo petro , IN OUR SISTER COLOMBIA , PEACE – UNITY TRIUMPHOU , FOR SUPPORTING POPULAR PARTICIPATION , Siguaraya Sunday, June 19, 2022 BOLSONARO DRINKS THE VERVA FROM THE HOUSE * Rosely Rocha / CUT BOLSONARO DRINKS THE VERVA FROM THE HOUSE Insensitive to the pain of the other, without the slightest empathy, President Jair Bolsonaro (PL) flew over areas of the Recife Metropolitan Region hit by heavy rains, which caused landslides leaving 106 dead, 11 missing and 6,600 homeless, and said things like “tragedies happen”. To make matters worse, he said that the “population should collaborate by avoiding living in risky areas”. What Bolsonaro didn’t say is that, in May of last year, his government practically wiped out the Union’s budget for the construction of affordable housing. The cut in funds was R$ 2.039 billion (98%) from the project approved by the National Congress, which provided for R$2.151 billion for the program. Without houses in safe places to live because the government blocked public policy, poor people from Pernambuco experienced the tragedy of seeing their houses being taken away or buried by landslides on hills, slopes and barriers that also took or buried entire families. Most victims belong to tier 1, the most affected by the cuts in funds of the “Minha Casa Verde Amarela” program (formerly Minha Casa, Minha Vida, created by the Lula government, of the PT) and could be alive if Bolsonaro’s priority was the people. Several survivors stated in interviews that they live in risk areas due to an absolute lack of options. Band 1 includes poor families earning between one (R$1,212) and two minimum wages (R2,224). About 80% of Brazil’s housing deficit is concentrated in this segment. Economist Clovis Scherer, who advises CUT on the Board of Trustees of the Severance Indemnity Fund (CCFGTS) explains that when “Minha Casa, Minha Vida” was created, band 1 received funds from the Union Budget, without counterparts, It was a government contribution. Families with higher incomes for the purchase of houses in the above ranges have to finance part of the financing via FGTS. According to the economist, when Bolsonaro eliminates the Union’s contribution to the construction of low-income housing, he simply stops building and the population that earns between 1 and two minimum wages is unable to take out loans because the money from the FGTS it belongs to the worker and he needs to be remunerated, which is why the Fund cannot be used for the construction of tier 1 houses, as the borrower has to pay back the loan. “Families that earn a minimum wage are barely able to buy basic food, pay water, electricity and rent bills. These are people who do not have the slightest ability to take out a loan on which they will have to pay interest”, says the economist. Whoever builds shacks without less infrastructure, without drainage, without urbanization are those who had fully subsidized housing financing, but Bolsonaro cut it to maintain the Public Expenditure Ceiling – Clovis Scherer The Public Expenditure Ceiling, instituted in 2016, after the coup against former president Dilma Rousseff (PT), prohibits the government from investing resources above inflation for 20 years. The term ends in 2036. Budget cuts cause unemployment in construction The cut of funds in the program came to paralyze the construction of 250,000 affordable housing in 2021, also affecting workers in civil construction and furniture, who suddenly became unemployed. Casa Verde e Amarela accounted for 50% of the jobs generated in civil and wood construction at the end of the second half of 2020 and has already decreased to something around 35% to 30% in April last year. “Before, civil construction was responsible for 4 million jobs. The stoppage of Casa Verde Amarela generated unemployment of around 1.5 million construction workers. Today, what keeps jobs in the sector is financing from private banks, but even so, the economic crisis made purchasing power decrease and the level of employment in the sector was affected”, says the president of the National Confederation of Workers Unions. in the Construction and Wood Industries affiliated to CUT (Conticom-CUT), Cláudio da Silva Gomes, or Claudinho. The leader recalls that the then Minha Casa, Minha Vida had its peak in the number of jobs in the Dilma government in 2012, with 1.2 million people working that year in Lula’s housing program. According to Claudinho, the demand for home construction has also dropped, in addition to the economic crisis and low wages, because of the increases in the prices of materials used in the sector, including furniture, since after the end of the work, it is necessary to put sinks, tanks, floors, among other equipment. Bolsonaro is a disaster for the economy in general. All economic indicators demonstrate this and within our activity it is a catastrophic government- Claudio da Silva Gomes *** Posted by FRT OFFICIAL at 00:00 18 comments: Send by email Post on the blog! share on twitter share on facebook Share with Pinterest Tags : BOLSONARO BEBE A VERVA DA HOUSING , bolsonaro genocidal , cut , homeless , neglect , housing , homeless , Rosely Rocha , homeless Saturday, June 18, 2022 THE TRAGEDY OF DOM AND BRUNO * Eliane Brum NEXO THE TRAGEDY OF DOM AND BRUNO With the tragedy of Dom Phillips and Bruno Pereira, a limit was crossed in the Amazon – for us, who are alive, it is only up to the fight On Monday (6), early in the morning, I was startled by a message on WhatsApp. I was asked if Tom Phillips, correspondent for The Guardian in Brazil, was missing in Vale do Javari, one of the most dangerous regions of the Amazon. My husband, Jonathan Watts, is global environmental editor for the British newspaper and lives in the Amazon with me. Tom, however, was at his home, in Rio de Janeiro, and promptly answered his cell phone. If it wasn’t Tom, then who would be missing? Bishop Phillips, we concluded in the next second. The difference of just one letter in the name of two journalists who write for The Guardian in Brazil tends to cause confusion. Dom is one of Jon’s best friends, he’s a lovely guy, an excellent journalist, an experienced and responsible reporter. We knew Dom was working on a book about the forest. So I asked an indigenous leader from Vale do Javari to send me a photo of the missing person, so that we could be sure. When the image opened on the cell phone, the certainty was a hand crushing the stomach. Yes, it was Dom. Our beloved Dom, with his solar face, of whom nothing is afraid to show the world, dressed in the green of the forest around him. The pain then became more stinging. It was necessary to tell his wife, our friend Alessandra, and the family in England, that Dom had been missing for 24 hours. It was also necessary to inform the Guardian, the newspaper with which Dom collaborates most frequently. Bruno Pereira, one of the most important indigenists of his generation, was traveling with Dom, who was dismissed from his position at the National Foundation for the Indian in 2019, when Sergio Moro was Minister of Justice, after leading an operation to repress illegal mining. A career servant at Funai, Bruno had to ask the agency’s permission to continue protecting indigenous people: under Bolsonaro’s government, Funai became an agency against indigenous people. We needed to move very quickly because we knew that the Bolsonaro government would do nothing unless there was a lot of pressure. Our fear would soon prove to be legitimate: the government’s deliberate delay in mobilizing human and material resources became evident from day one, culminating in the note: “The Military Command of the Amazon is in a position to carry out a humanitarian search and rescue mission , as it has done throughout its history. However, the actions will be initiated upon activation by the Upper Echelon”. As you know, the “activation” took too long to arrive. As journalists who cover and live in the Amazon, we know that time is crucial in the rainforest. Every second counts. And every second counted. This Monday (13), I woke up from a thin sleep with the news that the bodies had been found tied to a tree. Since the discovery of the backpack, clothes, boots, material remains of a life, of interrupted gestures, of desires, a cold settled inside me, from the inside out, and I spent the night shivering. There is no blanket for this cold. For this cold there will never be a blanket. Some time later, the news was denied. The objects belonged to them, but there would still be no bodies. At the time of writing, we do not know whether or not the bodies were found. It is yet another obscenity in the current context of Brazil. My biggest fear since last week was that the bodies would not be found, because I follow the heart-rending pain of family members of politically disappeared from the military-business dictatorship that Jair Bolsonaro extols so much. Not having a body to cry on is the torture that never ends, it is the grief that cannot be completed and, therefore, will never be overcome. Still, I discovered this Monday morning, there was something inside of me waiting for a miracle, because I broke. It took me a few hours to gather my anger and get myself to my feet to write this text. And then I broke again from the horror of not knowing what the true information is. Dom and Bruno are possibly dead. They are the latest victims of the war led by Bolsonaro against the forest, its people and all those who fight in defense of the Amazon. This is the point. The disappearance of Dom and Bruno is just the latest violence in the Amazon trapped in this country we call Brazil, ruled by a champion of dictatorship, execution and torture named Jair Bolsonaro. We are in war. And to say that is not rhetorical. It is desperate to keep shouting that we are at war and not be understood. Because understanding is not agreeing, retweeting or giving likes, it’s something harder: it’s acting like people who live a war. If people in Brazil and around the world don’t understand this this time, the lives of those on the forest floor, with bodies on the front lines, will be worth even less than they are now. And when forest people leaders, environmentalists, advocates and frontline journalists are dead, so is the forest. Without the forest, the future will be hostile for the children who have already been born. Children, nephews, grandchildren, brothers of those who are reading this text. Your people. You. It is undeniable that the national and international commotion over the disappearance is greater because Bishop Phillips is white and a British citizen. This is an easily verifiable fact if we compare it with the murders that opened this year’s execution season in the Amazon, in São Félix do Xingu, the municipality with the largest cattle herd in Brazil. Anonymous and friendless influential forest protectors, José Gomes, Zé do Lago, his wife, Márcia Nunes Lisboa, and their 17-year-old daughter Joane Nunes Lisboa, were little mourned and the crime goes unpunished to this day. Likewise, in 2019, Maxciel Pereira dos Santos, a Funai collaborator for over a decade, was shot twice in the back of the head without the world moving. Like most crimes against the invisible, his also goes unpunished. What I mean is that this immense, strong and powerful movement that was made by Dom and Bruno, of which I was a part from literally the first minute, now needs to be activated by everyone. All. All. all Or we will succumb. The ones on the forest floor, in blood. Those who live in the big cities of Brazil and the world, with climate impact, whose covid-19 pandemic was just one of the first moments of catastrophe. Five years ago I chose to live in Altamira, one of the most violent regions in the world, because I chose to be on the front lines of the climate war. I defend, like other people, that the real centers of the world are the enclaves of nature, the natural supports of life, such as tropical forests and oceans, other biomes, such as the Cerrado and the Pantanal. In these centers, the weeks begin and end with houses set on fire, gunshots fired by gunmen, calls for help from forest defenders and entire communities, death threats. Early last week, with the news of Dom’s disappearance, was no exception. Only the victim was closer, only Dom belonged to the same social stratum as public people capable of making their voices reach far and had the passport of an English citizen, something that is still an advantage in a world where walls only multiply. State violence, associated with the private sector, in the perverse collusion that structured Brazil, has been overwhelming, especially since the business-military dictatorship (1964-1985). There were some periods of lesser violence during redemocratization, especially when Marina Silva was Minister of the Environment in the Lula (PT) government, but the destruction was never stopped. Indigenous lands were never fully demarcated, as the Federal Constitution determined, within five years after enactment in 1988. Funai was never strengthened enough to avoid being dismantled by governments that were enemies of the forest and its people. . Conservation units would need to have been expanded and really protected, with human and technological staff that would allow real care, strengthening bodies like Ibama and ICMBio, at a much higher level than what happened in the best moments of democracy, and they weren’t. Agrarian reform should also have been carried out to provide effective conditions for the development of agroecology by landless peasants and settlers. Without agrarian reform in the forest and other biomes, it is important to make it clear, there will be no climate justice. Violence escalated again in the period that preceded the impeachment of Dilma Rousseff (PT) and has exploded since Michel Temer (MDB) usurped power backed by a corrupt Congress and a complicit press. It has risen to an even more serious level since Bolsonaro became a candidate with a chance of winning. When the right-wing extremist took power, the escalation of destruction accelerated even further. In this all-or-all election year for Bolsonaro and his support base in the Amazon, made up of squatters (public land thieves), loggers and mining chiefs, violence has reached unprecedented levels and the fire season has not even begun. It will get worse. I want to say very emphatically that, at this moment, a limit has been crossed in the Amazon in Brazilian territory. And that puts the war on another level of use of violence, also for journalists. If his death is proven, Dom Phillips will almost certainly be the first journalist murdered in the Amazon rainforest in recent decades. There were press professionals executed in urban contexts in the Amazon, but not in the forest. The violent death of indigenous people, quilombolas, riverine people, peasants, indigenists, environmentalists and activists is frequent. But not journalists. And especially not from white journalists and even less from foreigners from the global north. Killing journalists, as well as killing foreigners from countries with economic and political power, is often a bad deal for criminals, because it attracts more press, more authorities, more international attention, more repression of crime. This was confirmed in recent history when the American missionary Dorothy Stang was pierced by six bullets in 2005, in the municipality of Anapu, in the Middle Xingu region. Since then, the violators of the forest and its peoples have followed a double strategy: on the one hand, to kill leaders in the cities, so that the crime is not framed as a land conflict; on the other hand, they have been betting on disqualifying those who may have a broader resonance, as happened in 2018 with Father Amaro Lopes, one of the people who carried out Stang’s work and who was arrested in a blatant operation, This was a limit respected for pragmatic issues of crime. Its rupture points in at least four directions: 1) the lack of control also in criminal operations, which multiplies the risks; 2) the advance of drug trafficking and organized crime in the forest; 3) the increasing involvement of people from traditional forest communities in illegal activities, often because they have no other alternative, as there is no protection on the part of the State; 4) the certainty of impunity for the perpetrators and masterminds of crimes against the forest and its peoples, guaranteed daily by Bolsonaro and his government. Respectable people claim that the state is absent in the Amazon. I do not share this view. I understand that the State is very present in the Amazon today. Bolsonaro has appropriated the state and corrupted it to unprecedented levels. This explains the note from the Military Command of the Amazon previously mentioned, stating that he had all the training and conditions to search for missing people, but he had not been ordered to do so. He also explains that those who really undertook the search and never stopped looking, with all the resources they had, were the indigenous people, under the coordination of Univaja (Union of Indigenous Peoples of the Javari Valley). In the first days of the search, in addition to them, literally only half a dozen military police officers. It also explains that no helicopter was assigned for the search in the first moments. It’s not incompetence or carelessness. It’s method. On the eve of the elections, Bolsonaro showed that the Brazilian state is dominated by him and his criminal bases and that he would do nothing for defenders of the forest, even calling the work expedition to denounce crimes committed in the forest, undertaken by Dom Phillips and Bruno Pereira, “adventure not recommended”. Disqualifying victims, as we know well, is a recurrent method. It works. Our next day will be determined by what will happen in four directions: 1) elucidation of the probable crime and the accountability of the culprits, far beyond the executioners. It is necessary to identify the principals and judge them. It is not enough, nor has it ever been enough, to find the person who carried out the act and who, in general, is the most fragile end of the chain of criminal operations that, frequently, has its command and profits outside Brazil or in Central-South states, such as Sao Paulo; 2) pressure for real forest protection, with immediate sanctions on the Bolsonaro government and increased boycott of deforestation products and economic agreements with Brazil that involve deforestation; 3) increased mobilization against the package of evil projects, currently being processed in Congress, to allow the predatory advance on the forest, such as those involving mining on indigenous land, regularization of illegally owned land and a time frame; 4) direct involvement of every citizen of Brazil and other countries in the creation of broader and more effective protection networks for forest defenders, so that each crime or attempted crime has massive and immediate repercussions. The most difficult thing at this moment is also our only chance to save the Amazon, its defenders and each one of us, the inhabitants of this home planet. The hardest thing is to understand – really understand – that this is a war and that the illusion that there is somewhere safe is just that, an illusion. The most difficult thing is to understand that the illusion that there is still a choice is an intrinsic part of this new type of war. I’ve been trying to explain to people close to me that there is no choice between fighting and not fighting. The choice is just between choosing to live fighting or waiting for the war to kill everything you love and respect. In the cities of the Center-South of Brazil this illusion can still be fed and distracted by consumption and entertainment products. In the heart of the Amazon, in the Cerrado and in other biomes, this illusion is impossible. War is with us every day – and it never lets up. In weeks like this, we, who are still alive, have to choose what to denounce and for whom we mobilize. It’s an indignity. While the world legitimately clamored for Bruno Pereira and Dom Phillips, in Lot 96, a peasant settlement in Anapu (PA), farmers had to hide in the bush at dawn to escape gunfire. Erasmo Theofilo, his wife and five children are dramatically threatened, and, like them, there are other people and families suffering attacks and violence throughout the Amazon at this time, such as indigenous women raped by prospectors in Yanomami territory. Having to choose who we scream for is also a violence, one in which, in addition to being violated, we are corrupted. And yet, so it is. We need to campaign for people threatened with death right now, but we fear that we will not be able to mobilize public opinion. And we fear that after these weeks of horror, those who moved for Dom and Bruno will pull back to regain their strength and our screams will fall on weary ears. This is the reality of war. Bodies keep falling because they are no longer the exception. Either we become brothers, friends, family members of everyone who falls or is threatened with falling, regardless of blood ties, friendship, race or nationality, or we will continue to lose. And losing and losing until it’s us who fall. I often hear that if we defeat Bolsonaro at the polls in October, we can rebuild Brazil. It is evident that there is no chance for any of us if Bolsonaro remains in power. There is no chance even for Bolsonarism followers if their “myth” remains in power. At some point, sooner rather than later, they’ll find out the hard way. The point, however, is that it will not be possible to just “rebuild” Brazil. We are not in the 20th century and what happens in the Amazon and in Brazil is not remotely similar to a post-war period in the mold of Europe after 1945 or even the redemocratization of Brazil after the business-military dictatorship. We are in climate collapse. We are in the sixth mass extinction of species. Both catastrophes provoked by the dominant minority that, in the words of the great Yanomami thinker Davi Kopenawa, ate the planet. We will have to recreate a country that has always been structurally racist and brutally unequal as we face the greatest challenge of the human trajectory on the home planet. It is an immense task in front of at least three generations of adults, of which I am a part, demonstrably selfish and corrupted by the logic of the market. Still, it’s the human stuff we have, which is why teenagers like Greta Thunberg have taken the lead. And it is with this human matter that we need to wage this war that, until now, has proved to be a massacre, given the disproportion of the forces. There is still only something to fight for because the peoples who have maintained themselves as nature have been resisting for centuries. In Brazil, since 1500. The most important war of this moment, the one that will define the very near future, the tomorrow of the children who have already been born, is the one that takes place in the largest tropical forest on the planet and in other enclaves of nature, which we defend are the legitimate centers of world. The war that Vladimir Putin’s Russia inflicts on Ukraine is still a war of the 20th century. The longest and most difficult wars to win, those of the 21st century, are those that are taking place on the natural supports of life at this moment, those that end of victimizing Dom Phillips and Bruno Pereira. Without understanding this key change, it may be impossible to give the urgent answer we need now if we are to stop our self-destruction. The Amazon may be, according to scientists, just a few years away from the point of no return. Without the forest standing, there is no possibility of controlling global warming. The disappearance of Dom Phillips and Bruno Pereira also marks a turning point in the Amazon. A different kind of tipping point, but still very dangerous for the health of the planet. As journalists, we need to respond to violence with journalism, we need to finish the work that Bishop Phillips started. As living beings on this planet, we need to show that for each one of us who falls, thousands will rise. It’s still not enough, though. If we want the children of the present to be able to grow into the future, it is necessary that the global community ceases to be a phantasmagoria and begins to exist in the field of action, by engaging in the most lethal war of our time, the war of nature, the war of the Amazon. . In this war, where specimens die today, an entire species may succumb in the future. Like all war, it doesn’t demand our action once in a while, it demands our commitment every day, it demands to be our first thought when we wake up and our last thought when we go to sleep. Being subjected to war and not recognizing war is the most dangerous type of denialism. I am referring not to the calculated denialism of Bolsonaro and his followers, but to the denialism that dominates the majority as a symptom – and also as a shield, for the unbearability of life in catastrophe. Bruno Pereira knows the essence of this war and has never stopped fighting. Dom Phillips is writing a book with the title: “How to save the Amazon?”. It is us? Even the most primal organisms have a survival instinct. I appeal here to the survival instinct of each one. Everything we are doing is not enough. It’s time to do not just what we know, but what we don’t. Not just out of altruism or compassion for those who fall. But for life. The Amazon war is the war of this time. The Amazon war is the war against the planet eaters. It was up to us, who are still alive, to wage this war. May we have shame on our faces and fight. Eliane Brum is a journalist, writer and documentary filmmaker, author of “Brasil Construtor de Ruínas – a look at the country, from Lula to Bolsonaro” (Arquipélago) and “Banzeiro òkòtó, a trip to the Amazon Center of the World” (Companhia das Letras). The most awarded journalist in the history of Brazil, she lives in Altamira, in the Amazon. *** Posted by FRT OFFICIAL at 00:00 29 comments: Send by email Post on the blog! share on twitter share on facebook Share with Pinterest Tags : THE TRAGEDY OF DOM AND BRUNO , BOLSONARO GENOCIDA. Amazon War , Bruno Pereira. Eliane Brum , Dom Phillips , war Wednesday, June 22, 2022 Decaf left is exposed in a failed dome * Clodovaldo Hernández / Ven Decaf left is exposed in a failed dome Clodovaldo Hernández The IX Summit of the Americas was a failure for its host, Joe Biden, for his determination to reserve the right of admission. But it was a very revealing moment of the continent’s political currents and their peculiarities. It has become clear that the Latin American left is suffering a kind of post-traumatic stress, caused by the setbacks it has suffered over the last decade, including electoral defeats, coups and lawfare operations. The economic war, unilateral coercive measures and the blockade against Venezuela also seem to have had very serious effects on the left in third countries. From these episodes, there should have emerged a left aware that the empire and the local oligarchies go all out, they never give up, they don’t forgive. But no, the absurd idea seems to have arisen that it is possible to advance social changes and develop popular governments by negotiating their terms with Washington and with the right and extreme right of their respective nations. The fruit of this vision is a decaffeinated, timid left that not only allows the right to use its approaches and slogans, but also goes so far as to use the approaches and slogans of the right. Of course, such behavior only leads to confusion, ambiguity, and ambivalence. Firm positions were raised before the Summit, such as Andrés Manuel López Obrador (Mexico), Luis Arce (Bolivia) and Xiomara Castro (Honduras), who were absent in protest at the exclusion of Cuba, Nicaragua and Venezuela. But lukewarmness, weakness, softness prevailed (at least that’s how revolutionary Venezuela is seen). Even in the strongest position, that of Mexico, expressed by its chancellor, Marcelo Ebrard, there was a structural crack: although he accused the Organization of American States and its secretary, Luis Almagro, of having promoted the coup in Bolivia in 2019, he affirmed that the OAS can be refounded so that it fulfills the role it supposedly played at another time. This is a position inconsistent with the knowledge of the 74-year history of that organization, during which it has always (it is worth mentioning: always) been at the service of imperialism, sometimes with more, sometimes with less dissimulation. The regional union dispenses with any reengineering of this old and perverse structure, as it is already perfectly aligned with the Community of Latin American and Caribbean States (CELAC), the Union of South American Nations (Unasur) and other initiatives implemented during the first decade of the century, by leftist rulers who did not begin to believe in the brotherhood of historical adversaries. Another of the soft positions was that of Alberto Fernández, who, however, managed to camouflage a bit his lack of definition due to the fact that he was the spokesperson for CELAC and, as such, had to present strong points of view on the exclusion of three countries from the convening the Summit and on the illegality and immorality of blockades and unilateral coercive measures. The left-right award unfortunately went to the young Chilean president Gabriel Boric, who showed the cynicism characteristic of the empire and its lackeys on the issue of human rights. Using a phrase typical of the worst expressions of the Latin American right, he commented that “in Cuba there are political prisoners for the crime of thinking differently, and that is unacceptable.” And he said so when, in his brief government, he continued the policies of his predecessors, Sebastián Piñera and Michelle Bachelet, of repression of student and popular demonstrations and of a state of exception in the Mapuche territories. Isn’t that unacceptable? How decaffeinated must these leaders of our American left be that a right-wing president (advised by far-right Venezuelans), Nayib Bukele, had the luxury of being absent from the failed summit and, moreover, using Fidel Castro’s phrase about the OAS: “It’s the US colony ministry.” It is a pity that it is Bukele who has paraphrased the great commander. at June 22, 2022 No comments: Send by email Post on the blog! share on twitter share on facebook Share with Pinterest Tags: The decaf left is exposed at a failed summit , latin america , Clodovaldo Hernández , class conciliation , populist left , neoliberalism Tuesday, June 21, 2022 ELN WANTS DIALOGUE WITH PETRO * National Liberation Army /ELN-Colombia ELN WANTS DIALOGUE WITH PETRO The guerrilla group proposes to continue with the Conversation Table in Quito. Caracol Radio In a statement, the National Liberation Army, Eln, expressed its “will” to advance a peace process with the elected government of Gustavo Petro that continues the Conversation Table started in Quito in February 2017. The guerrilla command A central government (COCE) assured that the new government must face the changes for a Colombia in peace that can solve the historic debts: “Among the most urgent are political and economic inclusion, a sovereign economy without depredation and a new Doctrine of Security and Human Rights”, expresses the ELN. In addition, they ensure that the president-elect must take office to make changes that lead to overcoming clientelism and the removal of violence from the the fight against drugs and gives continuity to the peace process, Colombia will have a government supported by the popular movement”. However, the guerrillas say that if they decide to do “more of the same” they will have people on the streets demanding changes more vehemently than in 2019 and 2021. According to the guerrilla, the causes that prevent the overcoming of the armed conflict and political violence “are the National Security Doctrine that defines opponents as an Internal Enemy and the former violent client regime, transformed today into a corrupt and mafia system”. . at June 21, 2022 No comments: Send by email Post on the blog! share on twitter share on facebook Share with Pinterest Tags : Colombia , eln , ELN WANTS DIALOGUE WITH PETRO , National Liberation Army , guerrilla , GUSTAVO PETRO The Militias Assaulted the Republic * Lincoln Penna / MODECON The Militias Assaulted the Republic The militias assaulted the Republic and the most recent tragedy that befell the country, with the murder of the British journalist Dom Philips and the indigenist Bruno Pereira, is more than revealing and frightening of this assault. The term is in the plural because there are several forms of militia organization and this diversity is due, on the one hand, to the ease with which they have to constitute themselves in absentia of the law, and also to the encouragement of groups and political forces that use and are also used. by these extra-legal organizations. What makes them multiple is the fact that they act on several fronts, circumventing the established norms. Its origins are known. They emerged from the contravention tolerated by public authorities in exchange for services and electoral support in certain neighborhoods or regions of large metropolises for which they played the role of private security. Initially these offenders acted in isolation to obtain coverage from these corrupt and corrupting authorities, but over time they began to act collectively and co-opt State security servants. From civil servants in spurious agreements, they realized that they could build their businesses through politics, either by launching candidates or financially supporting their own cadres, or by taking control of public areas with the connivance of public authorities. With this, it forms in a short time erecting the pillars of parallel power, today a reality that only those who don’t want to see it. The clashes that became common among these misdemeanor organizations, almost always resolved by eliminating those who could invade or constrain their businesses, as in the old skirmishes between bankers in the animal game. However, more recently the extent of these acts has become more frequent not only in the cities and capitals of the country, but they have been carried out in territories in which militia organizations have started to act, since covered by those who should repress them, they invest in as many others. illegal business. The expansion of the militias gave rise to the parallel state, which greatly supplanted the parallel power, as it was limited to restricted areas, such as the groups that operate drug trafficking, distributed in poor communities, such as the favelas. In this state there is no doubt that a true partnership of public agents with criminality motivated by financial interests is consolidated. By infiltrating the machinery of the State at all levels, federal, state and municipal, they wound with a slow and progressive death the regime of public affairs, that is, the Republic, whose only defense to assert its existence is conscious action. of its citizens. The examples are there, of honorable, respectable and courageous human beings like Bruno and Dom, as well as countless others who have already fallen or are in the sights of these criminals. The militias of organized crime unfortunately have the support of parts of society that either make use of these harmful expedients to our target community and their rights, or identify with their practices because they show absolute contempt for the common good, generally driven by the greed of wanting to take advantage of everything. This does not just mean a lack of character on the part of those who are part of these militias. This means the absence of citizenship formation, of an education that is aware of belonging to a collectivity. More than that, it means the prevalence of selfish individualism that has become more frequent with the rise of ideology that is refractory to civilizing values ​​and democracy, as a precious asset of a truly just and egalitarian society. Brazil faces a crossroads in its destiny. The choice of course depends on the possibility of taking militias of all types to the courts in order to judge them, condemn them and eliminate them from living with our people, those most directly or indirectly affected by the existence of these groups. Choose the one that is in the choice of your representatives. But above all in the awareness of the need to put an end to such gangs of criminality and nationality targeted and supported by false myths consecrated by stupidity. Finally, the militias are also fueled by the ignorance of many people deprived of a minimum of knowledge of the reality of the times in which we live, and in the mistaken idea that only with the use of violence at all costs is it capable of solving the problems of the our everyday. Of course, instigated and encouraged by governments to encourage this belief that only increases the high degree of human losses, naturalized as a thing of destiny. By acting in regions of the Amazon and Cerrado biomes, two of the most affected by the attacks on their natural reserves, their fauna and flora, these agents of evil mortally wound the republican regime, whose functioning until today lacks sufficient civic strength to that we can in fact achieve the goal of republicanism, which consists of exercising full democracy, with austerity at all levels and real representation of the interests of the people, without which republics are worthless. In fact, the proliferation of this organized crime is not due to troublemakers, who in isolation seek quick and easy profit. It comes from the system in which we live, whose essence of its logic is in the way of life we ​​have, that of capitalism in its wildest, disorderly and feverish phase, in the face of the inevitability of its permanence increasingly condemned by those who identify it as cause of these evils, but also by those who suffer their perverse effects. One day, which we do not hope will take so long, Bruno and Dom will be recognized by all humanity in what it has most precious, which is solidarity with our fellow human beings, in the struggle without borders for the preservation of our diversity as peoples and for the good. -be harmonious of all. Only then can we be called civilized beings. Other than that, it is pure barbarism announced and that needs to be extirpated. Lincoln Penna – MODECON at June 21, 2022 No comments: Send by email Post on the blog! share on twitter share on facebook Share with Pinterest Tags: Militias Assaulted the Republic , organized crime , Lincoln Penna , militias , MODECON , parallel power Monday, June 20, 2022 GENERAL STRIKE AGAINST NEOLIBERALISM: ECUADOR * Faculty of Economic Sciences of the Central University of Ecuador / UCE GENERAL STRIKE AGAINST NEOLIBERALISM: ECUADOR COMMUNICATION FROM TEACHERS OF THE FACULTY OF ECONOMIC SCIENCES OF THE UNIVERSIDADE CENTRAL DO ECUADOR The undersigned, faculty, staff and workers of the Faculty of Economic Sciences of the University Ecuador, given the very delicate situation that our country is going through, as follows: We recognize the demands and suffocation of workers, students, peasant sectors and social groups that are mobilizing in the context of an Ecuadorian society crossed by deep gaps and inequalities. This can be unequivocally supported by, for example, three important elements: i. Economic reactivation policies have not been effective. The country has one of the lowest growth rates in the region (2.6% according to ECLAC). Economic stagnation is related to unemployment indicators. For March 2022, this indicator stood at 4.8%, just a decrease of 0.1% compared to the same indicator in March 2021 (4.9%). ii. The multidimensional poverty rate, which includes deficiencies in education, social security, health, water, food, habitat or housing, affects approximately seven in ten people in rural areas and almost one in four in urban areas. iii. From June 2021 to May 2022, the input price index for producers relative to the final goods price index for producers surpassed, for the first time in six years, the difference of 8% (US 113.6 vs. $104.1). In other words, producers work at a loss. In short, we are witnessing a post-pandemic context that is already complicated, but even more serious for the majority of the Ecuadorian population and vulnerable sectors. In view of the ineffectiveness of state institutions, in this context, we recognize protests as a legitimate mechanism of social construction in search of better options for the present and the future. In this scenario, we claim the public university as an institution that promotes a broad, peaceful and active dialogue in search and defense of the interests of the most vulnerable and vulnerable sectors of Ecuadorian society, recognizing in it its deep vocation of service and unavoidable historical condition. always on the side of the less fortunate. We condemn any act of individual or collective violence, whether explicit or covert, especially from those institutions or instances that are, in theory, called upon to guarantee the constitutional rights of all. We appeal, therefore, for the public university to open its doors and be actively involved in a dynamic of dialogue and finding collective solutions to protect the most depressed sectors of Ecuadorian society that, today more than ever, require attention. Alvaro Ricardo | Baez Jonathan | Diego carrion | From Torre Juan | Duke Cara | Espinoza Bryan | Wilson Flores | Francisco Gachet | Patrick Holenstein | Jhonny Jimenez | Jose Cajas | Jumbo Daisy | Manosalvas Giovanni | Montesdeoca Lourdes | Orozco Christian | Pazmino Gustavo | Pugue Luis | Rosales Francisco | Rosero Robertho | Sanches Jose | Sanches Ana | Zambrano Miguel Professors at the Faculty of Economic Sciences Universidad Central de Ecuador * at June 20, 2022 No comments: Send by email Post on the blog! share on twitter share on facebook Share with Pinterest Tags: latin america , ecuador , general strike , general strike against neoliberalis ecuador , GUILHERMO LASSO , neoliberalism CHALLENGES AFTER GUSTAVO PETRO’S VICTORY * Fernando Rivero / VEN * CHALLENGES AFTER GUSTAVO PETRO’S WIN* by Fernando Rivero MSc. in Philosophy of War @friveroosuna 1. *Some data from Colombia.* According to the National Administrative Department of Statistics (DANE), in 2020 Colombia suffered from poverty of 42.5%, which puts it in more than 21 million people. In 2020, according to DANE, the official organ of the Colombian State, 2.78 million people entered the condition of extreme poverty. Bogotá, despite being the capital of the country, 3.3 million people live in poverty. In 2020, according to the World Bank’s GINI Index, Colombia is the second most unequal country in Latin America and the Caribbean. The concentration of land ownership is profoundly uneven, leaving Colombia’s most fertile lands in the hands of a few. *Colombia is an unjust society that requires major economic and social transformations*. 2. *Southern Command military satellite*. The uribismo allowed the installation of multiple US military bases on the ground of New Grenada, the operations of the US Security Forces Assistance Brigade (SFAB), turned Colombia into a NATO Global Partner and recently awarded it the ignominious status of US non-NATO ally of Important Importance, a matter protected by the US-Colombia Strategic Alliance Act of 2022. *President Petro will have to face the role imposed on the New Grenadas in the Pentagon’s military planning*. 3. *The Armed Forces of Colombia*. The Colombian military institution was forged in the National Security Doctrine and trained, in the past, at the Pentagon’s School of the Americas. Colombia suffered, during decades of social and armed conflict, the mark of an Armed Force that applied state terrorism. Today, the Colombian military institution is inspired by the Damascus Doctrine, adjusts to NATO’s interoperability standards, is trained for a regular war against its neighbors assuming the role of Abel against Cain and, above all, serves as an instrument for the preservation of neoliberal capitalism. *The Armed Forces of Colombia are a challenge to the changes that most in Colombia crave.* 4. *Colombia internationally.* Latin America and the Caribbean are experiencing political changes that mark the beginning of a new era. The recent Summit of the Americas in Los Angeles proves this. There is no doubt that the State Department defines Casa de Nariño’s foreign policy. In the 21st century, the different governments of Colombia have served as a containment dam in the face of the emergence of progressive or revolutionary governments, as well as an instrument to attack organizations such as CELAC, UNASUR, ALBA, etc. *President Petro will face a historic dilemma in the collision between the Monroe Doctrine and the Bolivarian Ideology. Latin America and the Caribbean expect a lot from the Historic Pact government.* 5. *A suggestion for those who dream of a fairer world*. President Gustavo Petro faces major challenges. Majorities in Colombia yearn for change and demand social justice. Those who believe in life, from Colombia and other latitudes, radiate hope with the triumph of Gustavo Petro. They expect changes, although they understand that socialism in Colombia is still a long way off. *However, the role of the Bolivarians must consist of accompanying the Colombian people in their struggle for the transformation of their society, in the advance towards New Colombia, in the construction of total peace with all insurgent organizations and in the re-encounter with the emancipatory ideology of Simón Bolivar Undoubtedly, as Bolívar said, “America is the Hope of the Universe” and in this hope Colombia is fundamental*. *By Fernando Rivero* *Master’s degree. in Philosophy of War* @friveroosuna Venezuela * ANNEXES 1 – UNA VIDA MUCHAS VIDAS ACCESS AND READ FREE Una Vida Muchas Vidas Gustavo Petro – colombia GUSTAVO PETRO * 2 – PLAN DE GOBIERNO ACCESS AND INFORM Plan De Gobierno President ‘Petro * *** at June 20, 2022 No comments: Send by email Post on the blog! share on twitter share on facebook Share with Pinterest Tags: latin america , colombia , CHALLENGES AFTER GUSTAVO PETRO’S VICTORY , election , Fernando Rivero , GUSTAVO PETRO , politics 1. Guilherme Monteiro Jr. says: Thursday, June 9, 2022 A Policy for Post-American Latin America * By Michael Shifter and Bruno Binetti A policy for post-American Latin America By Michael Shifter and Bruno Binetti The Summit of the Americas in Los Angeles June 6-10 was supposed to be a golden opportunity for US President Joe Biden to strengthen ties with Latin America and the Caribbean. But in the run-up to the first meeting of leaders from across the hemisphere held in the United States since the inaugural meeting in 1994, the Biden administration faced a significant backlash. Biden has indicated he will exclude dictators from Cuba, Nicaragua and Venezuela, prompting left-wing Mexican President Andrés Manuel López Obrador to threaten to boycott the event. Brazilian President Jair Bolsonaro is present but rejects Biden’s views on democracy and the environment. Rather than ushering in a new era, the summit may reveal the fragmented, troubled and leaderless state of the Americas. Seeking the summit to reconstitute US relations with the region has always been an exaggeration. The United States’ reputation across the hemisphere has been eclipsed for more than two decades, largely because of the huge gap between Washington’s claim to significant leadership and its simultaneous indifference to the region. U.S. policy toward Latin America remains stuck in the past, too slow to deliver in a region that is in dire social and economic difficulties, and often too forgiving of a region that is also less dependent on the United States, in large part due to to China’s policy. footprint expansion. Yes, Biden has taken a more conciliatory tone towards Latin America than US President Donald Trump, who has been openly hostile and dismissive. (The former president did not even attend the last summit, held in Lima four years ago.) But while the current government has recognized that the region is not what it was ten or even five years ago, this correct diagnosis has not been accompanied by a redefinition of US policies for the region. What the hemisphere needs from the United States now is a more humble and focused approach that recognizes the limits of Washington’s influence; in other words, a policy for a post-American Latin America. What the hemisphere needs from the United States now is a more humble and focused approach that recognizes the limits of Washington’s influence; in other words, a policy for a post-American Latin America. What the hemisphere needs from the United States now is a more humble and focused approach that recognizes the limits of Washington’s influence; in other words, a policy for a post-American Latin America. beware of the gap Like his predecessors, Biden made sweeping pronouncements about the US role in Latin America. In 2018, he wrote in the Americas Quarterly, “US leadership is indispensable to address the persistent challenges that prevent our region from reaching its full potential.” But that promise has not been matched by action, as was made clear during the height of the COVID-19 pandemic. While China and Russia quickly pursued vaccine diplomacy in Latin America, it took months for the Biden administration to start donating vaccines, despite a glut of domestic supplies. The lack of attention was surprising given the enormous cost the pandemic has inflicted on Latin America: the region has recorded nearly 1.7 million deaths, more than a quarter of the global total, despite covering just 8% of the world’s population. This gap between rhetoric and action is also clear in US economic policy towards the region. Over the past two decades, Chinese corporations and banks have become the dominant force in infrastructure development in most of Latin America. US officials frequently warn regional leaders of the dangers of Chinese economic engagement. During a visit to Ecuador in 2021, US Secretary of State Antony Blinken attacked the “myth” that authoritarian governments “are better at fulfilling”. However, Washington cannot match China’s financial capabilities, and US initiatives like Build Back Better World (B3W) are not yet fully operational. Likewise, the defense of the free market by US officials seems hollow given the Biden administration’s continuation of Trump’s trade war against China and its high subsidies to US farmers that hurt Latin American products for the US market. . Ecuadorian President Guillermo Lasso has expressed interest in a free trade agreement with the United States, but in today’s Washington that is impossible. Not surprisingly, Lasso is now exploring a similar deal with China. The United States can no longer pass itself off as a democracy worthy of emulation. The United States also lacks credibility on issues of democracy and the rule of law. The decades-long embargo against Cuba, which began in 1962 and was reinforced by Trump in 2017, and the tough economic sanctions Trump imposed on Venezuela in 2019 were political failures. They provided the leaders of these countries with a convenient excuse for the economic ruin their government inflicted, without introducing political reforms. Many Latin Americans realize that the US policy towards these authoritarian regimes can largely be explained by internal political pressures in the US, mainly coming from the Cuban and Venezuelan exile communities in the state of Florida. They also know that the US government has strong alliances with ruthless dictators in other parts of the world. Furthermore, the United States can no longer pass itself off as a democracy worthy of emulation. The country’s polarized and introspective politics had severely dampened its high morale even before a Democratic election was nearly annulled in January 2021. Biden’s low approval ratings, along with the possible Republican takeover of Congress in November, did not go unnoticed in Latin America. Leaders in the region are understandably skeptical that Washington’s pro-democracy agenda will outlast the current administration. And while many Latin American countries are finally, albeit slowly, taking steps to address deep racial and gender inequalities, the United States appears to be stalling, or even regressing, on these issues. The United States has also over-promised on other controversial issues in the region. While Biden has repeatedly committed to addressing the “root causes” of migration from Central America, primarily by promoting economic development, there has been limited progress. The government’s$4 billion aid package for the region remains blocked in Congress, and Central American governments have resisted US pressure to strengthen the rule of law. The president acknowledged that US demand for illegal drugs fuels violence and organized crime in Latin America, but there has been no progress in reducing demand and few efforts to end the failed “war on drugs” that Washington has been leading in recent years. .

Less talk, more action

A more effective strategy for Latin America would first recognize that the US cannot do everything. Such a shift would require US policymakers to make tough choices, soften their rhetoric and scale back their ambitions in light of severe domestic constraints and an increasingly fragmented and turbulent Latin America. But a more realistic and focused approach can still go a long way and begin to restore a measure of credibility that the United States has lost.

The first order of business would be for the United States to join Latin American leaders in learning and applying the lessons of collective failure in the hemisphere’s response to the pandemic. There is still considerable uncertainty about the future of COVID-19 and there will be other public health shocks that will require international cooperation. These challenges must be met with strong US commitment and commensurate financial support to strengthen health systems in Latin America, in close coordination with regional governments. The United States must make a substantial investment and provide technical expertise to help build a regional vaccine delivery system,

Another issue that requires cooperation across the hemisphere is climate change. Despite political obstacles in several countries in the Americas, including the United States, a region with 30% of the world’s freshwater reserves, 50% of its biodiversity and abundant natural resources have a key role to play in meeting this global challenge. Washington could start by strengthening protections for environmental leaders in cooperation with the Escazú Agreement, a Latin American pact that establishes public participation in environmental issues. As the richest country in the world, the United States bears a substantial part of the cost of these efforts. Whether the United States is willing and able to commit sufficient resources to make a difference is an important question.

Washington will also have to recognize its common interest with Beijing in supporting renewable energy sources in Latin America and avoid turning the region into a battleground reminiscent of the Cold War. US policymakers must understand that, in most of Latin America, growing ties with China are the product of pragmatic calculation, not ideological predilection. The United States may want to see China’s influence diminish, but that may be incompatible with supporting Latin America’s economic recovery and its efforts to reduce its dependence on fossil fuels. Instead, Washington must strengthen its own ability to compete by dedicating more resources to the US International Development Finance Corporation, the government’s premier development finance institution,

The United States must adopt a more humanitarian approach to its diplomacy.

The devastating impact of the pandemic on education should serve as an impetus to collectively address the region’s lack of competitiveness, which is widely attributed to Latin America’s dismal education systems. This includes addressing the digital divide: approximately three out of ten residents in Latin America and the Caribbean do not have access to the Internet. For these efforts to succeed and mobilize American corporations as allies, the United States will need to provide abundant funding for infrastructure and connectivity in Latin America. Without broad support, US companies will continue to lose ground to their Chinese competitors.

Finally, the United States must adopt a more humanitarian, rather than punitive, approach to its diplomacy in the region. It should, for example, build a regional coalition to collectively address the crisis in Haiti, a country plagued by natural disasters, relentless violence and failed leadership. The United States must also refrain from resorting to sanctions with the aim of altering the engineering regime. There is ample evidence that, at least in Latin America, broad and open economic sanctions have not produced democratic reforms and free elections.

To its credit, the Biden administration has granted temporary protection status to Venezuelan refugees in the United States and has helped the World Food Program provide local support in Venezuela. Furthermore, the government’s decision on May 17 to ease some sanctions on Cuba and (to a much more limited extent) Venezuela’s oil sector was commendable. Going forward, the easing of US sanctions on Venezuela and other authoritarian states must be linked to clear, specific and incremental measures on human rights and respect for and protection of civil society.

Nobody expects US policy towards Latin America to change overnight. Even modest improvements will require difficult and often politically controversial decisions, such as relaxing sanctions against Cuba and Venezuela, which could draw the ire of the diasporas of those Florida countries. But unless the United States tackles its credibility problem head-on, its relationship with Latin America will continue to deteriorate.

Rebuilding lost trust will be a long-term process that can hardly be addressed at a single summit. The Biden administration belatedly drafted a reasonable agenda for the meeting, including a new framework on economic cooperation and a declaration on migration. However, he will need to move forward soon and demonstrate a serious commitment to closer ties or risk further alienating a region that has become increasingly distant and disillusioned with its neighbor to the north.

SOURCE

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Friday, December 31, 2021
DEMOCRACY MADE IN USA * Aram Aharonian / Telesur

The world aligned with the United States is currently leading the decline of a system that once promised to promote an “international consensus on democratization” and, in general, allied countries have seen the quality of their democracies fall by almost twice as much as countries. not aligned.

The “democratic” government of Joe Biden has just celebrated human rights with great fanfare – and also with bombs and bullets – at a Democracy Summit, perhaps as a way to cover up the deaths of civilians in Syria from bombings and executions via drones. , actions ordered shortly after the current president assumed the presidency. The event is also born out of Washington’s need to define who it can count on its side to face the current conflicts and try to isolate China and Russia.

While trying to impose its made-in-USA democracy on the rest of the world, the government continues to have to deal with its internal problems: three former generals – Paul Eaton and Antonio Taguba, both with a 34-year career, in addition to Steven Anderson, who is 31 years old. —wrote in a Washington Post article about the possibility of another coup, this time with greater military participation, before the 2024 elections. “We are frozen to the bone, thinking that a coup could succeed next time.”

Meanwhile, other experts are expressing alarm about a possible “civil war” in the country, and the legislative investigation into the January 6 Capitol attack reveals more details about how close the country came to suffering a coup.

“Should another insurgency occur, the potential for a total collapse of the chain of command along party lines – from the top of the chain to the lowest level – is significant. The idea of ​​disloyal military units organizing to support the ‘legitimate’ commander-in-chief cannot be ruled out,” the generals added in the article.

In addition, they suggested an intelligence investigation of all military installations, to identify possible mutineers and propagandists using disinformation among the military ranks, and ultimately that the Pentagon conduct war games based on potential insurrections and post-election coup attempts. , to identify weaknesses and implement measures to prevent disruptions in the military chain of command.

“In addition to the political-electoral tribulations, the foreign policy of the United States faces a multipolar dynamic due to the economic and military projection of China and Russia, which weakens their ability to gravitate towards the enormous geostrategic fluidity of the Eurasian leadership, with a population that feels brutally attacked by the military and economic forces involved in the anti-terrorist wars”, recalls Mexican analyst John Saxe-Fernández

An investigation by the Watson Institute at Brown University analyzes these wars – baptized by different names: against drug trafficking, against terrorism, against organized crime, Plan Colombia, the Mérida Initiative, etc… and estimates the costs at eight billion. of dollars, and about 900 thousand deaths. Bombs and bullets manufactured by the United States, but which were used only in countries like Afghanistan, Iraq and Syria… in the name of this democracy made in the USA.

The United States does not have an easy time in the relationship with its European partners. The complex Russian-German dynamics in relation to Washington is present not only in the European winter emergencies, where the issue of the supply of safe and cheap natural gas, available through the Nord Stream 2 pipeline, is present, but also because of the threats from the States to unilaterally apply economic sanctions to try to stop the pipeline project.

This act, in defense of democracy (?) and Europe’s tolerance of Russia, was overcome by the US government thanks to an act of war aggravated by a more hostile NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization) and bent on putting Eurasia on the battlefield of the eventual Third World War. Or the terminal war.

Real world arrogance and ignorance

Washington’s political leadership, in addition to showing excessive arrogance and a very risky lack of multipolar tact, denies the tradition present in the articulation of the UN institutions (United Nations), as a profoundly negative result of the wars unleashed under the pretext of an anti-terrorist crusade. after the September 11, 2001 attacks.

Undoubtedly, the incorporation of precepts of the doctrine once adopted by Nazi National Socialism, such as early self-defense in the United States’ international security policy, does not help at all.

Saxe argues that the terminal catastrophe is developing out of aggressive, one-sided and highly explosive operations, in a multidimensional context that is increasingly multipolar. Along with the abandonment of Bush Sr.’s commitment to Gorbachev not to move NATO an inch to the East, the transfer of forces from that military alliance to the vicinity of Russia and China is an explosive recipe for a Third World War, this time terminal. , as the American diplomat, political scientist and historian George Kennan warned.

To this democratic verse, one must add the conflict situation in the China Sea, the tension between Russia and Ukraine, the US warning that it will be necessary to be prepared if the current dialogue with Iran fails, the US invitation to Taiwan to participate in the Democracy Summit, which angered – and a lot – China, which claims that territory as its own. Not to mention the tensions that the White House maintains in what it considers its backyard: Latin America and the Caribbean.

What alarms analysts is the incredible ignorance – and disinterest – of US intelligence agencies about what is really happening in the countries of the region. They already have a speech ready since the Cold War era, and new instructions on how to proceed to achieve the annihilation of the supposed enemy.

Soon, we continue with the same “normality” as always: Guantánamo in its place, the western allies who dismembered journalists continue unpunished and campaigning, the king emeritus of Spain, Juan Carlos I, getting rid of another of his many crimes committed, no one really knows or how, and it doesn’t even matter anymore… The most important thing is that the Statue of Liberty is still in place, so what else?

The illusion of Western democracy suffered a temporary downfall, like an internet server, when the press announced that the UK Supreme Court would extradite Julian Assange to the United States. “The anguish only lasted a few hours, as, shortly after, the servers were restored and everything continued to work normally”, described political analyst Luis Gonzalo Segura, on the RT channel.

Julian Assange – a terrorist, according to Barak Obama, Donald Trump and also Joe Biden – was convicted of publishing information that revealed war crimes committed by the United States, including the murders of journalists and children of immigrants. The WikiLeaks founder has been held in a maximum security prison in the UK since April 2019.

Whatever happens in the trial to be held on American lands, the semblance of democracy that governs Americans, Westerners and Christians has already won. It has already served to publicly intimidate potential journalists and corruption whistleblowers. “Since Assange published the most important revelations in decades, he has been prosecuted, discredited, delegitimized, imprisoned, mistreated and humiliated,” recalls Segura.

He was stoned, he was socially executed by the terrorism of the transnational media, by the trolls of social networks, in front of the entire planet, not just once, but several times, as a way of setting an example, of warning about what happens to what makes what he did, showing that western democracy may be western, but it is not democracy.

In a recent publication, the Russian and Chinese ambassadors in Washington defined the recent Summit for Democracy as “a product that shows his (Biden’s) mentality anchored in the Cold War (…), which will only fuel ideological conflict and create new divisions. ”.

The deep crisis that democracies are going through shows that this concept is undergoing a process of revision, and this initiative by Joe Biden has to do with the strategy of imposing his version of this new concept, and the country’s need to strengthen itself in the face of its external enemies ( China and Russia) and internal (policies and forces inherited from Donald Trump).

Washington has, for many years, sold itself as a global champion of democracy, but the reality is more complicated than that. Over the years, a significant number of allies have surrendered to this system, creating the impression that accepting a made-in-USA democracy generates American-style freedoms. These current trends suggest that this may no longer be true, if it ever was.

The United States supported or installed dictators, encouraged the violent repression of progressive and/or left-wing elements, sponsored anti-democratic armed groups, etc. This was often done in partner countries, with the cooperation of local governments. Then came the war on terror in 2001, and Washington again pushed to establish docile autocrats and checks on democratization, especially in societies where Islam is predominant.

The result was more than a decade of weakening the foundations of democracy in allied countries. At the same time, the pressures in favor of a very specific vision of democracy, in the actions of groups organized by the United States, began to diminish.

democratic setback

“The United States and its allies were responsible %u20B%u20B for a considerably large part of the global democratic setback experienced in the last decade”, observes Max Fisher, in an article for the New York Times, adding that almost all White House allies suffered to some degree. of democratic erosion since 2010. This means that essential elements such as fair elections or judicial independence have weakened and at a rate that far exceeds the average declines among other countries.

Countries aligned with the United States have experienced almost no democratic growth in the last two decades, although many of those far from Washington’s orbit have seen such progress.

The data recorded by V-Dem, a non-profit organization based in Sweden, make clear the difficulties of democracy, a characteristic trend of the current era. They suggest, for example, that much of the world’s setback “is not imposed on democracies by foreign powers, but from a rot that is growing within the most powerful network of alliances. In this form of government, elected leaders behave like caudillos and political institutions are weaker, which means that people’s rights are maintained, as long as those of minorities are excluded”, explains the New York Times report.

Taking a tour, we see that Turkey, Hungary, Israel and the Philippines are examples of this, and even the United States itself, where electoral rights, the politicization of the courts and other factors worry many democracy scholars.

“It would be too easy to say that all of this can be explained by the existence of Trump,” warned Seva Gunitsky, a political scientist at the University of Toronto. “The data indicate that the trend accelerated during the presidency of Donald Trump, but the origin of the phenomenon predates that”, adds the academic. Analysts say this shift is likely driven by longer-term forces, and point to declining belief in the United States as a model to draw from.

The decline in belief in the model itself, which has already undergone a series of shocks in this first quarter of the 21st century, is explained by decades of US policy based only on short-term issues, such as the priority of the war on terrorism. There was also an increase in enthusiasm for illiberal policies.

The analysis defines “allies” as those countries with which the United States has formal or implicit mutual defense commitments. There are 41 countries that fit this concept. The data contradicts Washington’s assumptions that this trend is driven by Russia and China, whose neighbors and partners have seen their scores change very little. Another current claims that the trend is promoted by Trump, who took office when these changes were well advanced.

Instead, backlash is endemic in emerging democracies, and even established democracies, according to Staffan I. Lindberg, a political scientist at the University of Gothenburg who helps monitor the V-Dem index. These countries are generally aligned with the United States. This does not mean that Washington is exactly the cause of its retraction, but it is not irrelevant information either.

Among many, one?

“E pluribus unum”. Or, in Portuguese, “among many, one”. These are the words of the great American coat of arms. There are several states, but they are united. Is the United States one country or several? It may be both, but what, then, maintains this union? “Apparently, the American people were once many peoples, and over time they became one. So what happens to the memory of those who were American peoples, plural, before they became one? What does that really mean?” asks historian Kenneth Weisbrode.

According to the latest data published by the UN, there are more than 50 million immigrants in the United States, which represents 15.42% of the total population. Female immigration is higher than male immigration (51.66% of the total). They are the 37th country in the world in percentage of immigration. The main countries of origin of immigration in the United States are Mexico (22.68%), China (5.72%) and India (5.25%).

In 2020, the country was ethnically composed of 74.7% (224.1 million) of whites – including many of Latin American origin –, by 12.1% (36.3 million) of African Americans, by 4.3 % (12.9 million) of Asians and 0.8% (2.4 million) of Amerindians. People of other races make up 6.0% (18 million) and other people with two or more races make up 1.9% (5.7 million).

Will this government be able to heal these divisions? Because, in reality, the country has been divided since its foundation, on issues of tribe, confession, class, origin, appearance, lifestyle, beliefs and so on. Many of these identitary qualifiers are seen in opposition to others, sometimes within the same family, a village, a nation.

In most countries, identity forms the core of the political and social order. Children learn that they belong to a tribe, a confession, a race, an ethnic group, a history, a nation. The word Americans like to use to describe this combination of collective and individual identity is “exceptional.” They say they and their country are exceptional because anyone can become an American.

Most Americans who voted in the presidential election did not do so to re-elect Donald Trump, but more than 70 million voted for him, a man whose claim to power and influence is based on his ability to sow division. But the country continued to split into various shades of blue and red, associated with the Democratic Party and the Republican Party, respectively.

Trump used Stalinist concepts to refer to “enemies of the people”. He did so only to separate his followers from those he identified as his enemies. Thus, the former president leaves as a legacy the gesture of pulling back the curtain and offering the people a glimpse of this divisive future.

However, the country is no more divided today than it once was. Between 1860 and 1865 a brutal civil war was fought. The American states stop being truly united, and go from being one country to being many, is something that can happen, before anyone even realizes it.

A set of papers, many of them signed by Americans, warn of a probable, or even imminent, disintegration of this power. Empires larger or comparable %u20B%u20As big as the United States collapsed over the centuries. Arnold Toynbee, in his memorable “Study of History”, asserts that every empire creates two proletariats, one external and one internal, and ends up collapsing under the rubble of both.

When Europeans settled in North America in the late 17th century, they did not encounter large empires like those that existed in South and Central America. The indigenous population was divided into various tribal groups, with few federations but no great unified political system. The relationship between European invaders and Native Americans was not one of dispute or open hostility, but one of buoyant and negotiable rivalry and collaboration.

Europeans were weak and desperately needed help to survive. The local population coveted European weapons and technology, as well as loyalty against local enemies. Both used – or opposed – the other, and with that the divisions multiplied.

Academic Luis Britto recalls that the United States is not the result of a union between peoples, but of an implacable violence that exterminated a large part of the original population, which devoured, for example, %u20Ba French North America, which extended from present-day Canada. up to New Orleans, he stole more than half of Mexico’s territory, bought Alaska, and invaded and annexed islands like Hawaii, Puerto Rico, the Philippines, Samoa, and Guam.

Thanks to this expansion and the unlimited availability of slave labor – or semi-slave, in the case of many immigrants – the United States was able to exploit more natural wealth than any other country on earth, survive the first attempt at secession, and become a empire, asserting its hegemony through a network of nearly a thousand military bases in the Western Hemisphere and in an exhausted and war-torn Old World.

American academic Jared A. Brock argues that the country will soon be divided into twelve, and says that this situation is inevitable. “About half of Americans want to leave the union, and 31% think civil war is likely to break out in the next five years. The supporters of the Democratic Party are the majority of those who consider this situation likely.”

About 32% of Californians agree with what’s known as “Calexit” (California’s separation from the rest of the United States). They argue that it would be the fifth largest economy in the world, with hundreds of corporations and market areas larger than many countries that seem desperate to free themselves from any kind of democratic government.

implosion? Civil war? terminal war? Who knows. Meanwhile, global warming continues, growing inequality continues, in the United States and around the world… and we will continue to recite the American-made gospel of democracy. And suffering the consequences also in this year 2022, which has barely begun and already resembles the previous ones.

Aram Aharonian is a Uruguayan journalist and communicator, creator of the TeleSur channel, president of the Foundation for Latin American Integration (FILA) and director of the Latin American Center for Strategic Analysis (CLAE)

*Originally posted on estrategia.la | Translation by Victor Farinelli
*
VISIT CALAMEO AND CHECK IT OUT IN SPANISH
Democracy Made In Usa El Declive Democrático Y Los Cucos De Las Guerras Civil Y Termina
Aram Aharonian / Telesur
at December 31, 2021 No comments:
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Monday, February 28, 2022
Sir JOE BIDEN’S BUSINESS * Prof. Thomas de Toledo / WEB

JOE BIDEN AND SON
(Ukraine Gas Business – Understand the story about Joe Biden and his son’s possible connection to Ukraine )

***
Prof. Thomas de Toledo

Joe Biden got it. Due to the irresponsibility of the current US government in insisting on the expansion of NATO to Russian borders, we now have a war in Ukraine that could escalate into a medium-intensity conflict or even beyond. Because it directly involves a nuclear power, there is always a ghost hovering in the air. However, it is premature to classify this conflict as a 3rd World War. Be that as it may, Brazil needs to maintain a pragmatic equidistance without taking sides. Let’s get to the data.

The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) was created by the United States in 1949 with the aim of fighting the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR). After the end of the Cold War in 1989 and the dissolution of the USSR, NATO lost its meaning. But, on the contrary, the United States decided to expand it to Eastern European countries. In the last 3 decades, NATO has been surrounding Russia with the addition of new members. However, no country on the Russian borders had been added to the Atlantic alliance.

In 1991, George H. Bush bombed Iraq to show the world that there was currently only one superpower. Bill Clinton attacked and destroyed Yugoslavia in 1999, fragmenting that country’s territory and creating a false state in Kosovo. This was a direct affront to a historic ally of Russia, which at the time had no way of reacting.

With the attacks on September 11, 2001, George W. Bush’s Doctrine declared that the United States could carry out preventive wars without the consent of the UN and that anyone who was not on their side would be their enemies. The concrete results were two major wars: the one in Afghanistan in 2001 and the one in Iraq in 2003. The first was to control the Eurasian heartland and the second to serve the interests of the oil industry. Both aimed to drain public resources for the arms industry.

Since the end of the USSR, Russia has had to confront wars on its own territory or on its borders, many of which have the United States as a sponsor. One by one, the regimes allied with Russia in Eastern Europe were being overthrown with the so-called “color revolutions”, which were regime change operations employing modern hybrid warfare techniques. In 2014, a coup organized by the United States, the United Kingdom and the European Union overthrew the Ukrainian government, then allied with Moscow. The aim was to retaliate against Russia for having contained the regime change operation in Syria – a war designed to redraw the geopolitical map of the Middle East into the complex hydrocarbon geopolitics that also involves Russia’s weight in the oil and gas trade. It also aimed to prevent Russian access to warm seas via the Black Sea. It also planned to expand NATO to Russian borders and thus contain the possible resumption of its influence in the area of ​​the former USSR.

Subjectivity is a central element of modern hybrid warfare. Thus, it was necessary to build a sense of disintegration of the Russian-Ukrainian Slavic identity. To this end, ultra-nationalist, neo-Nazi and bandierist groups were financed. Ideas that had been dormant since the 2nd World War with European and American funding came out of the closet. Groups like Svoboda and Right Sector formed benches in the Ukrainian parliament after the coup. On May 2, 2014, neo-Nazis staged a massacre of trade unionists in Odessa, resulting in the death of more than 40 people and 200 seriously injured after being burned alive at a trade union headquarters. Neither the United States nor the European Union condemned the actions of the neo-Nazis.

Russia acted quickly to secure its strategic interests: it reattached Crimea and the powerful port of Sevastopol on the Black Sea. It supported separatist groups in the Donbass border region from the self-proclaimed People’s Republics of Luganski and Donetsky. Despite having a large ethnic Russian population, the Russian language was banned from officialdom and feelings of xenophobia were widely promoted in Ukraine. Even so, in 2014, the Minsk Accords were established, in which Russia would promise not to attack Ukraine and Ukraine would leave ethnic Russians alone.

In 2019, a television comedian, Volodymir Zelensky, was elected President of Ukraine with a promise to retake Crimea, massacre separatists in Donbass and request Ukraine’s membership of NATO. In other words, his platform was to reject the Minsk Accords. Soon, the conflict would escalate to the current situation.

Since the 2008/2009 crisis, the United States and the European Union have been experiencing a relative decline, while China and Russia have experienced an upswing – the former in the economy and the latter militarily. These two countries, estranged during the Cold War, followed a process of strategic rapprochement. Groups such as the BRICS (Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa) and the SCO (Shanghai Cooperation Organization) contributed in this regard. The Chinese New Silk Road project relies on Russia, which is also seeking to regain its influence in the Eurasian region, particularly in strategic Kazakhstan and in other former Soviet republics, including those in Eastern Europe.

With the election of Republican Donald Trump in 2017, the United States distanced itself from hostilities with Russia. Democrats accused him of having received Russian support in the elections. In 2020, Trump withdrew US troops from Iraq. Joe Biden was elected and in 2021, he removed the army from Afghanistan. The United States was defeated in the two wars that began under the Bush administration and lasted nearly two decades. To top it off, the war in Syria, which began under the Obama administration, was contained by Russia. In other words, the three main American military movements of the last decades have failed. But nothing has had as visible an impact as Joe Biden’s desperate US withdrawal from Afghanistan, defeated by a group of religious fundamentalist goat herders.

To top it off, Biden has a disastrous government internally. With no interest in touching the interests of the rich, the country has been facing an economic and social crisis. Extreme poverty is on the rise and, at the same time, billionaires are profiting like never before in history. With non-existent charisma, Biden needed some kind of diversion. So he went on to urge Zelensky to provoke Russia into a war that also serves the interests of the military-industrial complex that, outside of Afghanistan and Iraq, needed a new conflict to receive public money. In other words, while the people of the United States struggle in everyday life, the arms industry revels in federal funding.

Ukraine would be the perfect setting for the United States to create a proxy war. Biden, the top echelon of his government and the US mainstream media began to provoke Russia by threatening to accept an application from Ukraine to join NATO. However, this mortally wounds Russian strategic interests. If Ukraine joins the Atlantic alliance, it will finally be on Russia’s borders. This means that any conflict that breaks out in the region would put all NATO members in automatic war against Russia. For a country that was invaded by the Napoleonic wars and both world wars, such a risk is unacceptable. Therefore, Russia tried by all diplomatic means to avoid this conflict.

On 2/23/2022, Putin ordered the invasion of Ukraine. It was a response to successive Ukrainian attacks on ethnic Russians in the Donbass region and to sabotage by special forces on the border. Putin has made it clear that he will not negotiate Russia’s strategic interests. The US and UK want conflict and are sending weapons and money to Ukraine. Russia wants reassurance that NATO does not reach its border and that ethnic Russians are not harassed, but it knows the costs of a long-lasting war with territorial occupation. The European Union is divided. Germany depends on Russian gas and its economic elite has large investments in Russia. France, which joined NATO under Sarkozy, does not want a major war in Europe. Nonetheless,

What position should Brazil adopt? Brazil must act as a state and not as a government. A major war is not in Brazil’s interest. As a current member of the UN Security Council, Brazil cannot take sides in this conflict and needs to maintain a pragmatic equidistance. But neither can the country turn a blind eye to NATO’s expansionism. Today, Brazil is surrounded by US military bases in several South American countries and at some point this issue will have to be addressed. Likewise, Brazilian citizens must not allow themselves to be contaminated by US or Russian war propaganda. Having an organized supporter’s position in this conflict, regardless of which side you choose, is a big mistake. Brazil has to think about its own interests. And Brazil’s interest is peace.

Finally, Putin is neither a saint nor a devil. He may have condemned actions internally but in this case he is acting to ensure Russia’s survival with the threat of NATO expansion. This war is not yet a 3rd World War, nor a thermonuclear conflict. But depending on the movements, it runs the risk of escalating to more complex developments. Peace needs to be negotiated. But this conflict would never have started if it weren’t for the Biden administration’s greed to regain its popularity and to cure the greed of the US military-industrial complex. It is enough for the United States to comply with the agreement made with Russia at the end of the Cold War not to expand NATO to Russian borders and for Ukraine to comply with the Minsk agreements that Russia will no longer have any reason to go to war. War and diplomacy go hand in hand. Therefore, only diplomacy can lead to peace.

Thomas de Toledo

***
at February 28, 2022 No Comments:
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Tags : battle of azov , geopolitics , imperialism , gas industries , joe biden , Sir JOE BIDEN’S BUSINESS , nato , Prof. Thomas de Toledo

1. Guilherme Monteiro Jr. says:

Saturday, May 7, 2022
Summit of the Americas – Divide and Conquer * Rolando Prudencio Briancon – Lawyer / Bolivia
Summit of the Americas – Divide and Conquer

the old custom that the United States applies.

It was the Mexican president Andrés Manuel López Obrador, who questioned a few days ago the call for the ninth Summit of the Americas that will take place!, in the former Mexican territory: Los Angeles-California next June, and to which the host did not invite: neither Cuba, nor Venezuela, nor Nicaragua; AMLO asked himself: “How do we convene a Summit of the Americas, but not invite everyone? So where are those who are not invited from? From which continent, from which galaxy, from which satellite?

Furthermore, the Mexican president, committed to the conception of an inclusive summons in which all the countries of the Americas are present, instructed his chancellor Marcelo Ebrard to travel to Washington and manage the invitations for the dignitaries of Cuba: Miguel Díaz – Canel; from Nicaragua: Daniel Ortega; and Nicolás Maduro of Venezuela to the aforementioned Summit.

Unsurprisingly, empires have always resorted to this old recipe: divide and rule. In other words, the less united the Latin American countries are, the stronger the “United States” of America remains.

that is, the United States of America, which united its country around its national interests, at the same time dissipated, divided other peoples, causing them to fight among themselves. , I mean divide; and for serving -it is the most scandalous thing- the interests of those who divide us.

This strategy was applied across the continent, making them fight each other; mainly based on spurious or created ethnic differences, or in some cases they are geographical, as there are richer regions, as in the case of the regions of Zulia, Cógedes and Maracaibo in Venezuela, under the project: “Rumbo Propio”, or in the Bolivia the departments of Santa Cruz, Beni, Pando and Tarija with the Camba Nation project, or the Media Luna promoted after the triumph of Evo Morales, or that of the state of Guayaquil in Ecuador

Today this division The recipe was created to activate it at the 9th Summit of the Americas, where the objective is the same: to divide Latin America.

That is the reason why AMLO disqualified this call; not only for the hospitable vocation that Mexico has by nature, but for the unparalleled cynicism of the United States government, since the Summit of the Americas will take place in former Mexican lands.

AMLO is leading a crusade today that we should have promoted since Cuba was banned from the OAS, and we chose to look the other way.

And today that the US has decided to divide us again, and although they are no longer the power they were, proof of this is that they have just swallowed their pride against Venezuela for oil; There is no excuse for Latin America not to stand firm for the United States to include everyone, setting aside its divisive slant that it has always practiced against us, while they have always remained united.

CARICON has already stood up and warned through the Ambassador of Antigua and Barbuda to Washington, Ronald Sanders, that: “If the United States insists on not inviting Cuba, this could be an immediate cause for Caribbean nations to miss the event.” .

This is how Latin America gains confidence, which has always been divided against the United States, which has not only remained permanently united, but has also divided us.

With quotes from the Cubadebate portal

Rolando Prudencio Briancon – Lawyer

*

Divide and win: the usual vieja that the USA applies in the Cumbre de las Américas

It was Mexican President Andrés Manuel López Obrador, who asked for a couple of days to convene the novena Cumbre de las Américas that will take place today!, in the former Mexican territory: Los Angeles-California the next month of June, on there that the host has not invited: not Cuba, not Venezuela, not Nicaragua; AMLO asked himself: “How do we convene a Summit of the Americas, but don’t we invite everyone? So, where are they not invited? From what continent, from what galaxy, from what satellite? ”.

And yet, the Mexican president committed to the conception of an inclusive call for all the countries of America, commissioned his deputy Marcelo Ebrard to travel to Washington and manage the invitations for Cuban dignitaries: Miguel Díaz-Canel; from Nicaragua: Daniel Ortega; and Nicolás Maduro from Venezuela to Dicha Cumbre.

There is no news that los imperios has always resorted to the esa vieja receta de: Divide and reign. The sea, the less united the Latin American countries are, the stronger the “United States” of America.

It is worth mentioning that the United States of America, which has united its country around its national interests, has taken on the task of dissolving, dividing to other peoples, considering that between them, the sea is divided; and for serving them more indignantly inteteses de quienes divide us.

This strategy has been applied throughout the Continent, having fought among them; mainly on the basis of spurious or created ethnic differences, or in some cases they are of a geographical order, because there are regions that are richer, as in the case of regions of Zulia, Cógedes and Maracaibo in Venezuela, under the project: “Rumbo Propio” , or in Bolivia the departments of Santa Cruz, Beni, Pando and Tarija with the project of the Nación Camba, or the Media Luna promoted by the triumph of Evo Morales, or the state of Guayaquil in Ecuador

Today this divisionist recipe is designed to activate it in the 9 November Cumbre de las Américas where the objective is the same: Divide Latin America.

This is the reason why AMLO has disqualified this call; on the ground for the hospital vocation that Mexico has, for the cynicism of the US government, for the Cumbre de las Américas, will be brought to the former Mexican lands.

AMLO is leading today a crusade that we have been carrying out since the moment when Cuba was banned by the OAS, and we chose to look the other way.

And today, the US has decided to divide us again, and despite the fact that it is not the power that it was, it has just been swallowed up by its pride against Venezuela for oil; There are no excuses for Latin America not to stand firm so that the USA, including all of them, put aside its divisionist inclination that always practiced against us, but they always remained united.

The CARICON has put up a face and warned through the ambassador of Antigua and Barbuda in Washington, Ronald Sanders, that: “If the United States insists on not inviting Cuba, it could be an immediate cause for the Caribbean nations to miss the event” .

Así va demanding trust in Latin America, which I have always been divided against the United States, el which on the ground that remains permanently united, without dividing us.

With citations from the Cubadebate portal

Rolando Prudencio Briancon

lawyer

*
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Thursday, February 10, 2022
Ukraine, the last border of the United States * Fabrizio Casari / Italy
Ukraine, the last frontier of the United States

Fabrizio Casari

To support the declining empire we risk a war in the heart of Europe

The ad hoc construction of the Ukrainian crisis does not stop. Indifferent to the mediation work of France, the current president of the EU, and the ongoing negotiations between the countries involved since 2014 in the readjustment of the zone, the United States raises the tension beyond the levels of the guard. This provocative attitude was even denounced by Ukrainian President Volodymyr Zelensky, who urged the West to stop escalating tensions at Ukraine’s expense.

The United States fears that the Contact Group talks will result in de-escalation and also the truth of the matter, namely that Russia never planned to invade Ukraine and that Kiev itself is perfectly aware of this, as it tried to say from the beginning. Furthermore, the entire narrative of this crisis is based on a complete inversion of reality: there is a non-existent invasion of Ukraine, while the opposite is true: Moscow is mobilizing its army defensively in the face of the concentration of troops, NATO ramps, missiles, ships, fighter jets. and drones on your doorstep, all the way to the Black Sea.

In the Western narrative there is conceptual rather than political nonsense, according to which Washington can move soldiers and weapons thousands and thousands of kilometers and place them at Russia’s gates, but Russia cannot move weapons and soldiers on its own territory. The first movement of offense becomes defensive and the second movement of response becomes aggression. NATO can move wherever it wants, Russia not even inside its house.

An arrogant reaffirmation of the “exceptionalism” of the United States in the face of international law, respect for agreements and the historic legacy of the Treaties. A false narrative fueled by European and American media and denounced by former German Navy Chief of Staff Admiral Kay-Achim Schönbach, who was forced to resign for saying that “Putin only asks for a little respect and he probably deserves it.

The trigger for the crisis is the US government’s intention to incorporate Ukraine into NATO, which directly threatens Russian security. Of course, Moscow is not idly by: if the Ukrainian Nazi government decides to join NATO and welcome the Atlantic Alliance soldiers and nuclear weapons, that would pose an immediate and absolutely serious threat to Russia’s security, which would be compelled to intervene. militarily to prevent it. But so far, it is Washington, not Moscow, that is pushing its military out of its borders.

Putin has every right to keep his military on alert. The business card presented to him by the last two US administrations speaks for itself: canceling the medium-range ballistic missile agreements, canceling the agreements for the protection of the skies, withdrawing the peace treaty with Iran and increasing the presence of the NATO on Russia’s borders, the war in Syria, coups in Belarus and Kazakhstan, attempts to interfere in Russian domestic politics, and fake poisoning of unlikely dissidents who serve to trigger sanctions. And then more economic and trade sanctions against Moscow and Tehran, Russian President Putin’s definition of a “murderer”.

The crisis in Ukraine, which at any moment could turn into a total war, was generated by the desire of the United States to carry out a true military siege of the Russian border and to convince the Europeans to unleash a financial and commercial war to break the Russian economy. and support the American.

Washington flexes its muscles towards Russia and China and uses NATO as an instrument of US foreign policy, asserting its political leadership towards the West. At the war analysis level, it tests the Russian reaction in defense of its national security. Measuring the timing, method, and effectiveness of action/reaction in a crisis with potential military outcomes is vital for Pentagon strategists. But the answers are not necessarily exhaustive, and it would be naive to expect Putin to act with his cards on the table.

Then there is the question of the strength of the “defense package” represented by the countries of the East, which were once part of the Soviet Union or were allies of it. Here the news is not good for the United States: both Hungary and Croatia are opposed to a confrontation with Moscow over Ukraine and have already guaranteed their exit from the Atlantic alliance in the event of conflict. They are not two minor countries: Slavs and Hungarians represent an important component on the eastern chessboard and the possibility that others will follow them in their detachment is concrete. If that happened, the US provocation of Russia would become a colossal boomerang that would undermine the eastward expansion policies that Washington has been pursuing since 1989, ensuring the opposite.

It is well known to all defense policy analysts that Washington predicts a limited tactical nuclear conflict with Russia and China as one of the scenarios. This is not a high-school hypothesis, but a short-term political option that must be consummated both to sustain a presidency that is in a few hours, and to end the long-faltering demands for political dominance over Europe. Time.

However, the predominant aspect is the economy. The crisis exists for the financial and strategic interests of the United States, Ukraine is an irrelevant actor destined to the role of scapegoat for US maneuvers. This is a crisis aimed at breaking ties between Russia and Europe, especially with regard to the supply of Russian gas to the Old Continent, which would make the purchase of US gas disadvantageous as well as insufficient. The White House wants Germany to block the construction of the pipeline and hopes that a conflict will be triggered that allows Washington to block Russia in the international banking circuit, so that it can reach the apotheosis of its sanctions, determining the greatest commercial advantage for the United States. throughout its history. That this is paid for with Ukrainian and Russian blood is not in the US interest, really. The more the war progresses, the more American weapons are sold, the more they are destroyed, and the more American companies will be able to compete for reconstruction: the business in the skin of others has no limits.

However, Washington’s accounts are not straightforward. For Berlin, North-Stream2 is worth $25 billion a year, and it is clear that continuing to finance the US economy while the European economy sinks cannot represent a viable path, and even less so if a military crisis is also on the way. unleashed with extremely dangerous results for Europe. The very threat of a Moscow bank blockade would have very serious repercussions for EU banks exposed to Russia, while US banks would be unharmed, thus strengthening their position vis-à-vis European banks. Therefore, not even Paris and Rome welcome this gigantic provocation that risks putting Europe in a financial crisis and leaving it frozen, with the sole objective of supporting the commercial interests of the United States. Intention to reduce Russia’s growing weight in the international system, limiting it to the regional sphere. The background of what is happening is the American consciousness of the end of an era, in which Washington was the sole owner of the world, on which it imposed its recipes aimed at enriching the United States and impoverishing the rest of the planet, considered in Washington. and Langley only a vital area for US national security and were intended, above all, to ensure the survival of the model. In short, the squeezing of planetary resources to finance the bankrupt US economy, which has reached a historic inflation record and which continues to live only thanks to the production of dollars without any control and the military domination of the planet, which also defends from paying the colossal foreign debt, as technological and financial leadership is an erased memory. Planetary destabilization is the very substance of US foreign policy, as the role of world policeman is the only possible terrain for those who tend to maintain at least military leadership. For the United States, ultimately, war is not an option, but an inevitable direction. To bridge the gap between 24% of world production and 60% of consumption for a population that is just 4.1% of the planet, there are 686 US military bases and hundreds of thousands of troops stationed in 149 countries, 75% of the planet. And then there are trade sanctions, economic blockades, financial pressures and military threats. This is what the expansion of NATO is for everywhere: to reassert US dominance over the world and prevent other economies and other projects from finding space, assuming international hegemonic importance and confronting the United States with multipolarity, a true phobia. of the decaying empire. The game being played over Kiev is a game of chess played by the West, which is forced to go to the head of the American empire, and which does not want and cannot accept the idea of ​​the end of single unipolar rule, because that would mean the the end of its imperial model and its reduction to the status of a superpower, but no longer global, with all that this implies in terms of continuous looting of international resources for the internal maintenance of its model. It is up to Europe, which is at risk of losing money and living in this crisis, to raise its voice, impose dialogue and isolate the White House. The Ukrainian crisis, before and above all other considerations, demonstrates what has been clear since the fall of the socialist camp in 1989. For the planetary government, the United States, if it ever was in its history, is no longer an asset. . . It’s the problem. *** at February 10, 2022 2 comments: Send by email Post on the blog! share on twitter share on facebook Share with Pinterest Tags: the last frontier of the united states , vladimir putin interview , Fabrizio Casari , geostrategy , geopolitics , joe biden holocaust , imperialism , joe biden , Ukraine , vladimir putin Friday, August 27, 2021 What happens in Afghanistan? * Thierry Meyssan / Voltaire Network What happens in Afghanistan? Taliban displaying US weapons (in light of military strategy, for comrades’ reflection) The great broadcast media are interpreting the Kabul fall in two ways. Some say that US Democrats are cowards and that the withdrawal from Afghanistan affects the morale of US allies. But others estimate that Washington has used his letters well and that he has managed to establish an espina in el pie a los rusos y los chinos. These two opposing ways of seeing things correspond to the traditional paradigm of the American Empire. For his part, Thierry Meyssan ‎says that, since the days of September 11, 2001, Washington has been in the hands of the adherents of the Rumsfeld-Cebrowski doctrine, in virtue of which ‎the United States has sought to oblige the other powers to pay for protection in countries ‎whose riches are waiting to be exploited. ‎ 69.3% of US voters disapprove of Joe Biden’s conduct of military operations in Afghanistan. Sondeo del Trafalgar Group Scenes that demonstrate the desperation of those who try to keep coming from Kabul. But, ‎aun leaving aside the majority of those who try to escape in the sound precisely ‎pacific translators of the western embajadas ‎from the collaborators of the ‎‎“counterinsurgency” of the American occupant, what we are coming to debacle capable of losing the faith in the power of the United States. ‎ “Abandoned Dollars…” For it ready:‎ 51% of Americans disapprove of President Joe Biden’s foreign policy;‎ 60% of Americans specifically disapprove of Biden’s policy in Afghanistan;‎ 63% think it was a war that wasn’t worth saving [1];‎ The withdrawal from Afghanistan has provoked real emotion among practically all the Americans who fought in that country. ‎ However, it is evident that in Washington it was well known that the Afghan army ‎would not resist the Taliban – even in theory the latter were 3 times numerically ‎inferior and poorly armed. The Combating Terrorism Center (CTC) of West Point ‎had published a study that predicted the coming catastrophe ‎‎[2]. The question was not to know if the Taliban would win at the bell when President Biden would have won. ‎ “Forgotten Weapon…” Negotiations between the United States and the Taliban, which raged for years before President Biden abruptly interrupted them, led to the preparation of the final act of ‎abandoning power against the Taliban. It is very valid to question that ‎Washington has provoked the death of thousands of people and dedicated astronomical sums and the efforts of 4 presidents to expel the Taliban from Kaboul… to ‎end them back now, al cabo de 20 years of war, and let us ask ourselves ‎also why President Biden decided to assume the role of loser.‎ We are faced with the same incomprehension that arose when the Baker-Hamilton Commission led the ‎American withdrawal from Irak, with the then Secretary of Defense –Donald Rumsfeld– ‎assuming without hesitation the same role of loser. That incomprehension came back to expression after only 3 months, the root of Rumsfeld’s death. ‎ It’s time to stop believing religiously what politicians say and pay more attention to what the military writes. Politicians only say what the public is willing to accept. If we are always on the right side and if we are dying for democracy. But the military ‎don’t try to seduce us, but understand what is expected of them. Los militaries in suelen ‎escribir para dorarnos la pildora, more bien suelen exponer la cruda realidad. ‎ As explained on multiple occasions [3], just days before the attacks on September 11, 2001, the land forces of the United States (US Army) published an article by Colonel Ralph Peters, where it was assured that the United States had no to win wars without orchestrating situations of instability in certain regions of the world and above all in the «Extended Middle East» or «Gran Middle East». Colonel Ralph Peters also wrote that it would ‎redesign the States according to ethnic criteria –or sea, separate peoples who live mixed up– and ‎that this would only be possible through ethnic cleansing and other crimes against humanity. And he ended his exposition by pointing out that the Pentagon would always have the possibility of entrusting his work to mercenaries [4]. The emotion raised after the events of the 11th of September allowed Nadie to pay attention to this article, which openly proposed the preparation of abominable crimes. ‎ Five years later, Colonel Ralph Peters published the map that the Estado Mayor Conjunto was preparing in 2001 [5]. A wave of panic then ran through all the major states of the Great Middle East, followed by a series of alliance changes in the ‎region. But it was not until 2011 that I could see, with the war against Libya –then considered an “ally” of the United States– the real scale of what had been projected in Washington. ‎ POPPY AGRIBUSINESS Since that moment, it has been seen that the war in Afghanistan – which was supposed to last only until Osama ben Laden’s land – lasted 20 years; that the war in Iraq –foreseen ‎only until the fall of President Sadam Husein– had lasted 17 years; that the war in Libya –‎which should have lasted only until the Guía Muammar el-Gaddafi was overthrown– had lasted ‎‎10 years; and that the war in Syria –announced until the overthrow of President Bachar al-‎Assad– also lasted 10 years. ‎ We have also seen how al-Qaeda –which is historically an engender of the CIA– ‎has committed crimes against humanity, always in the sense of which Colonel Ralph Peters has announced. The same happened with Daesh – whose emergence was orchestrated ‎by the American ambassador John Negroponte ‎[6]‎. It is also known that both al-Qaeda and Daesh have received funding, training, weapons and orders from the British and ‎Americans. ‎ However, the «war without end» proclaimed by President George W. Bush does not have the objective of «fighting terrorism» but using terrorism to destabilize an entire geographic region. This was precisely the title of the article that Colonel Ralph Peters published in 2001: “Stability. America’s ennemy”, or “La estabilidad, enemiga de Estados Unidos”. ‎ Bearing in mind all the above, we must reinterpret the fall of Kabul in the light of the new strategy. The American Admiral Arthur Cebrowski dedicated 2 years (2002 and 2003) to explaining this strategy in all the military academies. He met there with all the officers who were generals in the armed forces of the United States. The strategy introduced by ‎Cebrowski was also given to know the “great public” in a book by Thomas Barnett, the ‎assistant to the admiral. But this book [7] has never been translated. ‎ The fall of Kabul responds to the central objective of this strategy… the condition that the Taliban could not establish a stable regime, and their allies could not. In addition, ‎the management of the collaborators who are in charge of the tasks of “counterinsurgency” ‎by account of the ‎occupiers forces – if those collaborators manage to pass through peaceful ‎translators– it will allow the spread of terrorism in the countries that receive them. This is exactly what Russian President Vladimir Putin is denouncing. ‎ On the other hand, the enormous arsenal of war that the United States had delivered to the Afghan army, which now passes to the hands of the new dueños of Kabul, puts the Taliban in conditions to attack their neighbors. The Taliban even have an exhaustive file with the biometric data of the entire Afghan population [8] and an air force that counts with more than 200 combat aircraft – of the things that Daesh never knew. The war in Central Asia could soon reach much more terrible proportions than what we have seen in the Great Middle East. ‎ The immigrants who “hicieron” the United States were largely pandilleros and ‎served as a model for the Pentagon strategists.‎ Last element, but not the least important. Some commentators estimate that Washington ‎abandoned Afghanistan to create problems for Russia and China. This is not the objective of the ‎Rumsfeld-Cebrowski strategy ‎[9]‎‎. According to Cebrowski’s vision, there is no need to fight the efforts of the great powers, on the contrary, to convert them into “customers”. ‎We can help them exploit the resources of Afghanistan, Iraq, Libya, Syria and many other countries… ‎but only under the protection of the United States’ army. ‎ It is important to understand that Washington does not reason like the Roman Empire against its rivals, as ‎the barrio pandillas that offer “protection” to the tenders. Washington does not expect to build Arcos del Triunfo in commemoration of glorious victories, but it is well accepted that its president, Joe Biden, is proclaimed the loser in Afghanistan. His objective is to dominate the world from the shadow and obtain the maximum amount of capital. ‎ ‎Do you think it’s a too apocalyptic scenario? Find the reasoning error!‎ Thierry Meyssan Printable version RSS Facebook Twitter WhatsApp Viber [1] «Afghanistan war unpopular amid ‎chaotic pullout», AP-NORC poll, by Josh Boak, Hannah Fingerhut and ‎Ben Fox, 19 Aug 2021; «Nationwide Issues Survey», Convention of ‎States Action-Trafalgar Group, August 2021. [2] «Afghanistan’s Security Forces Versus the Taliban: A Net Assessment», ‎Jonathan Schroden, CTC Sentinel, New Year 2021 (Vol 14, #1). [3] See, for example, “Comment redesiner le Moyen-‎Orient?” in L’Effroyable imposture II, by Thierry Meyssan, first edition in Alphée, 2006; ‎second edition in Demi-Lune, 2020. [4] “Stability. America’s ennemy” [en español, “La estabilidad, ‎enemy of the United States”, by Colonel Ralph Peters, Parameters, #31-4, winter ‎de 2001. [5] “Blood borders. How a better Middle East would look”, Ralph ‎Peters, Armed Forces Journal, June 1, 2006. [6] This is the same John Negroponte who participated in the Phoenix Search and ‎physical elimination of Vietnamese leaders program –the “counterinsurgency”‎ program that the United States implemented from 1965 to 1972– ‎during its military intervention in Vietnam– and who was the US ambassador to Honduras from the late 1970s to the early 1980s. CIA against the Sandinista government of Nicaragua. With this “brilliant” service, John Negroponte was the United States ambassador to the UN from September 2001 to July 2004, during the first term of President George Bush. (Note by Red Voltaire. [7] The Pentagon’s New Map: War and Peace in the Twenty-‎first Century, Thomas PM Barnett, Paw Prints, 2004). [8] «The American system of ‎biometric identification cayó en hands ‎de los talibanes‎», Red Voltaire, August 23, 2021. [9] «The United States military project for the world» and «The Rumsfeld-Cebrowski doctrina», by Thierry Meyssan, ‎Red Voltaire, ‎August 22, 2017 and May 25, 2021 . https://www.voltairenet.org/article213828.html *** at August 27, 2021 No comments: Send by email Post on the blog! share on twitter share on facebook Share with Pinterest Tags : afghanistan , agribusiness , imperialism , opium , poppy , que pasa en afghanistan , voltaire network , taliban , thierry meyssan Wednesday, June 8, 2022 IMPERIALIST PIRACY * (PCTB) IMPERIALIST PIRACY A few days ago, Iran seized two Greek ships in response to this country for stealing an Iranian ship with Russian oil at the request of the United States. Piracy is a regular occurrence in Washington, and many wonder how it is possible for the United States to do it with complete impunity? – we also saw this against Venezuela, Syria, Cuba, or even North Korea. The topic is something familiar to me, in real life, my job involves seeing some elements of trade and tax transactions and regulations. First of all, we must understand how international trade works in general terms, there are laws and regulations that govern trade, that is, the normative basis for agreeing on tariffs, limits, quotas and even insurance, reinsurance or policies… we can forget the famous capitalist motto of the “Free Market” a rubbish motto (in my opinion) because it breaks, modifies or interprets to the taste of the strongest. Anyway, let’s get to the point. Until a decade ago, the United States was practically the main trading partner of most countries in the world (today this advantage is decreasing), they basically used this situation to extort/threaten the whole world, demanding the application of their rules or they would be excluded of its market, this is well exemplified by the famous quote by war criminal George Bush Jr. when he decided to invade Afghanistan and Iraq in 2003 and 2005 respectively: “Either you are with the United States, or you are against the States”. In simple terms, if one country decides to block or sanction another nation, it’s a problem for two and it shouldn’t involve third parties… from their position of power), this changes things, because not only will you no longer be able to sell or buy the you need with the country in dispute, but no one else will be able to trade with you. That is why we mentioned at the beginning that there are international trade rules, it is assumed that in a “free market”, goods and services should not have differentiated restrictions in terms of tariffs or quantitative limits, but, as we already know, this can be broken and modified at will by an empire, in this particular case, the United States exercising its position of advantage and power. What the United States does when it blocks and sanctions is basically prohibiting a particular country or company from doing business with third parties, because it tells everyone else, “Whoever does business with this company or country cannot do business with me.” … For this, they not only rely on their power of extortion, they also rely on the help of lackeys like those 35 or 40 countries in the European Union, Australia and Japan that call themselves the “international community”. ” So we could say: “but there are more than 190 and other countries in the world… If 35 or 40 blackmail you, it doesn’t matter”. .. Mistake! – Other objective and subjective elements come into play here, for example countries’ purchasing power, production capacities, needs reflected in Supply/Demand, in addition to what we mentioned about extortion or threats to other countries if they do business with you. Let’s go back to the trade rules: if you are a sanctioned and blocked country on occasions you can still buy, but there are no companies that guarantee the cargo or even offer you logistics services because if you do, these companies will be excluded from trade with United States. Then the rules of the trade become simple tomes of paper written somewhere that are useless. To this end, the United States, in the case of the oil it steals from Iran or Venezuela, applies what we explained and threatens the captain or the company that owns the ships, telling them: “If they don’t comply with the sanctions (it doesn’t matter if they are in international waters), they will be charged with crimes for violating our sanctions.” That’s how everyone very “obedient” does what “Uncle Sam” says. Even Washington has an office called OFAC from which companies doing business directly or indirectly with the United States must search a database whether a company is sanctioned by Washington, if so, they cannot do business with that company. So imperialist. To conclude, this situation that Washington was totally in control of 10 years ago is not so effective today, because as other countries emerge as regional powers and develop their economies, US threats and extortion will become weaker. elites desperately seek to prevent the formation of a multipolar world, precisely because they would lose their position of power and strength. *** at June 08, 2022 No comments: Send by email Post on the blog! share on twitter share on facebook Share with Pinterest Tags : imperialism , pctb , piracy , IMPERIALIST PIRACY , usa Friday, November 12, 2021 USA and the Monroe Doctrine: the imperial reconquest # By Atilio A. Boron | 11/03/2021 | USA USA and the Monroe Doctrine: the imperial reconquest By Atilio A. Boron | 11/03/2021 | USA COLP’s comment: excellent article to understand the current foreign policy of the United States towards Latin America, it presents a shift from political hegemony to domination, because its policies are less seductive and find more resistance in the nations that defend their sovereignty (Cuba, Nicaragua , Venezuela , Bolivia), and not in others, such as Argentina. The empire lost all composure. In just a few days, he produced two very disturbing news stories, which speak of his sick attempt to regain full control of the countries of Latin America and the Caribbean, bringing relations between them and the United States back to the point where they were before the triumph. of the Cuban Revolution. One of them has to do with Argentina, and they are the scandalous statements that the ambassador appointed by Joe Biden for this country, Marc Stanley, made at the confirmation hearing before the Committee on Foreign Relations of the United States Senate. His words exude a rancid interventionism typical of the “gunboat diplomacy” years. They ratify the validity of the Monroe Doctrine, which, close to completing two centuries, continues to be the fundamental reference of the US government in defining its relations with the countries of the region. Stanley is not a career diplomat, but a ruthless slanderer, which is why he was president of the Texas Trial Lawyers Association and the Dallas Trial Lawyers Association. A member of the Democratic Party (to which he has contributed over a million and a half dollars to different election campaigns), Stanley is also a lobbyist for the State of Israel. Thus, one of his priorities in his work agenda is for the Government and the Judiciary of Argentina to discover and prosecute those responsible, among whom he cited the Iranian government and Hezbollah as the main suspects. In economic matters, he spoke of the recession that has affected the Argentine economy since 2018 and the need for an early agreement with the IMF. He defined the country as a beautiful tourist bus, but whose wheels do not work well and declared that he would press the issue of 5-G technologies to prevent China’s influence in Argentina from increasing and thus prevent the Asian giant from “accessing all the data and information from the Argentines. ” Data that, by the way, are already in a very good collection in numerous United States government agencies thanks to their pairing with the great technology companies of that country, members of the famous GAFAM (Google, Amazon, Facebook , Apple and Microsoft). Stanley will take extreme measures to get the Argentine government to join the ” In short: a disrespectful and bossy lawyer who ignores the provisions of the Vienna Convention that prohibit ambassadors from intervening or speaking publicly in the internal affairs of nations. He believes that an ambassador is the contemporary equivalent of Roman proconsuls, endowed with sweeping powers to govern the outer provinces of the empire. It would be desirable for the Argentine government to deny him the placet to prevent this belated imitation of Spruille Braden – the ambassador who organized the Democratic Union to fight Peronism in 1945 – from blatantly intruding on Argentine political life. His outrageous statements would more than justify this attitude, but I see that it is difficult for the government to adopt such a decision. Especially when so far the Itamaraty has not made any sound in relation to Stanley’s aberrant statements. The other bad news concerns Latin America and the Caribbean as a whole, and has to do with the statement by General Mark A. Milley, Chief of the Joint Chiefs of Staff of the United States Armed Forces. At the ceremony that took place at Southern Command Headquarters in Doral (Florida) and in which Army General Laura Richardson took over as the new head of Southern Command, he defined the “Western Hemisphere” as “a neighborhood of neighbors. This hemisphere belongs to us and no one else,” he assured, “and we stand side by side in this common cause to protect our hemisphere from any international threat.” The word “we” could be interpreted in several ways, but when mentioning who could be the potential adversaries of such an idyllic neighborhood: China, Russia and Iran, it was clear that this “we” refers to the United States and not to the other countries. nations. Washington characterized these three countries not only as adversaries but also as enemies. Milley appealed to an ambiguous formulation that reproduced the subtle language game of the Monroe Doctrine by proclaiming “America for Americans,” which actually means “for Americans.” When the United States government tried to ratify this slogan at the First Pan American Conference held in Washington (October 2, 1889/April 19, 1890), the Argentine delegate, Roque Sáenz Peña, responded with one sentence – “America for humanity” – that José Martí inscribed in golden letters in his splendid account of that conference in a book entitled Our America. Milley’s message followed that of Joe Biden’s Secretary of Defense, General Lloyd J. Austin III, who had earlier said that Southern Command’s mission was to work closely with area governments to “fight” certain enigmatic “influences” evil” that thrive in the region The idea that Latin America and the Caribbean “belongs” to the United States has been a constant in academic discussions for the last half century, although some euphemisms have always been used to avoid harsh reactions and not exacerbate latent anti-Americanism in the region. . But in times of rapid changes in the international balance of forces, accelerated by the decline of the global power of the United States, this polite language has been abandoned and the relaunch of the colonial domination project is openly displayed or false modesty. All the characters mentioned in these short lines attest to this. *** PCTB has published this article with the author’s permission under a Creative Commons license, respecting your freedom to publish it in other sources. at November 12, 2021 No comments: Send by email Post on the blog! share on twitter share on facebook Share with Pinterest Tags: latin america , atilio boron , Bolivia , cuba , monroe doctrine , USA and the Monroe Doctrine: the imperial reconquest , geopolitics , imperialism , interventionism , nicaragua , venezuela Saturday, June 4, 2022 LATIN AMERICA SOVEREIGNTY ANNEXIONISM * By Fabrizio Casari / MANAGUA WITH LOVE LATIN AMERICA SOVEREIGNTY ANNEXIONISM By Fabrizio Casari / MANAGUA WITH LOVE On the one hand, there is a Summit of the Americas, a protocol and routine meeting interpreted by the US as if it were a party that can only be accessed by friends and by invitation: it failed before it even started. On the other hand, an Alba-TCP summit, a political meeting whose positive outcome further confirmed the existence and growing cooperation and integration of the Latin American democratic bloc. Two paradigmatic events in themselves, as they express two completely different systems of values, ideals and programs. They arise from irreconcilable assumptions about the possible relationship between the different countries that inhabit the continent. Between the claims of the North and the claims of the South. Between annexationism and independence. Sovereignty is irreconcilable as a reference in the relationship with the economic and military giant that, on the contrary, intends to continue with the Monroe Doctrine. An anachronism devoid of meaning, reason and possibility of acceptance. Here there is no Spanish colonialism in agony, and there are no supposed contrasts between East and West. In the contrast between the two domes is a mocking sign of randomness, a scratch that has become an inexorable cut consumed since the 2000s, when the last American demand, the FTAA, literally broke. The FTAA inherited NAFTA (NAFTA) whose economic dictate was to export strategic resources from Latin America to the US and Canada in exchange for the export of surpluses from the US and Canada to Mexico. The FTAA was the evolution of NAFTA; expressed the intention to control Latin American economies from Washington, directing their flows, their elections, deciding if, how and when to include them in the international market. Dollarization was the pivot around which the project revolved: with it, The liberalization of exports to Latin America was foreseen, while protectionism was in force for those destined for the United States; The end of public aid to Latin American companies was demanded, while government subsidies to North American companies were released. A criminal asymmetry whose objective was to definitively bring the possible economic growth of Latin America to its knees, to prevent any effectiveness in the fight against poverty reduction in the continent, necessary, among other things, for them to have cheap weapons to import. On the American side of the project was the WTO, which wanted to reduce or abolish customs barriers and demanded flexibilization of national laws to facilitate the arrival of foreign capital, in order to maximize its profitability and expand its areas of control. It was the modern version of military coups and dictatorships, which were now considered internationally unpresentable and unnecessary, although the possibility of their use should never be ruled out. The FTAA served to control economies, migrations, governments and natural resources. The Great Fatherland takes shape The end of the FTAA, decreed in the first place by Lula and Kirchner, with the support of the entire continental left, forced the United States to withdraw the idea of ​​reappropriating Latin American economies with economic treaties. The defeat of the North American neocolonial project became the first example of Latin American unity, its first show of force, the decisive moment when the “Washington Consensus” was declared expired for history. It did away with the subcontinent’s obligation to make decisions only if the United States allows it, only if it is to the advantage of its multinationals. Well, it was precisely from the rejection of the North’s dependency structure that Latin American structural identity, its backbone, was born. First with ALBA, in 2004, the Bolivarian Alliance of the Americas, born from the will of Hugo Chávez and Fidel Castro. Then Petrocaribe: it came to light in 2005 and involved 18 countries in the idea of ​​a facilitated exchange of energy. And, in 2010, CELAC, with 33 countries that make up the Community of Latin American and Caribbean States. In all these bodies, no place was foreseen for the United States and Canada: the Great Fatherland is such if it is independent. ALBA, in particular, began a new phase in the history of Latin American domestic cooperation. The scheme is as simple as it is effective: exchange and cooperation based on mutual interests. No economic prescriptions to impose, no harmful political conditions, no need to question anything other than the utility, the mutual benefit of trade. The reduction of freight transport costs, a common language, mutual goals, the relationship of equals founded and sustained the common good of the Alliance. ALBA, like PETROCARIBE, like CELAC itself, embodies Bolivar and Sandino’s dream of a Great Homeland, are international institutions that carry within them an idea of ​​solidarity and dialogue, mutual aid and cooperation that aim at the common good. Good. This, in Latin America more than anywhere else, is the war on poverty. Because poverty reduction and the eco-sustainable concept of industrial development are the prerequisites for any lasting economic growth and not the result of a speculative bubble. A growth that implies the progressive reduction of the monetary, industrial, distributive and technological dependence of the United States. Therefore, Latin American economic growth automatically implies a reduction in the disastrous influence of the United States on the continent, On the other hand, there is no room for a policy of dialogue, although theoretically desirable, with those who believe, as the Monroe Doctrine says, that “America belongs to the Americans”, understanding that as the entire continent, from Alaska to Tierra del Fuego. , and for the second the inhabitants of the United States. It is also unthinkable to attempt an unprepared approach to those who consider international relations a ring where the strongest and the most violent wins. As the President of Nicaragua, Commander Daniel Ortega, recalled during the last ALBA-TCP summit, “from the United States to the continent there were only wars, invasions, coups, economic blockades, sanctions, blackmail, threats”, citing, among other things, the received in Washington in recent days, As Commander Sandinista highlighted, Latin America already has its own representative bodies. CELAC represents the embryo of a viable path for Latin American unity, that is, for the government of the Great Fatherland. Progressively, it will be able to relate to all countries in the world, especially China, Russia, India, Iran and emerging economic powers, which can guarantee an advantageous supply/demand cycle that will make the economy more competitive on a subcontinental scale. Precisely because of its ambition and ability to represent the interests of Latin American governments and peoples domestically and internationally, precisely because of its inclusive methodology and attentive to the reasons of each one, CELAC buried the Monroe Doctrine. It is today the application of the political autonomy and independence of Latin America, Indeed, this, at best, given also the organization of the next meeting in Los Angeles, turns out to be simply a hysterical manifestation of the residual power of Washington’s control over the continent. It is no accident that this summit gained more media and political prominence for those who will not attend than for those who will. A political and diplomatic uproar that once again highlights the constant loss of political leadership by the United States, as evidenced by the failed Democracy Summit of December 2021, which was not attended by more than half of the world. Is the Monroe Doctrine Going Global? The Monroe Doctrine, which has been the essence of continental US policy, rather than being subjected to a profound self-criticism and total revision, as the entry into the third millennium would suggest, paradoxically now finds greater political reach in the corridors of the United States. of the White House. In an explosion of megalomania that runs parallel to the depth of its leadership crisis, the United States believes it can shift its disposition from Latin America to the entire planet. An insane extension of their national security doctrine to the entire planet. In other words, they believe that their unipolar command, inherited from the fall of the socialist camp, is destined simultaneously for deepening and irreversibility. It is, in the final analysis, the only cure against the decline of the economy, monetary, The proprietary concept of the planet, the idea of ​​being able to accumulate its resources, filling the gap between the wealth they produce (24%) and the wealth they consume (59%), they believe is the only way to sustain the broken model they insist on. to propose as unique. Just look at FAO statistics to find that the average American produces 730 kilograms of garbage a year, eats 100 kilograms of meat, consumes 600 liters of water a day and burns as much energy as four Italians, 160 Tanzanians and 1,100 Rwandans. The 700 US military bases and six US war fleets around the world serve to maintain this obscene imbalance. More than an update of imperialism, we are witnessing its entanglement in itself, which in its omnivorous desire is no longer able to conceive spaces, resources and ideas that are not functional. In the salons of the bon ton , where the au caviar of the left has become the right, it is said that the use of the term imperialist is outdated, that it responds to a dialectic that has disappeared, or is no longer relevant. But what happens is the opposite. There is no modern word that has its full meaning, and there is no politics that can be called modern. Verbal modernism is part of the old eating away at the new. The imperialist doctrine is called imperialism, it is an extension of the colonial reading that proposes a medieval interpretation of global command. The goal is not government, but world domination. Today’s imperialism is based on the global threat and nuclear force, on the instruments to control the market of ideas and on the extension to the entire planet of the military doctrine that sustains the empire. It is atomic feudalism. The Latin American rebellion, an expression of the independence of the North and of brotherhood with the South, now takes over as governments and represents the defeat of all annexationism beyond all circumstances. The irreconcilable struggle of those who have nothing to lose because they have nothing, against those who have everything to lose because they have everything, is the new chapter in the book of humanity. That refuses to hand over the last page of its history to imperial capitalism. * at June 04, 2022 No comments: Send by email Post on the blog! share on twitter share on facebook Share with Pinterest Tags: latin america sovereignty annexation , anti- imperialism , Fabrizio Casari 1. Guilherme Monteiro Jr. says: Saturday, June 18, 2022 The last summit of Manifesto Monroism * Henrys Lor Mogollon / Venezuela The last summit of Manifest Monroism By: Henrys Lor Mogollon. In hectic times of great technological advances, the advent of the unthinkable adoption of web 3.0, the blockchain, the metaverse, augmented reality, the resounding fall of the NY stock market, the markets bled by the inflationary correction in the USA, the bankruptcy of thousands of companies once again, the setting for the Summit of the Americas was a great circumstantial desolation framed by the arrival of new emancipatory winds to the South of Our America. Another great demonstration of this history is the evolution of opposing forces that debate in a real and unstoppable organic dialectic proposal. The Summit of the Americas is over and it is, without a doubt, a lesson for the United States and, at the same time, a hope for the peoples of Our America. History brings back dignity in the struggle for the liberation of President Andrés López Obrador, Xiomara Castro de Zelaya, Lucho Arce Catacora, in addition to the excluded nations, but full of dignity, called Cuba: Miguel Díaz Canel, Nicaragua: Daniel Ortega and Venezuela: Commander of Nicolás Maduro Pueblo. Hope that manifests itself in winds of true Latin American unity, because no less than 20 countries protested against exclusion. Unity, unity and more unity Bolívar always demanded and so our eternal commander Hugo Chávez… Only then will we be invincible. The Monroe Doctrine and the so-called Manifest Destiny are living their last days of existence, that doctrine that some merchant who later became vice president of Chile spoke in the following way, looking at it correctly in the future. Lima, March 1822. Mr. José M. Cea, my dear Cea: the newspapers bring good news about the march of the revolution across America. It seems somewhat confirmed that the United States recognizes American independence. While I haven’t spoken to anyone about this, I’ll give my opinion: NA Federation President Mr. Monroe said: It is recognized that America is for them. Be careful not to leave one domination to fall into another! We must pay attention to these gentlemen who very well approve of the work of our defenders of liberation, without having helped us at all: this is the cause of my fear. Why this eagerness on the part of the United States to accredit ministers, delegates and recognize the independence of America, without bothering them at all? What a curious system, my friend! I believe that all this follows a plan agreed in advance; and it would be like this: to conquer America, not by arms, but by influence in all spheres. It will happen, maybe not today; but tomorrow yes It is not advisable to be flattered by those sweets which children are wont to eat with pleasure, without taking care of poisoning. Let’s locate a point in historical time 1816/1817, the second Guayana Campaign in which the Liberator triumphed along with Manuel Piar and this conquest gave strength to the third Republic. The campaign was a great success for the republicans, it managed to fight several battles to expel all the realists from the region with the same fall in power of a region rich in natural resources and communication facilities that served as a base to launch campaigns in other regions of the Country. At that time, the president of the United States is James Monroe, who was the fifth president, the patriotic army and our Liberator in the midst of this conquest had developed one of the most controversial moments of Venezuelan diplomacy for the capture of the schooners Tigre and Libertad. These violated the decree of naval blockade imposed by the Liberator, transporting weapons and ammunition to the Spaniards, in an act of national sovereignty, they were confiscated by instructions from the Liberator, this fact meant the arrival in Angostura of a Consular Attaché of the US government named Juan Bautista Irvine, as well as an epistolary exchange that reflected an intense dispute between him and El Libertador, which lasted from July 29 to October 1, 1818, In military response to the dispatch of weapons, the Liberator sent a mission to Ameliach Island with the intention of showing the capability of our army and the characteristic of independence, he tasked one of his officers, General Gregor MacGregor, to organize an expedition into Spanish . coveted by the US to occupy the Florida peninsula, cut off trade between the US and Spain (the passage of ships that carried weapons and ammunition from the ports of Boston and Havana to royalists in the south of the continent) and lead a pincer movement against the Spanish Caribbean. James Monroe in his presidential message to Congress (December 2, 1817) referring to the struggle of South American patriots against Spanish colonialism, stated: “The conflict does not present the aspect of a rebellion or insurrection, but of a war between parties or factions whose forces are balanced and which are viewed without preference”. In this sense, it must be understood that the entire intention of the US government was to make its so-called manifest destiny and its expansionist objectives a reality and, on the other hand, the decision of our patriotic army to stand firm in the fight for Francis’ dream of Miranda and leadership of Libertador Simón Bolívar. In 1822, President Monroe came to the conclusion that Spain could not recover its American colonies, and on March 8, he sent a message to Congress requesting the allocation of funds to send plenipotentiary ministers to the republics of Chile, La Plata ( present-day Argentina), Gran Colombia Peru and Mexico, recognizing their independence. Thus, in his sixth speech to the United States Congress on December 2, 1822, the same one was written by Jhon Quincy Adams who would eventually be his successor. The phrase “America for Americans” is an axiom that expresses what is now known as the Monroe Doctrine, which defines US foreign policy. These points are: 1. The inadmissible nature of any European attempt to re-colonize American territory. 2. The categorical rejection of the monarchical system of organization. It is established in the speech, therefore, that the identity of the hemisphere necessarily involves embracing the republican system and invoking the principle of freedom. 3. The commitment of non-intervention in European affairs by the United States, as a guarantee of convenience. Bolívar, very attentive and always with an eye on the historical beyond, convenes the Amphictyonic Congress of Panama, but the lack of unity and understanding remains the negative sign of Our America. Liberator Simón Bolívar takes the glory of having been a consistent fighter against this lack of unity and the opportunity to have brought this struggle to its conclusion at the Amphictyonic Congress of Panama, where the expansionist and hegemonic tendencies of the United States would find their counterpart in the Bolivarian ideal. . Liberator, who in 1815 expressed from Jamaica: “How beautiful it would be if the Isthmus of Panama were for us what the Isthmus of Corinth was for the Greeks! ..” Letter from Jamaica…. ” In 1826 he convoked the Amphictyonic Congress of Panama, to create a bloc of Latin American nations that could respond as such to imperialist aggression. It is worth remembering here the agenda of the congress: 1.- Strengthen independence, internal security and non-intervention 2.- Legal equality between all nations 3.- Relations between States through a permanent plenipotentiary Congress 4.- Social reform based on freedom and peace It’s incredible, today Today the Americas are torn in this dialectic and any resemblance to the moment is purely coincidental, because the United States divided and developed such an influence that it subjected all of Latin America and beyond to its manifest destiny. So, Mr. John Cotton in 1630 said the following: No nation has the right to drive out another, but it is by a special design of heaven like the Israelites had, unless the natives acted unjustly against them. In that case, they will have the right to legally wage war against them and subjugate them. In 1845, the journalist John L. O’Sullivan, published in the Democratic Review of New York, in the July-August edition, stated: “The fulfillment of our manifest destiny is to extend ourselves throughout the whole continent which has been assigned to us by A. providence, for the development of the great experience of freedom and self-government, is a right like that of a tree to obtain the air and land necessary for the full development of its capacities and the growth that it has as its destiny. the phrase in a column that appeared in the New York Morning News, December 27, 1845, in which O’Sullivan, referring to the dispute with Great Britain over Oregon, stated that: “And this demand is based on the right of our manifest destiny to possess the entire continent that Providence has given us to carry out our great mission of freedom and self-government. Based on this assumption, the United States annexed the territories of Texas (1845), California (1848) and invaded Mexico in 1846, in what would become the Mexico-United States war. Mexico, Nevada and parts of Wyoming, Mandas and Oklahoma, a total of 2 million and 100 thousand square kilometers, 55% of the Mexican territory at the time, which was called the “Mexican Cession”. Thus, the United States declared war on Spain, took Puerto Rico and Cuba, all of which was resolved in the Treaty of Paris in 1897. Thus, they appropriated it, but also put presidents and governments at ease and in the way they agreed, considering Latin America their backyard. In relation to the above, Bill Clinton’s first summit in 1994 launched his ambitious neoliberal project for the region, the FTAA (Free Trade Area of ​​the Americas), but he did not expect that a few years later, starting in 1998, another wave of progressive governments in Latin America that rejected this project and buried it definitively at the IV Summit of the Americas in Mar del Plata (Argentina) in 2005. FTAA, FTAA, be damned! , was the refrain with which Hugo Chávez celebrated that funeral Recently, in the 21st century, the President of the United States, the billionaire Donald Trump, tries to dust off an old pillar of his country’s policy towards Latin America that seemed buried, the Monroe Doctrine: “Here in the Western Hemisphere, we are committed to in maintaining our independence from the intrusion of expansionist foreign powers.” Trump then told the United Nations General Assembly in New York: “It has been our country’s formal policy since President (James) Monroe that we reject interference by foreign nations in this hemisphere and in our own affairs,” he added. The Latin American countries that have already joined China’s gigantic new Silk Road (and the doubts that this project is mutually beneficial), without specifying which nations he referred to, Today, the same manifest plan… What is the Alliance of the Americas for Economic Prosperity that Biden proposed for Latin America about? During the opening ceremony of the IX Summit of the Americas, held in Los Angeles (California), US President Joe Biden announced his proposal to create the Alliance of the Americas for Economic Prosperity. He said, “I’m announcing a new economic partnership that builds on all the work we’ve done with the region and will guide our commitment going forward,” said the US President at the Microsoft Theater in Los Angeles, where the opening ceremony was held. of the summit. This latest summit is considered by them as it is called: as the Historic New Deal to promote the recovery and growth of the hemisphere’s economy and offer positive results to workers, according to a journalistic note from the US Department of State. RT. From all we understand, it is the supposed lifeline to transform the social disaster and inequality that they themselves have generated in our countries with their policies of blockade, interventionism, hegemonism, really a great lack of respect for the participants, the naked empire and presented worse than a paper tiger, they propose bread and circuses even having solved up there the great social decomposition of so many teenagers and young people killed in public places and schools without being able to do anything, the American Way on Life packed in this recent summit, an already discredited worldview. Another interesting thing to mention is the ridiculous proposal to advance a plan for the supposed regularization of the migratory issue in view of the increase in people moving around the continent in search of greater opportunities, with the self-confidence of affirming a visible lie such as supposedly “working for support countries that host large numbers of migrants or refugees who want to make ambitious reforms in line with the goals of the alliance”, promises the Department of State. It is impressive the mask with which President Biden appears at the last Monroist Summit in California with issues so critical that not even they themselves were able to resolve on their territory, such as economic, the highest inflation in all history. a decline in financial markets in order to break companies and new decentralized technological ideas causing the so-called Bear Marker that left millions penniless without capital, all generated by the establishment to hit the new cryptocurrency proposals that stand out, even then they got it right to not let it go forward, in doing so they want to guarantee us prosperity. ?? I believe, without fear of error, that the times of change are really returning in Our America and with more force, the regrettable scenario of the war between Russia and Ukraine has left many cracks open that allow geopolitics to be seen beyond, leaving the United States very weak in the scenario of world power and then wanting to impose the thesis of extracting wealth in our countries to finance the great economic, social and financial crisis that they are suffering and that it is precisely ordinary workers who are most affected, as has happened historically. Fortunately, we believe that this summit passed as an inglorious ghost, the worthy progressive presidents affirmed that they are standing and committed to the ideal of unity and emancipation despite imperialist attacks, blockades and threats, this historic moment indicates the moment of the advance and of Venezuela The proposal will continue to be Bolívar and Chávez in the construction of a multipolar world in which the imperialist thesis is uprooted by the visibility of the right of peoples to build their own destinies of freedom, but with equality, insofar as it is a life commitment of our people Commander Nicolas Maduro. Latin America continues walking, this coming Sunday the Bolivarian Colombia will be visible after 60 long years, Our America remains steadfast in the battle, these are incredible moments, many do not see it, many do not reveal it, but the peoples are speaking with force, our destiny is the victory over the empire despite a thousand giants, and this year it will be proven that the path traced by the continental revolution, summits no longer serve, this is pure intellectual and political dirt, people have spent more than 20 years reviewing all theses and all formulas at the cost of blood and pain, Monroe continues to die and the Bolivarian ideal rides on and on . The destinies of the peoples no longer manifest themselves, everything has changed a lot, they are built in the reality of the countryside and cities and despite the visits, the peoples of Our America continue to resist and take power, it is an immeasurable historical time initiated by Hugo Chávez and Venezuela have the virtue of remaining in the vanguard… We will win!!! Yaracuy Venezuela June 13, 2022. …. at June 18, 2022 No comments: Send by email Post on the blog! share on twitter share on facebook Share with Pinterest Tags : The last summit of Manifest Monroism , latin america , america for americans , geopolitics , Henrys Lor Mogollon , imperialism , moroism , venezuela Sunday, April 17, 2022 BYE BYE AMERICAN WAY OF LIFE * Valery Kulikov (PCTB) BYE BYE AMERICAN WAY OF LIFE Food Queue 2014 in New York Valery Kulikov I want in line with your sweeping speech against the specter of communism… to respond to this reality, THE UNITED STATES IS CRASHING TOGETHER WITH THE AMERICAN DREAM. In recent days the Western media has published several very symbolic articles about the future, perhaps it is worth noting a report by The Hill about how, hours before President Joe Biden’s visit to Pittsburgh, a bridge collapsed in that city. The event clearly foreshadows not so much the dire state of America’s 45,000 bridges, as the dispirited leader of “the world’s most successful nation” proclaims, but the critical state of the entire country. And as for this “state”, Joe Biden himself has pointed out that it is absolutely clear that the economy is still in trouble. More than ten million Americans have lost their jobs and four million have been unemployed for six months or more. Thirty-six million citizens are on the brink of unemployment. However, the German weekly Der Spiegel was more frank about the disaster that is already hitting the US, saying that it is a country of poor people. Currently, one in six Americans faces hunger. Even before the pandemic, an estimated 35 million US citizens did not have enough food to eat. According to Feeding America, the COVID pandemic has already brought that number to 50.5 million, of which 17 million are children. Almost a quarter of homeowners admit to having concerns about their own food safety, double the number at the end of 2018. Life is particularly difficult for families with children. Signs of impoverishment are evident everywhere, even in thriving megacities like New York or Los Angeles. The lines for free hot meals are so long that the last people left risk not getting their lunch: they simply run out of supplies for the day. Food banks say the expected$2 billion in aid from the US government is not enough to solve the “imminent crisis”.

As further evidence of an “America in decline”, The Guardian reports that even San Francisco’s luxurious Millennium Tower residential skyscraper “continues to sink and lean to one side by about 3 inches (7.5 cm). ) per year”, making comparisons with the Leaning Tower of Pisa. A correspondent for the Danish newspaper Jyllands-Posten who visited the United States wrote that the world is witnessing the collapse of the United States.

Last December, the consumer price index, which serves as the main tool for calculating inflation in the US, rose 7% from the same month in 2020, the highest level since June 1982, according to the Bureau of US Labor Statistics. As Sarah House, director and senior economist at Wells Fargo, told The Wall Street Journal: “There is still tremendous momentum when it comes to inflation right now. While inflation is likely to peak in the coming months, the overall pace will continue to challenge consumers, businesses and policies.” High inflation has already been felt by consumers themselves, who have begun to cut their spending.

New York street

Inflation in the United States has reached its highest rate in 40 years. Rising gas and food prices are forcing Americans to tighten their belts, ABC News reported.

Against this backdrop of total impoverishment, according to the Associated Press, thieves have been free to break into shipping containers aboard trains approaching downtown Los Angeles for months. Its “prey” is bundles from retailers including Amazon and REI. There are homeless camps on both sides of the train tracks. For the thousands of outcasts in “the fairest society on earth”, petty theft has become the only source of livelihood.

The Joe Biden administration, having proclaimed ideas of “racial justice,” is now making whites suffer to atone for their past sins, Fox News reported. As the channel points out, discrimination has even permeated healthcare: Precious COVID-19 drugs are primarily prescribed to members of racial minorities, regardless of whether they have chronic illnesses.

A survey by The Washington Post and the University of Maryland found that about half of US citizens (46%) said they were “somewhat” or “not at all” dissatisfied with the state of democracy in the country. In this context, the proportion of Americans who accept the use of force against authorities has increased to a level unprecedented in decades. Right now, nearly one in three Americans believe that violence against the government can sometimes be justified. The proportion of US residents with this view has risen to a 20-year high, the publication notes.

“The California Dream” has failed the pandemic test, with 173,000 people leaving the state in a year, mostly from Los Angeles and San Francisco counties, says Le Figaro. While ruling Democrats attribute the trend to falling birth rates, a slowing influx of immigrants, and rising death rates due to COVID-19, Republicans attribute the population flight to state policies that contribute to rising poverty. crime and other problems.

The American nation is sicker than ever, writes the American Conservative. Average life expectancy in the United States is falling, while the number of people with pathological anxiety and depression is increasing. The publication estimates that “in the US, more people seem to be falling off their horses, but fewer seem to be able to get up.” The alarming levels of antidepressant use among adolescents and adults in these conditions are reflected in official statistics: 10% of Americans take this drug, and the figure approaches 25% among women between 40 and 50 years old.

NPR and Ipsos conducted research showing that despite deep political and cultural divisions among Americans, they agree on one thing: democracy and the United States itself are in crisis and could collapse.

“A failed radical Democratic agenda” has brought the United States into the most dangerous times since the late 1930s, Republican Senator Lindsey Graham said, according to Insider. He said that “Americans will go to the polls this year… [to] register their opposition to… ‘a failed radical Democratic agenda’ that has endangered the state of the country.”

However, “US elites seek to deny the realities underlying their misrule, while treating the resulting popular unrest as a devious plot engineered by foreign conspirators,” writes The American Conservative. And this is demonstrated by another State Department document on alleged “Russian propaganda”, accusing Russia of all kinds of evil. In reality, however, “the Western ‘anti-disinfo’ industry can hang it: Putin is telling the truth”, emphasizes the publication.

California

Instead of correcting their own mistakes, today’s US political elite is unleashing countless propaganda information campaigns. As “the global threat of Moscow aggression against Ukraine”. Although even Kiev officially speaks of the futility and blatant falsehood of such actions by Washington, which is trying to flood all of Europe with its weapons that are now not competitive with Russia and China.

And, in proclaiming itself as a so-called “defender of human rights”, the United States is increasingly becoming a bastion of McCarthyism. The era of McCarthyism, directed against leftist and liberal figures and organizations, is believed to have occurred primarily during the period of political reaction in 1950-54. However, recent events clearly show that this ideology is very much alive in the American political establishment today and certain forces are actively trying to revive it in the US today, trying to keep people’s fear of a foreign adversary by presenting it as omnipresent almighty. . The preachers of McCarthyism today try to implant the idea that Russia is behind all the misfortunes, and if anyone dares to dispute this claim,

The recent announcement by the US Assistant Attorney General that a new “domestic terrorism” unit would be established to track down citizens who oppose government authority is one reason for this. As former US Congresswoman Tulsi Gabbard pointed out in an interview with Fox News: “This is the basis of authoritarianism… And this is unacceptable in [American] democracy and should not go unnoticed.”

*
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Tuesday, December 14, 2021
United States: a liar cumbre * Atilio Boron
United States: a liar cumbre

By Atilio A. Boron
December 10, 2021

President Joe Biden reviews his allies for a probable –perhaps very probable- military confrontation with China and Russia. The pretext?: a “Cumbre por la Democracia” about whose legitimacy very little sincerely believed. The “allied” governments of the United States (a clientele with recruits all over the world, starting with Europe) know that this is a farce whose true purpose is to align forces to accompany an irresponsible military escalation that could lead to a war of vast proportions, with epicenters in Ukraine and Taiwan. The belligerent intention fell of manifesto when it invited, as if it was an independent country, to Taiwan, a rebel province of China but indisputably, by history and geography, an integral part of its territory.

The Biden administration’s excuses for this virtual meeting are three: containing the growing threat of authoritarian regimes or ruthless autocracies; fight against corruption and promote human rights. In the three themes, the performance of the United States has been disappointing when not disastrous. I continue to support dictators around the world, from Southeast Asia to Latin America and the Caribbean, passing through Africa, the Middle East and Europe. To enumerate the specific cases would take whole pages that exceed the limits of this note. Let us remember his involvement in the overthrow, assignment and disappearance of Patrice Lumumba in 1961 in the Congo; his open participation in the coup d’état that culminated in the fall of the government of Salvador Allende in Chile; I supported the neo-Nazi coup that took place in Ukraine in February 2014; the protection granted to Chun Doo-hwan, the bloody dictator of South Korea who, in August 1980, shot hundreds of protesters with helicopters that Washington had donated to him. Both Casa Blanca and the European cancillerías refrained from condemning such brutal crime and opted for silence.

allies

As recognized by the Economist Intelligence Unit of the very conservative magazine The Economist, the democratic credentials of the United States are at least “flawed”. For this reason, in its index of democratic development, this country occupies the 25th place, among many of the Nordic countries that top the ranking. In spite of this, Biden believes he has enough merit to dictate the chair of democracy and decide which countries are democratic and which no. He seems to have forgotten that he is the ruler of a country that has a sad record in the field of Human Rights. No other terrorist act in the world compares with the atomic bombs that the United States dropped on defenseless Japanese cities, and little value should be assigned to this theme which has maintained for decades a wide-ranging strategic alliance with the monstrous monarchy of Saudi Arabia, adamantly passionate about the decapitation of its adversaries. Several invited to the meeting hold an ominous record in the field of Human Rights and without embargo are summoned to receive Biden’s blessing. Let’s think about the permanent protection that the United States offers to the narco-government of Iván Duque, despite the average of a daily appointment of a social leader by the state security agencies; the semi-dictatorship of Sebastián Piñera, who repressed peaceful protesters with calculated cruelty for many months; the hypercorrupt political puppet of South America, Juan Guaidó, stellar guest at the democratic conversation; al régimen neonazi israeli, that on the ground steals the native people of the region, the Palestinians, but that massacres them gently in the face of the indifference of the “democratic governments” of the world. It is worth remembering that Israel is the first recipient of US “military aid”, and its abuses only appear in the reports on the situation of Human Rights in the world that the Department of State prepares annually.

That’s why we decided that this meeting is a farce, a joke of bad taste for the millions of people who, all over the world, fight to build democratic regimes. There are many American academics who now refuse to speak of their country as a democracy. Noam Chomsky, Jeffrey Sachs, Sheldon Wolin, among others, prefer to use the term “plutocracy” to characterize their country’s political system. Es decir, government of the rich, by the rich and for the rich. In spite of that, Biden and his companions Arman is masked to align forces against China and Russia. Ojalá the Argentine government warns at the time of the maneuver and manifests itself against all kinds of injerencismo or “humanitarian interventionisms.”

….

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Tuesday, June 7, 2022
NOTE FROM CUBA ABOUT THE BIDEN SUMMIT* CUBAMINREX
NOTE FROM CUBA ON THE BIDEN SUMMIT

Cuba described the IX Summit of the Americas as a forum for imperialist domination and exclusion, according to a statement from the Revolutionary Government released today by the Itamaraty. The text pointed out that the United States abused the privilege granted by its status as host country of the conclave to decide in advance the exclusion of Cuba, Venezuela and Nicaragua.

Havana, June 6, 2022.- The Government of the United States, abusing the privilege granted by its status as host country, decided in advance to exclude Cuba, Venezuela and Nicaragua from the IX Summit of the Americas, to be held in the city of Los Angeles in June . It refused to meet the just demands of numerous governments to change this discriminatory and unacceptable position.

There is no single reason that justifies the undemocratic and arbitrary exclusion of any country in the hemisphere from this continental event. It is something that the nations of Latin America and the Caribbean have been alert to since the VI Summit held in Cartagena de Indias, in 2012.

President Miguel Díaz-Canel Bermúdez announced on May 25 that he would not attend. It was a firm decision for Cuba if all countries in the hemisphere were not invited on an equal footing.

Between arrogance, the fear that uncomfortable truths will be heard, the effort to prevent the meeting from deliberating on the hemisphere’s most pressing and complex issues, and the very contradictions of its weak and polarized political system, the US government has once again chosen by exclusion as a resource to try to hold an event without concrete contributions, but beneficial to the image of imperialism.

The intense high-level negotiations carried out by the United States with the governments of the region are known to contain the intention of many to be absent from the event if not all were invited. These included immoral pressure, blackmail, threats and dirty tricks. These are customary practices of imperialism that reflect its traditional contempt for our countries. They deserve the strongest rejection.

Cuba appreciates and respects the dignified, courageous and legitimate position of numerous governments in defense of the participation of all, on equal terms.

The leadership of Mexican President Andrés Manuel López Obrador deserves special recognition. We highlight the clear and precocious attitude of CARICOM member countries against exclusions, as well as the firm position of Bolivian President Luis Arce Catacora and Honduran President Xiomara Castro. Argentina’s position as president of CELAC expresses the majority opinion in the region against a selective summit, as several South and Central American governments have expressed in public and in private.

This genuine and spontaneous solidarity, in the face of discriminatory action by the United States against the countries of the region, reflects the feelings of the peoples of Our America. The United States has underestimated support for Cuba in the region, while trying to impose its unilateral and universally rejected policy of hostility against Cuba, as if it were a consensual position in the hemisphere, but the debate over the invitation process proved otherwise.

The XXI ALBA Summit, held in Havana on May 27, unequivocally marked the repudiation of exclusions and discriminatory and selective treatment.

Exclusions of this nature confirm that the United States conceived and used this high-level dialogue mechanism as an instrument of its hegemonic system in the hemisphere, in the style of the Organization of American States (OAS), the Inter-American Treaty of Reciprocal Assistance (TIAR) and other entities. conceived in the 20th century to restrict independence, limit the sovereignty of the nations of the region and impede the aspirations of Latin American and Caribbean unity and integration.

They are part of the effort to apply the Monroe Doctrine and promote exclusion as a weapon of division, based on clear political, electoral and domination interests.

One cannot speak of “the Americas” without covering all the countries that make up the hemisphere. What our region requires is cooperation, not exclusion; solidarity, not pettiness; respect, not arrogance; sovereignty and self-determination, not subordination.

It is known in advance that the documents that are intended to be adopted in Los Angeles are divorced from the real problems of the region and are, in fact, useless and ignored, in addition to the effort to grant the OAS a supranational prerogative to decide on the legitimacy or not of the electoral processes. and for the imposition on Latin American and Caribbean governments of repressive, discriminatory and exclusionary conduct against migrants.

We know that the voice of Latin America and the Caribbean, as in the past, will resound in those days in Los Angeles, with the admirable and vertical absence of fundamental leaders who have enormous political and moral authority and are recognized by their people and world.

We also have full confidence that the leaders of the region who decide to go will be able to justify with dignity that the United States cannot treat our peoples as it did in the 20th century.

Cuba supports genuine efforts to promote integration based on civilized coexistence, peace, respect for diversity and solidarity throughout the hemisphere. It has a widely recognized endorsement of supporting and contributing unreservedly to any legitimate proposal for real and concrete solutions to the most pressing problems our peoples suffer. The reality presented to us today is far from these desires.

cubaminrex
**********
at June 07, 2022 No comments:
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Friday, May 6, 2022
IS RUSSIA AN IMPERIALIST COUNTRY? * STANFIELD SMITH / USA
IS RUSSIA AN IMPERIALIST COUNTRY?

STANSFIELD SMITH, AMERICAN JOURNALIST
(CounterPounch.org)

Russia is a capitalist country, surrounded by the US because its government defends its political and economic independence (like Venezuela, Iran, Gaddafi’s Libya, Nicaragua). Russia is not part of any imperialist clique that threatens the world.

I know that Russia is an imperialist world power, a country in conflict with the imperialist superpower of the United States. Russia was characterized in this way both during the period of the Soviet Union and after its collapse with the formation of separate states. It has been said that Russia is imperialist both when it was a socialist state and now that it is a capitalist state.

Russia is also said to be a non-imperial capitalist state, still struggling to recover from the crisis of the Soviet collapse and Yeltsin’s two-year political and economic catastrophe, when the country became a quasi-neocolonial client plundered by the United States.

Lenin explained that modern capitalism “is everywhere transforming into monopoly capitalism” 2 and therefore “capitalism has become a world system of colonial oppression and “financial strangulation of the stigmatizing majority of the world population”. countries.3

This domination of the world by some imperialist powers is not only a major barrier to the economic and social progress of two less developed countries, but also to the solution of two pressing problems that afflict humanity as a whole now or on its own planet.

Lenin defined modern capitalist imperialism without outlining the conditional and relative value of all definitions in general, that we can never embrace all the concatenations of a phenomenon in its full development.

A definition of imperialism, according to Lenin, must consider the following five basic characteristics:

(a) The concentration of production and capital has developed to such an extent that it has created monopolies that play a decisive role in economic life; (b) the merger of bank capital with industrial capital and the creation, on the basis of “finance capital”, of a financial oligarchy; (c) the export of capital, unlike the export of goods, acquires exceptional importance; (d) the formation of international monopoly capitalist associations that divide the world among themselves, and (e) the territorial division of the entire world between the great capitalist powers is completed. Either imperialism or capitalism is at the stage of development where two monopolies and finance capital are established or dominated; in which the export of capital acquired greater importance. 4

We then discussed the role that Russian capitalist monopolies play in the world imperialist system, the nature of Russia’s export trade, the export of Russian capital, or the global role played by Russian finance capital and, ultimately, Russian military power. 5

1. Russia’s strength among international capitalist monopolies

Russia’s role in the “formation of international monopoly capitalist associations that divide the world among themselves” can be measured by the position of the country’s corporations among the 2,000 largest international corporations. 4

Listed by Forbes as the 2000 largest corporations in the world based on non-total sales, profits, assets and market value. There are 10 largest companies, 5 Chinese and 5 American. China is out 291 companies, the US leads with 560, or Canada has 50, Australia 39, India 58.

Russia had only 4 out of the top 100, ranked 43rd, 47th, 73rd and 98th. They are just 6 of the top 500 and 25 of the top 2000. Its total corporate share shows a small remnant, with an upward trend (only not Period 2008 -2013 Russian Corporations Russia entered the Global 2000 list).

The 2,000 companies on this list represent $39.1 trillion in sales,$3.2 trillion in profits, $189 trillion in assets and$56.8 trillion in market value. Sales of the 25 Russian companies total US$568 billion, just 1.45% of the total. Their collective assets soared to$1,757.3 billion, representing just under 1% of the total. Among international monopolies, Russia is a much smaller player.

Russia’s labor productivity compared to the European Union and the US

The prospect of a significant change in these numbers is belied by the problem of low productivity in the Russian workforce. Labor productivity, here measured by gross domestic product measured in US dollars divided by the total number of hours worked by the country’s workforce, stood at 25.4 in 2016 for Russia.

This is the lowest rate among all European countries, so low that it is less than half the EU average rate of 53.4. Russia’s labor productivity is 36% of the US level. Russia remains mired in the level of productivity of a backward country, far from being able to compete with advanced capitalist centers.

The World Economic Forum’s Global Competitiveness Report, based on a combination of twelve factors, ranks Russia 38th on its list, ahead of several Eastern European countries. The report’s ranking improved Russia’s position from 67th in 2012-13 to 38th in 2017-18. 6

Output of Russian manufacture

The role that Russia plays in the world economic system can be better understood by comparing industrial production by country in dollar terms. In 2015, China ranked first with $2.01 billion in manufactured goods, 20% of world output, and the US ranked second with$1.867 billion, 18%. Russia ranked 15th, behind India, Taiwan, Mexico and Brazil, with an output of US$139 billion in manufactured goods, again a marginal player, producing just 1% of global output. 2. Russian exports of raw materials versus high-tech goods In their export trade, the imperialist countries show a marked tendency to sell sophisticated and high-value finished products; knowledge-intensive technical services; and also financial services. Nations oppressed by imperialism are generally restricted to the export of raw materials at prices determined by the imperialist market and the production of finished goods by imperialist-owned corporate subsidiaries located in their countries. In 2017, of the top exporting countries in the world, Russia ranked 17th, after Mexico, the United Arab Emirates and Singapore. China ranked first with$2.263 billion in exports, the United States second with $1,547, Germany third with$1,448, and Russia is significantly above 2016 but still exports $353 billion. in goods. The World Bank reported that in 2017 oil and gas accounted for 58% of Russia’s exports, metals 11%, food raw materials 6%, wood and pulp and paper 3%, and 4% in precious metals, stones and other minerals. More than 82% of Russia’s exports are raw materials, while finished technological products (including military) account for only 8% of exports. 7 The top 10 items exported and imported by Russia (in 2017) reveal that machinery goods accounted for US$12.8 billion of its exports compared to US$106.2 billion of imports. Russian exports (and imports) do not fit the pattern of an imperialist state, but rather a semi-developed Third World state, mainly exporting raw materials and relying on foreign imports of advanced goods. Russian ranking in the export of high-tech goods (8) Imperial powers are the leading exporters of high-tech goods. In the world ranking for the export of these goods, China once again occupies the first place, with US$ 496 billion in high technology exports, with the United States in third (after Germany), exporting US$153.2 billion. Mexico exported US$ 46.8 billion. Russia ranked 31st in exports of high-tech goods, with just a total of $6.64 billion in exports. These figures also show that Russia is far from becoming an imperial actor on the world stage. 3. Russia’s role in international finance and banking capital In Lenin’s list of characteristics of imperialist countries, the big banks are the most important organizations of finance capital. Therefore, an imperialist state must have the main world banks. Of the top 100 banks in the world, ranked by total assets, China has 5 of the top 10. USA The USA has 6 of the top 40. Of the 100 largest banks, 20 are Chinese, 10 American, 9 Japanese, 6 French, 6 German, 6 British, 5 Canadian, 5 South Korean, 5 Brazilian, 4 Australian, 3 Swedish, 3 Italian, 3 Spanish, 3 Dutch, 2 from Singapore and 2 from Switzerland. Russia has one, ranked 66th. Lenin stated that in the imperialist epoch there was “the division of the world between international trusts”. The way the world in the imperialist era is divided between these trusts changes as imperialist states rise and fall. In the current world division among these trusts, we find Russia as a much smaller player, 4 corporations in the top 100, 25 in the top 2000 with 1.45% of the world market share, no company in the top 100 in terms of foreign assets, and a bank among the 100 largest international banks. Russian capital export Lenin stated that “the export of capital, unlike the export of goods, has acquired exceptional importance”. Russia has a substantial export of capital, but this occurs as capital flight, to tax havens such as Cyprus and the British Virgin Islands. Russia’s Central Bank put the country’s net capital flight in 2014 at$154.1 billion, and the total from Putin took office in 1999 to 2014 at about $550 billion. The actual total by 2014 could be more than$1 trillion. The Central Bank estimated Russian capital flight in 2018 at 66 billion dollars.

Foreign assets of Russian multinationals

A World Bank study lists the 100 largest non-financial multinational corporations ranked by their assets abroad, their investments in other countries. This study is fundamental to understand the export of financial capital: 20 of these corporations are American, 14 are British, 12 French, 11 German, 11 Japanese, 5 Swiss, 5 Chinese (including Hong Kong). There is no Russian company in the list of the 100 largest companies with investments abroad.

The 10 largest Russian non-financial multinationals hold US$188.3 billion in total foreign assets. The total Russian corporate foreign assets are also not on the list of the 100 largest non-financial multinationals in the world. 9 Russian finance capital holdings compared to imperialist states Credit Suisse annually produces another measure of the financial capital holdings of countries around the world. Its 2018 Global Wealth Data Book maps national financial wealth (stocks, bonds, money market funds and bank accounts) by dividing national financial wealth by the adult population of each country. The top group, with average wealth per adult of over$100,000, consists of countries in Western Europe, North America, Australia and New Zealand, Japan, Israel, Singapore and Taiwan. The United States ($336,528) ranks second after Switzerland ($372,336). All countries in this group are imperialist countries, or key satellites of the imperial center: the United States.

The global average financial wealth per adult is $38,110; Sacked Greece increased to$33,969. China is far behind at $19,862. Russia sits much lower at$8,843, which equates to 2.6% of the average adult financial wealth compared to the US.

As the data show, Russia is far from having the financial wealth of an imperialist country. In world financial wealth and non-financial wealth, the US has a 31% share, China is the only country that exceeds 10%, with 16.4%: Russia barely reaches 0.7%.

Lenin wrote “Imperialism is the epoch of finance capital and monopolies… an epoch in which the export of capital has acquired central importance” 10. Again, as the data show: in the area of ​​export of finance capital by Russian multinationals, Russia is a much smaller player.

4. Russian World Military Weight

Finally, Lenin refers to the “territorial division of the entire world between the great capitalist powers” ​​(5). Fundamental to mastering the global economic structures of imperialist countries is their role in policing and maintaining the world order they impose on us. The main imperialist powers have important arms industries and participate as sellers in the world arms trade.

Russian military exports

Only by military weight does Russia show its power, but that alone does not make it imperialist according to Lenin. Nor does it make Russia imperialist, not even in the pre-capitalist imperialist manner of ancient Rome, which required military expansion and slave labor.

While Russia’s significant military power, especially its nuclear arsenal, makes it difficult for the imperialists to press on, Russia does not invade or bomb countries like the United States, or even like second-rate imperial powers like Britain and France.

Furthermore, unlike these other imperial military powers, today’s capitalist Russia has not developed its own military force, the truth is that it has inherited its military might and its war industries from the USSR. Russia is also the only country of the former Soviet socialist bloc that remains surrounded and threatened by military attack by the imperialist West.

However, Russia is one of the world’s leading arms exporters. No branch of Russian manufacturing is competitive on the international market except the arms industry. Global arms exports in 2016 totaled US$32.262 billion and US$31.106 billion in 2017.

The Stockholm International Peace Research Institute lists Russia’s arms exports at US$6.148 billion in 2017, below US$6.937 billion in 2016. The largest arms exporter in the world is the United States, with US$10.304 billion in 2016 and US$12.394 billion in 2017. The US has 34% of global sales and Russia has 22%.

US arms exports are a little more than double those of Russia. Here, Russia is lagging behind: while US arms exports grew by 25% in 2013-17 compared to 2008-12, Russian exports dropped by 7.1% over the same period.

Russian corporations among weapons producers

According to SIPRI, the world’s top 100 weapons producers made $398.2 billion in sales in 2017 (Defense News offers different numbers). Half of that amount was raised by the top 10 producers, five of which are American companies, while only one is Russian. Of the top 100 arms producers, 42 are American corporations, while 10 are Russian. Russian Foreign Military Bases and Military Budget Russia has 15 military bases in 9 foreign countries. Only two of them are outside the former Soviet Union, in Vietnam and Syria. China has a base outside China, in Djbuti. The United States has more than 800 bases abroad. Compared to the US military budget (which SIPRI has estimated at$610 billion), the increase in the Pentagon’s budget this year alone is larger than the entire Russian military budget, which was $66 billion in 2017, fourth after the China and Saudi Arabia. Russian Interventions in Other Countries Russia has intervened in other countries (Yugoslavia, Georgia, Ukraine, Syria), but not in the manner of imperialist countries, which are motivated to appropriate natural resources and wealth. Russian intervention is also far from the interventions of secondary imperial powers such as France or Great Britain. Russia also did not plan coups in other countries, as imperialist countries constantly do. Russia was involved with very limited intervention in the former Yugoslavia (in the mid-1990s) when Russian forces acted as police. Russia fought over pro-Russian South Ossetia with Georgia in 2008, which was backed by the US. The conflict in Ukraine has a direct responsibility, the United States. When Washington provoked the anti-Russian right-wing coup in 2014, people in eastern Ukraine, which is predominantly Russian-speaking, rose up demanding political and economic autonomy. Despite the war, Moscow has shown no interest in absorbing eastern Ukraine, as it did with Crimea after the referendum there. Russia’s direct military involvement in 2015 in the Syria war is similar to Ukraine’s: its purpose? prevent the ongoing regime change organized by the US and NATO. Russia has been invited by the Syrian government to help defeat armed rebel groups funded by the US, NATO countries and Saudi Arabia. Unlike the United States, Britain and France, in none of these cases did Russia intervene militarily to overthrow a government in order to protect its economic interests abroad. NATO Enlargement 1949-2018 Russia’s increasing siege by the United States and NATO is a continuation of its earlier policy of subjugating and recolonizing the Soviet Union. Image source: North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). 5. Russia and imperialism today Referring to Lenin’s statement on imperialism, Russia is not an actor in the domain of monopolies and finance capital, nor does it play an important role in the export of capital (except for the negative effect of flight of capital in progress). ), nor Russia. trusts play any essential role in the division of the world’s resources. Russia can be ranked as one of the two most powerful states in the world based on its military strength alone. Economically, it shares the characteristics of an advanced capitalist state, rather than a semiperiphery capitalist country. It plays a very small role in exporting capital to the periphery and extracting profits from labor and two resources in two developing countries. Russia’s finance capital is small, its exports are predominantly raw materials, its industry is failing, its multinational corporations are smaller, its economy still has low labor productivity. Either imperialism remains the main danger to life and we will be two peoples of the world. Our problems, humanity’s problems, are rooted in the imperialist domination of our nations and lives. Specifically, it means the great imperialist patron of the United States, accompanied by the secondary imperial powers: Western Europe, Japan, Canada and Australia. Russia is a capitalist country, surrounded by the US because its government defends its political and economic independence (like Venezuela, Iran, Gaddafi’s Libya, Nicaragua). Russia is not part of a small imperialist clique that threatens the world. Instead, world powers like Russia and China must respond in a timely manner to the imperialism that has conspired to subordinate their independence. Their resistance must provide opportunities for a few others and countries to assert their own national sovereignty. NOTES In 1998, or an investment of almost 80%, real wages for the target of cattle and dairy herds were 75%. Those living below the poverty line in the former Soviet republics will increase from 14,000 in 1989 to 147,000. This produced more orphans than over 20 million Russian casualties during the war, cholera and typhus epidemics re-emerged, millions of children suffered from malnutrition and expected adult life expectancy. Lenin: An impending catastrophe and how to fight it, Collected Works, Volume 25, p. 339. Lenin: Imperialism: higher stage of capitalism. CW, 22, p.191. Lenin; Imperialism, CW 22, p.266-267. Two useful articles are: Renfrey Clarke and Roger Annis, “The Myth of ‘Russian Imperialism’” and Sam Williams, “Is Russia Imperialist? ” Detailed information about Russia on pages 248-249 of the report. World Bank Group, “Modest Growth Ahead, Russia Economic Report 39, May 2018 pv Definition: High-tech exports are R&D-intensive products such as aerospace, information technology, pharmaceuticals, scientific instruments, and electrical machinery. This information on the flight of Russian capital and foreign assets is fully consistent with data from an earlier study of Russian global investment, used, ironically, to claim that Russia is imperialist. at May 06, 2022 No comments: Send by email Post on the blog! share on twitter share on facebook Share with Pinterest Tags: RUSSIA IS AN IMPERIALIST COUNTRY , geopolitics , imperialism , marxism , STANFIELD SMITH Thursday, June 9, 2022 SUMMIT OF PEOPLE FROM CHIAPAS * Rolando Prudencio Briancon/Lawyer/Bolivia PEOPLES SUMMIT FROM CHIAPAS To participate in the 9th Summit is to accompany the United States to the edge of the abyss in which Latin America has for some time been in a daring historical trance that it has never experienced before; that is, to make decisions before the all-powerful Yankee empire like those that some of its members have just taken, which was previously unthinkable for them, such as not participating in this Summit. Furthermore, some who went back on their initial decision not to attend the 9th Summit have already shown that disobeying the empire is possible. Thus, by excluding the three countries -Cuba, Nicaragua and Venezuela- that will not participate in the 9th Summit of the Americas, which is already taking place in the United States; is that several others will not be at the Summit either; Precisely because of this exclusive decision by the host, which has made the rest of the countries begin to show signs that it is time to place themselves at the forefront of US power. He said that the three countries excluded: Cuba -since this event took place – Nicaragua and Venezuela are the ones that were excluded from this meeting, it was due to the sovereign political fronts that they practiced in relation to the hitherto hegemonic power that is still the United States, since it is becoming more and more evident that it is not this power that a simple snap of the fingers was enough to bring all other nations into line. Furthermore, all the rulers of these nations who participated in the previous Summits did not change so that no one would appear in the final photo of the event, since today this is not the abject vice of adhering to Washington’s guidelines. But today that the US; not only that it ceased to be the unipolar power, finding itself only in the struggle to be part of a new Pluripolar Order; some of those countries that he contemptuously called his “backyard” – remember Obama’s former Secretary of State: John Kerry emphasizing this condition of Latin America a few years ago – decided firmly and squarely not to participate in this Summit due to the exclusive nature of the event . These are the cases of; none other than Mexico, a neighbor of the USA, and with whom it shares and has shared not only thousands of kilometers of borders, but also common historical interests. Bolivia is the other country that will not participate due to the exclusionary nature of the event. of Honduras. Likewise, all of CARICOM will fail to do so. Other countries like Brazil, Argentina and Peru that initially indicated that they would not go and then replied; At the same time, they do not stop sending the signal that the shameful obedience that Latin America paid to the US is no longer such; though certainly those countries that have recoiled from lobbying by host operators to change their minds initially rebelled, and they are expected to gradually polarize with northern power. And it is that while the different countries in the region have been accumulating an attitude of resistance to a series of arrogant actions by the different governments of the United States, in relation to Latin America; northern power remained confident that allegiance would never change. One of those arrogant actions, and this has to do with one of the countries excluded from the event; it is the Olympic offense against the different votes that take place within the UN to lift the blockade against Cuba, which the United States and its unconditional vassal Israel vote against, which is what motivated the countries that did not attend to raise the cause of the Cuban people as a battle flag. It is this fact, in addition to having become a repetitive and banal rite in the UN that every year the same vote is taken and not carried out; Finally, it is an affront to every country that votes against the blockade against Cuba, but its expressed will is ignored. That’s why we come to the conclusion that maybe because each of the North American rulers believed that each vote in the UN was just a mere compliment to Cuba, which would always remain a good wish and nothing more; today, the Mexican representation demanded that this matter be addressed at the Summit. So while the US was arrogant, scaling its power and reaching the heights of its hegemony; today that the descent, the decline of this hegemony, has begun, Latin America cannot continue to maintain this condition of a backyard, but it is time to kick its ass, now that it is on the brink of its fall. Rolando Prudencio Briancon/ Lawyer/Bolivia at June 09, 2022 No comments: Send by email Post on the blog! share on twitter share on facebook Share with Pinterest Tags: anti- imperialism , chiapas , cupula of peoples , CUPULA DOS PEOPLE DE CHIAPAS , lopez obrador , mexico 1. Guilherme Monteiro Jr. says: Thursday, April 7, 2022 No fake news saves imperialism * Boaventura de Souza Santos / Portugal NO FAKE NEWS SAVES IMPERIALISM: Europe – One Hundred Years of Solitude Boaventura de Sousa Santos / Portugal One hundred years after the First World War, European leaders are sleepily heading towards a new all-out war. As in 1914, they think the war in Ukraine will be limited and short-lived. In 1914, it was said in the ministries that the war would last three weeks. It took four years and more than twenty million deaths. As in 1918, today the position prevails that it is necessary to punish exemplarily the aggressor power in order to leave it prostrate and humiliated for a long time. In 1918, the defeated power was Germany (and also the Ottoman Empire). There were dissenting voices (John Maynard Keynes and others) for whom the total humiliation of Germany would be disastrous for the reconstruction of Europe and for lasting peace on the continent and in the world. They were not heard, and twenty-one years later, Europe was at war again. Five years of destruction and over seventy million deaths followed. History does not repeat itself and apparently does not teach anything, but it serves to illustrate and show similarities and differences. Let’s look at one and the other in the light of two examples. In 1914, Europe had lived in relative peace for a hundred years, with many wars, but limited and short-lived. The secret of this peace was the Congress of Vienna (1814-1815). This international meeting sought to put an end to the cycle of transformations, turmoil and wars that began with the French Revolution and worsened with the Napoleonic Wars. The pact that ended the Congress of Vienna was signed nine days before Napoleon’s final defeat at Waterloo. At this congress conservative forces dominated and the period that followed was called the Restoration (of the old European order). The Congress of Vienna has, however, another feature that is worth remembering now. It was presided over by a great Austrian statesman, Klemens von Metternich, whose main concern was to incorporate all European powers, victors and vanquished alike, in order to ensure lasting peace. Of course, the losing power (France) would have to suffer the consequences (territorial losses), but the pact was signed by it and the other powers (Austria, England, Russia and Prussia) and with conditions imposed on all to guarantee lasting peace in Europe. . And so it was fulfilled. There are many differences from our time. The main one is that, this time, the theater of war is Europe, but the parties to the conflict are a European power (Russia) and a non-European power (United States). The war has all the characteristics of a proxy war, a war in which the contenders take advantage of another country (Ukraine), the country of sacrifice, to achieve geostrategic objectives that far transcend those of that country and even those of the region. which it is integrated (Europe). Indeed, Russia is only at war with Ukraine because it is at war with NATO, an organization whose Supreme Allied Commander in Europe is “traditionally an American commander”. An organization that, especially after the end of the first Cold War, served the geostrategic interests of the United States. Russia illegally and brutally sacrifices the principles of self-determination of peoples, of which it was an important herald in previous geopolitical contexts, to assert its security concerns after not seeing them recognized by peaceful means and by an undeniable imperial nostalgia. For its part, since the end of the first Cold War, the United States has been determined to deepen Russia’s defeat, a defeat perhaps more self-inflicted than caused by the superiority of the adversary. For a brief period, the diplomatic dispute in Washington was between “partnership for peace” and “the expansion of NATO to ensure the security of emerging Soviet bloc countries”. Under President Clinton, it was the latter policy that prevailed. For different reasons, also for the United States, Ukraine is the country of sacrifice. The war in Ukraine is subject to the objective of inflicting an unconditional defeat on Russia which, preferably, should last until regime change is brought about in Moscow. The duration of the war is subject to this objective. If the British Prime Minister can say that sanctions against Russia will continue, whatever Russia’s position now, what is Russia’s incentive to end the war? In the end, is it enough for Putin to be overthrown (as Napoleon was in 1815) or does Russia need to be overthrown to stop China’s expansion? There was also regime change in the humiliated Germany of 1918, but its course would end in Hitler and an even more devastating war. The political greatness of President Zelensky could be constructed as much as the brave patriot who defends his country from the invader to the last drop of blood, as the brave patriot who, in the face of the danger of so many innocent deaths and the asymmetry of military force, manages, with the support of its allies, strong negotiation and a dignified peace. The fact that the first construction prevails today is not the result of President Zelensky’s personal inclinations. but its course would end in Hitler and an even more devastating war. The political greatness of President Zelensky could be constructed as much as the brave patriot who defends his country from the invader to the last drop of blood, as the brave patriot who, in the face of the danger of so many innocent deaths and the asymmetry of military force, manages, with the support of its allies, strong negotiation and a dignified peace. The fact that the first construction prevails today is not the result of President Zelensky’s personal inclinations. but its course would end in Hitler and an even more devastating war. The political greatness of President Zelensky could be constructed as much as the brave patriot who defends his country from the invader to the last drop of blood, as the brave patriot who, in the face of the danger of so many innocent deaths and the asymmetry of military force, manages, with the support of its allies, strong negotiation and a dignified peace. The fact that the first construction prevails today is not the result of President Zelensky’s personal inclinations. with the support of its allies, strong negotiation and a dignified peace. The fact that the first construction prevails today is not the result of President Zelensky’s personal inclinations. with the support of its allies, strong negotiation and a dignified peace. The fact that the first construction prevails today is not the result of President Zelensky’s personal inclinations. The second example to see similarities and differences with the recent past refers to Europe’s geopolitical position. During the two world wars of the 20th century, Europe was the self-proclaimed center of the world. That’s why the wars were world. Almost four million of the “European” troops were actually African and Asian, and many thousands of non-European dead were the sacrifice price of being colony inhabitants in distant countries involved in wars that did not concern them. Today, Europe is a corner of the world, and the war in Ukraine will make it even smaller. For centuries it was the end of Eurasia, that great land mass between China and the Iberian Peninsula, where knowledge, products, scientific innovations and cultures circulated. Much of what was later attributed to European exceptionalism (from the scientific revolution of the 16th century to the industrial revolution of the 19th century) is not understood and would not have happened without this secular circulation. The war in Ukraine, especially if it is prolonged, risks not only cutting Europe off from one of its historic powers (Russia), but also isolating it from the rest of the world and, above all, from China. The world is much bigger than what is seen through the European lens. Seen through this lens, Europeans have never felt so strong, so united with their older partner, so confident on the right side of history, with the “liberal order” of the world dominating the planet, and robust enough to venture back in time. or at least neutralize China, after having destroyed its main partner, Russia. Seen through a non-European lens, Europe and the United States are proudly almost alone, perhaps capable of winning a battle, but certainly on the way to defeat in the war of history. More than half of the world’s population lives in countries that have decided not to impose sanctions on Russia. Many of those who voted (and rightly) at the UN against the illegal invasion of Ukraine did so with justifications of their historical experience, which was not to be invaded by Russia, but by the United States, England, France, Israel. His decisions were not the result of ignorance, but of precaution. *How can countries trust that, after having created a system of financial transfers (SWIFT) with the aim of defending economic transactions from political interference, expel a country for political reasons? In countries that claim the power to confiscate the financial and gold reserves of sovereign countries like Afghanistan, Venezuela and now Russia? In countries that proclaim freedom of expression as a sacrosanct universal value, but resort to censorship as soon as they feel unmasked by it? In supposedly democracy-loving countries that do not hesitate to provoke coups when those elected do not serve their interests? In countries for which, according to the convenience of the moment, “dictator” Nicolás Maduro can suddenly become a trading partner?* The world has lost its innocence, if at all. but do they resort to censorship as soon as they feel unmasked by it? In supposedly democracy-loving countries that do not hesitate to provoke coups when those elected do not serve their interests? In countries for which, according to the convenience of the moment, “dictator” Nicolás Maduro can suddenly become a trading partner?* The world has lost its innocence, if at all. but do they resort to censorship as soon as they feel unmasked by it? In supposedly democracy-loving countries that do not hesitate to provoke coups when those elected do not serve their interests? In countries for which, according to the convenience of the moment, “dictator” Nicolás Maduro can suddenly become a trading partner?* The world has lost its innocence, if at all. * at Apr 07, 2022 1 comment: Send by email Post on the blog! share on twitter share on facebook Share with Pinterest Tags: Boaventura de Souza Santos , europe , fake news , war , imperialism , No fake news saves imperialism , Portugal 2. Guilherme Monteiro Jr. says: Sunday, February 20, 2022 A MAP OF CURRENT LATIN AMERICA * Hector Bejar / Peru A MAP OF CURRENT LATIN AMERICA HECTOR BEJAR/PERU introduction Four emblematic coups d’état have been substantially reversed: Chile (1973), Peru (1992), Honduras (2009) and Bolivia (2019). Each one of them was impelled by extreme political forces supported by the military and the government of the United States. Presidents Gabriel Boric of Chile, Luis Arce of Bolivia, Pedro Castillo of Peru and President Xiomara Castro of Honduras are summed up to a series of mandates that represent the left’s political strengths. Every few ellxs fought in their electoral campaigns against odious fascist forces with close ties to the American government. It was clear that Washington wanted to see these fascists in power to advance their agenda of expelling the left from Latin America. Pero Arce, Castillo, Castro and Boric emerged victorious on the basis of broad coalitions of workers and peasants, the impoverished urban precariat and the sloping middle class. The mass movements defined their electoral campaigns from the Bolivian highlands to the lower Caribbean lands of Honduras. The erosion of neoliberalism Chile became a laboratory for neoliberal policies after the coup led by General Augusto Pinochet overthrew the socialist project of President Salvador Allende in 1973. Pinochet brought together a group of free-market economists known as the Chicago Boys to deliver quickly to multinational companies based in EE. UU. the best possible businesses (especially with Chilean copper), allowing the Chilean oligarchy to have extensive tax vacancies and privatizing most services and essential public programs, including pensions. What allowed Pinochet’s coup regime to last until 1990 was due to the brute force inflicted on the organized and socialist sectors of work, as well as relatively high copper prices. The surrender of the liberals to the policies of the Pinochet era was not a phenomenon on Chilean soil. The crisis of the deuda del Tercer Mundo in the 1980s and the fall of the USSR in 1991 strangled the capacity, including the powers of izquierda, to propose any new socialist project. It was during this period when the International Monetary Fund (IMF) became an important actor in Latin American politics, imposing austerity regimes as a condition for accessing financing to companies without the capacity to tolerate cuts in the public sector. When the IMF demanded austerity in Peru in the early 1990s, right-wing president Alberto Fujimori dismantled Congress and the Judiciary and took power (what is known as a self-coup). Other countries in the region in the hicieron lack similar coups, mainly because the liberals in these countries acceded to the policies of the IMF without joke. A few months after Fujimori’s self-coup, Venezuelan President Carlos Andrés Pérez adopted the IMF package whose core was large cuts in fuel subsidies. This package resulted in a massive revolution, el Caracazo, which inspired a young military officer named Hugo Chávez to enter political life. The violence that Pérez used to discipline the population in the austerity of the IMF marked the youth Chávez. It adopted the IMF package whose core was large cuts in fuel subsidies. This package resulted in a massive revolution, el Caracazo, which inspired a young military officer named Hugo Chávez to enter political life. The violence that Pérez used to discipline the population in the austerity of the IMF marked the youth Chávez. It adopted the IMF package whose core was large cuts in fuel subsidies. This package resulted in a massive revolution, el Caracazo, which inspired a young military officer named Hugo Chávez to enter political life. The violence that Pérez used to discipline the population in the austerity of the IMF marked the youth Chávez. Chávez did not speak alone in the name of the Venezuelan pueblo when he decided to be a candidate for the presidency in 1998, his voice traveled from Patagonia to the border between Mexico and the United States. He condemned neoliberalism without concessions, because he considered it a massive hambruna policy. His electoral victory with an anti-neoliberal platform and his articulation of a Bolivarian policy of continental unity inspired a series of political strengths throughout the region. The rapidity with which Latin American and Caribbean countries chose leftover political formations in the following years is remarkable: Haiti (2000), Argentina (2003), Brazil (2002), Uruguay (2004), Bolivia (2005), Honduras (2005) , Ecuador (2006), Nicaragua (2006), Guatemala (2007), Paraguay (2008) and El Salvador (2009). Although not all these formations were established as much as Chávez and the Cuban Revolution, they certainly began to open new paths from an outdated neoliberalism. The combination of the illegal US war against Iraq (2003), the global financial crisis (2007-08) and the general fragility of the US global power provided the international context for the emergence of what was called Marea Rosa. A season of hybrid wars The fragility of the American hegemony did not mean that these projects had been carried out without a hitch in what has been claimed as their “backyard” since the Monroe Doctrine of 1823. The first salvo against the Pink Sea was fired in Haiti, from where the president Jean-Bertrand Aristide was removed in a successful coup in 2004 (I had already suffered a coup supported by the EE.UU. in 1991, but it took power in 1994). Aristide was kidnapped by the United States, France and Canada and sent to South Africa while the authorities in Haiti carried out a purge of his political allies. The American coup against Aristide followed, five years later, a coup against the president of Honduras, the liberal Manuel Zelaya, who was violently removed and sent to the Dominican Republic. These coups d’état were accompanied by a more silent and tougher strategy of hybrid warfare, in which the United States united forces with the right oligarchy of Latin America to use the economic war, the diplomatic war, the communicational war and a series of others hostile acts to isolate and harm their adversaries. Hybrid warfare techniques had been developed against Cuba since the 1960s: isolation attempts, exclusion from the Organization of American States in 1962 (Mexico remained on the margins), asphyxiating the Cuban economy with sanctions and blocking (broken by the international solidarity of the USSR), a war of communication that included the loss of prestige of the communist leaders of the country, and acts of open aggression, including invasions (such as the one by Bahía de Cochinos in 1961) and 638 assassination attempts against Castro. This became the model for the hybrid wars launched against Bolivia, Nicaragua, Venezuela and other places, which included new forms of lawfare (using the legal system as a weapon) employed against projects of izquierda in Paraguay, with political judgment and destitution. by Fernando Lugo in 2012, and in Brazil, with the dismissal of Dilma Rousseff in 2016 and the incarceration of former president Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva in 2018. The 2017 self-coup of the president of Ecuador Lenín Moreno accompanied the withdrawal of legal proceedings against American oil multinationals and the delivery from Julian Assange to the British authorities in exchange for an IMF credit injection. The creation of the Lima Group in 2017 —engineered by EE. UU. and Canada — sought to undermine the Bolivarian Revolution in Venezuela, for example, through the robo of Venezuelan resources and the creation and installation attempt of the false president Juan Guaidó to question the legitimacy of the national political process. The government of the United States has waged a fierce war against the people of Latin America and the Caribbean, The return of the izquierda The izquierda in Latin America has never been unitary. The current viejas were very deteriorated by the dictatorships of the 1970s and 80s, when thousands of squares and sympathizers were asesinadxs and whole traditions of thought and praxis were lost to the following generations. What recovered in the 1990s came from the resistance of the Cuban Revolution, from the visionary leadership of Chávez and from the new social movements that emerged against austerity and racism (especially racism against indigenous people in the hemisphere), as for the expansion of social rights (especially the rights of women and people of sexual diversities), and for an harmonious relationship with nature. Chávez’s importance lies in the fact that he was able to bring these diverse currents together, and that he managed to reach bridges between those who participated in political activity through parties and who developed it through social movements. It was the root of the immense political advances of Chávez in Venezuela and on the continent that other social formations of izquierda began to emerge. The high point of the great unit between the forces of the left of the hemisphere was produced in Mar del Plata (Argentina) in 2005, during the IV Summit of the Americas, in which Chávez led the rejection of the Latin American nations to the Treaty of Free Trade de las Américas (ALCA), backed by the United States. In the anticumbre that was celebrated in the surroundings, Chávez, together with the then candidate for the Bolivian presidency, Evo Morales, the legend of Argentine football Diego Maradona and the Cuban singer-songwriter Silvio Rodríguez, condemned the Washington Consensus. Given that Brazil, the largest economy in the region, joined Argentina and Venezuela in their rejection of the FTAA, another path seemed possible. However, with the collapse of commodity prices since 2010 and the death of Chávez in 2013, the US imperialist agenda gained prominence. The coup d’état against Evo Morales in 2019 was carried out in the name of “democracy”, extraneously backed by liberal forces who felt comfortable with fascists, racists and fundamentalists who —as the interim president said— “suane with a Bolivia free of satanic indigenous rites”. It was this sector that led to the coup, who considered themselves as the “democrats” of Bolivia over the democratically elected indigenous president. When portraying Cuba, Nicaragua and Venezuela as the “troika of tyranny”, the United States was able to open a gap in the izquierda, separating the sectors that now felt uncomfortable or giving in to the punitive actions undertaken for being in alliance with these revolutionary processes. The success of the hybrid war to spread tales of divisions delayed the return of what was left in many countries and allowed the neo-fascists —like President Jair Bolsonaro in Brazil— to seize power. The divisions remain intact, the progressive forces of Chile, Colombia and Peru are still eager to distance themselves from Cuba, Nicaragua and Venezuela using the vocabulary provided by US propaganda. The success of the hybrid war to spread tales of divisions delayed the return of what was left in many countries and allowed the neo-fascists —like President Jair Bolsonaro in Brazil— to seize power. The divisions remain intact, the progressive forces of Chile, Colombia and Peru are still eager to distance themselves from Cuba, Nicaragua and Venezuela using the vocabulary provided by US propaganda. The success of the hybrid war to spread tales of divisions delayed the return of what was left in many countries and allowed the neo-fascists —like President Jair Bolsonaro in Brazil— to seize power. The divisions remain intact, the progressive forces of Chile, Colombia and Peru are still eager to distance themselves from Cuba, Nicaragua and Venezuela using the vocabulary provided by US propaganda. However, the fatal impossibility of permanent austerity allowed the forces of izquierda to regroup and counterattack. The Movement for Socialism (MAS) by Morales did not collapse, a bell that valiantly resisted the coup regime, a struggle to celebrate elections during the pandemic and power in Bolivia in 2020 and with the majority. Some of the powers of izquierda and liberals de izquierda de Honduras were vapouted after the coup d’état in 2009, they fought hard in the elections of 2013 and 2017, losing, according to experts, due to widespread electoral fraud. Xiomara Castro, who lost in 2013, finally won in 2021 by a wide margin. In Peru, a very fragile coalition gathered around the candidacy of a union leader of maestros, Pedro Castillo, won by a narrow margin against Keiko Fujimori, the right-wing candidate, son of Alberto Fujimori, author of the self-coup in 1992. In Bolivia, the roots of the movement to build socialism are deep and have been strengthened by the achievements achieved in the 14 years of Evo Morales’ leadership, these roots are much more superficial in Peru and Honduras. Pedro Castillo has already been isolated to a large extent from his own movement and the agenda that he has been able to promote and is decidedly modest. Commodity prices, whose tickets were fed at Marea Rosa for 20 years, remain low. But now the context has changed in the region, as China is more involved. Its interest in expanding the Nueva Ruta de la Seda (Initiative of the Belt and the Road or BRI for its acronym in English) in Latin America has provided new sources of investment and financing for the development of the region. In Latin America, it is widely accepted that the BRI project is an antidote to the widely discredited IMF project and Washington’s neoliberal austerity agenda. With little original capital to invest in the region, the United States mainly has its military and diplomatic power to use against the arrival of Chinese investments. Latin America, therefore, it has become an important front in the cold war imposed by the EE. UU. against China. In each of the new projects to develop in the region, China will play a significant role. For Xiomara Castro, one of her first visits will be to Beijing and for Daniel Ortega’s Nicaragua, she decided to recognize the People’s Republic of China and Taiwan as the legitimate representation of China in the United Nations system. There is no doubt that, from Mexico to Chile, the cuestión de las inversiones chinas has altered the balance of powers and will probably join groups that would not otherwise be tolerated. The United States is trying to present China as a “dictatorship” to attract the sectors of the most progressive, In 2022 there will be crucial selections in Brazil and Colombia. In Brazil, Lula leads all the surveys and is likely to return to the presidency unless he is, again, sabotaged by the hybrid war. Lula has become significantly radicalized by the attacks he has received: if he does, he will probably be less willing to commit himself to the entrenched local oligarchies, and therefore he will probably be a firm ally of the revolutionary processes in Bolivia, Cuba, Nicaragua and Venezuela, as well as them. izquierda gobiernos in other places. The comments of Lula and Dilma suggest that they seek to develop a closer relationship with China to balance the stifling impact of US power. Colombia, a former ally of the United States, where violence has been used by a reactionary oligarchy to maintain power, could witness the victory of the popular candidate of izquierda Gustavo Petro. The protests against the austerity in Colombia had defined the policy of the country much before the COVID-19 pandemic and probably established the terms of the electoral campaign. If Lula and Petro won, Latin America will be closer to establishing a regional project that is not defined by economic austerity, the use of resources and political demise driven by the United States. An empire in decline To understand the dynamics in Latin America and the Caribbean, we turned to Héctor Béjar, the former Minister of Foreign Affairs in the office of the President of Peru, Pedro Castillo. Béjar is one of the most outstanding intellectuals of the continent and has written with great passion about the history of his country, with special emphasis on what he has and the possibilities of social change in our time. In 1962, at the age of 26, Béjar traveled to Cuba to train as a guerrilla. A year later, there were a few comrades, such as Javier Heraud, Julio Dagnino, Alaín Elías and Juan Pablo Chang, formed the National Liberation Army (ELN), which sought to end the disgraceful situation in Peru. After returning to Peru, he was sent to jail and faced the possibility of a 17-year-old sentence. In 1969 he won the prize of Casa de las Américas (Cuba) for his classic book: Peru 1965: Apuntes sobre una experiencia guerrillera. A sample of Béjar’s great commitment to social justice and his intelligence is the fact that he was pardoned in 1970 by then president Juan Velasco Alvarado, who had worked on an agrarian reform program. The failure of Velasco’s attempt to democratize Peru led to Béjar and others to create the Centro de Estudios para el Desarrollo y la Participación (CEDEP), whose magazine, Socialismo y Participación, was directed by Béjar between 1977 and 2009. a key reference on the ground about the events in Peru, also in the whole region. Béjar summarized his work for the magazine in a series of classic books such as: La revolución en la trampa, 1976; The peasant organization, 1980; and Myth and Utopia: an alternative account of the republican origin of Peru, 2012. President Pedro Castillo invited Béjar to form part of his government as Minister of Foreign Affairs, and he accepted. However, Béjar’s term of office lasted only a few weeks, from July 29 to August 17, 2021. The brief period of his term is better understood by the limited amount of maneuver available to the government of Castillo, who immediately found himself subject to a immense pressure to separate from his sine the most respected intellectual of the most respected in Peru. José Carlos Llerena Robles, member of La Junta and ALBA Movimientos (Perú), spoke with Béjar about the current political situation in Latin America and the Caribbean in the name of the Instituto Tricontinental de Investigación Social. They talked on three occasions, producing an extraordinary discussion about some of the questions raised in this introduction. What you read in A map of the present of Latin America: an interview with Héctor Béjar (Dossier 49) is a summary of these conversations. Part 1. Latin America and American imperialism José Carlos Llerena: How would you characterize the catastrophic situation in Latin America with respect to what is left, the popular movements, the death of Commander Hugo Chávez in 2013? Héctor Béjar: Each phenomenon is unique and each country has its own reality, but there would be no negative balance, on the contrary. Si yo fuera de derecha would be worried. The Partido Revolucionario Dominicano (PRD) continues to rule the Dominican Republic. La Revolución Cubana and La Revolución Bolivariana remain unbeaten. It’s Nicaragua, the sandinistas have just won elections. Tienes to López Obrador in Mexico has just won Xiomara Castro in Honduras, in Chile has won Gabriel Boric, a left-wing candidate that emerges from the popular movement. In Bolivia is Luis Arce, in Argentina is Alberto Fernández and Barbados has just proclaimed itself a Republic. For me, the balance is positive as you compare the situation of the 70’s in which I have a liquidation system, a systematic assignment of equity leaders that somehow continues in Colombia even today and that still follows one threatens. But if you compare this with the current situation, you find that what we say, what we call for in Latin America and the Caribbean, has gained enormous space and what we call right is in a situation of popular orphanage and tremendous political mentality. Another thing is, by the way, the economic system, the world continues to follow the banks. In the cultural world, there is everything, the right doesn’t have anything. In the political world there is a tie. I believe that it is a great process of Latin America, a species of great march. So it is difficult to make a general statement of great brochazo. One has to get closer and see the characteristics of each process in the region. In some places the izquierdas have had to moderate their language, because they have to win other political layers in alliances. What just happened in Honduras, for example. In other places, no. The region is getting more and more pink. From the Cuban Revolution in 1959 to 1967, when the Latin American left died, there were guerrillas, rural guerrillas and urban guerrillas. These guerrillas had socialist programs. The death of the Che and by supuesto, the coup against Allende in 1973, marked a whole new era. A time of dictatorships, las dictaduras del Plan Cóndor (A plan developed by the military of the region in collaboration with the United States to eliminate tens of thousands of militants between 1975 and 1983). Hubo a mass elimination of the tupamaros in Uruguay, of the montoneros in Argentina and of the urban guerrillas in Brazil, by Carlos Marighella. The whole process reinvents itself, let’s say, and a typical leftover from transition processes appears. A legacy marked by the transition from Franco to democracy in Spain, the Pacto de la Moncloa, that joined the izquierda with the center to suspend the huelgas. Marked by the Brazilian transition from the military dictatorship to Fernando Henrique Cardoso, which is all a process. In the Argentine case, the transition via Raúl Alfonsín who first fails and there is a regrouping of Peronism around Kirchner; in Chile, through the Concertación, a coalition of the center, if of a transition vigilada. It was during this period that he had to pay a very high price for, after his military defeat in the guerrillas, to gain entry into the political system. the transition via Raúl Alfonsín who fails first and there is a regrouping of Peronism around Kirchner; in Chile, through the Concertación, a coalition of the center, if of a transition vigilada. It was during this period that he had to pay a very high price for, after his military defeat in the guerrillas, to gain entry into the political system. the transition via Raúl Alfonsín who fails first and there is a regrouping of Peronism around Kirchner; in Chile, through the Concertación, a coalition of the center, if of a transition vigilada. It was during this period that he had to pay a very high price for, after his military defeat in the guerrillas, to gain entry into the political system. Aún in the beginnings of that period, it is decir, in Latin America in general, however we are marked by the Chilean Concertación, by the Pacto de la Moncloa and by the Brazilian transition. In addition, it is not only a Latin American case, it is also the case of South Africa, for example. They are processes that produce the transition to forget the past. But as we know, the past is never forgotten. This is the case of Spain, where the truth about the Spanish Civil War and the Francoist repression is still hidden. Nadie dares to uncover it. There has not been a commission of truth in Brazil or in Uruguay. The only valiant ones were the Kirchners in Argentina, who dared to imprison the Argentine dictators. It is an exceptional case. Pinochet died in his bed and was honored by the Concertación. So that’s the policy, You are paying the price and I believe that the Latin American izquierda is paying this price. I don’t want to decide that I don’t have to pay it, I don’t intend to decide that it’s a betrayal or nothing like it, I believe that it’s the reality of things that forces you to do so. The set of the situation is not a tie, I believe that when there is a tie, there is a static situation and I do not believe that it is a tie, but it is a coming and going, a very dynamic situation. The danger that I cannot forget, the most important of all, is that the pueblo in general empieza to detest the political system and empieza to identify what is left with the political system. So throughout Latin America, abstentionism in elections is getting bigger. With some exceptions, such as Honduras, but this is an exceptional situation due to the circumstances that this country has experienced.[1] . What are the challenges and threats for the popular field that wants to carry out these necessary political, social, cultural transformations and in a revolutionary way? The question about the characterization that was given to the new progresista, where we have seen cases in Peru, Chile or Ecuador, in which these facts supposedly privilege the technical over the political, dispense with a little popular and end up generating a tie with the sensation of the pueblo and being displaced by right, neoconservative and ultra neoliberal alternatives. What we call popular camp varies from country to country. What more we know, by the way, is the popular camp in Peru and I think it looks a lot like Bolivia. There is a “popular bourgeoisie”. Contraband, all the traffic, the mining, the trade and the micro trade generate huge amounts of money that flow through the popular countryside. Then there is what we can call emerging bourgeoisies or emerging mafias if you want, because everything is tainted by corruption. So it is very difficult at this moment in countries like Peru to distinguish. And, therefore, I believe that in the popular countryside there are from the sectors of extreme poverty, the people who do not have to eat, until the people who have a lot of money. This term, “popular bourgeoisie”, may seem contradictory, but I am trying to express something of the social reality. I believe that in Latin America there is not one left, there are many lefts. From the lefts that uno doesn’t know if they are left or right, the center of right, until the extreme left. Also the popular world, which is not defined as leftovers, but physically is right there, which seems to me to be the most important. Es decir, el pueblo de Yauri, a district in southern Peru that suffers from the actions of contaminants from the copper and gold mining industries, probably very catholic, conservative and in points that are very expensive to have, if right, but it’s on the left. Because? Because it protests against mining contamination. For example, if you review the policy of Nicaraguan, Sandinismo, Nicaraguan culture, it is extremely conservative in terms of sexual and reproductive rights. So I believe that there is a very big political approach. For example, in the Peruvian case, the great popular masses are not popular masses. Among them, there are certainly people of izquierda, of course, but I would not per se define a rondero [a member of a species of peasant guard, Pedro Castillo’s main social base] as a man of izquierda. At the time of talking about matrimonial relations, he is extremely conservative and certainly a devout Catholic. And if you talk about abortion, I don’t talk, and if you talk about racism, tampoco. Because there is racism on both sides, in terms of strong regionalism. In some parts of Peru, there is a kind of anti-Limeño regionalism, too, which in no way can run parallel with the Lima-based racism against the provinces. So there are many things that cross each other and that the right takes advantage of at some moments. If they were intelligent, they would benefit from much more. I believe that what we have to do is a dispassionate analysis of how what we call the popular movement is developing. What exactly is a popular movement and what isn’t. In times of greater movement, in recent years in Peru, there are thousands of people who have not moved. Let’s not forget Lima has 10 million inhabitants and I haven’t seen a demonstration of six thousand people in Lima now. What exactly is a popular movement and what isn’t. In times of greater movement, in recent years in Peru, there are thousands of people who have not moved. Let’s not forget Lima has 10 million inhabitants and I haven’t seen a demonstration of six thousand people in Lima now. What exactly is a popular movement and what isn’t. In times of greater movement, in recent years in Peru, there are thousands of people who have not moved. Let’s not forget Lima has 10 million inhabitants and I haven’t seen a demonstration of six thousand people in Lima now. In this sense, linked to this analysis of what is the popular movement with all its diversity in the South American, Mesoamerican and Caribbean regions, how do you intertwine this analysis with the possibility of building a continental project? Recalling the legacies we have alive before Bolívar, Faustino Sánchez Carrión[2] , el mismo Hugo Chávez and recently, for example, the compañero Evo Morales, to speak of a plurinational Latin America against imperialism. Of course I did. I also believe that there is to be a push, but I would tend to have many different levels. There would be many movements within a movement. For example, the communication between the Aymaras of Peru, Bolivia and Chile that exists and is powerful. This is a whole world that is the only one that has to be given a political content, because it has tremendous economic power, it has an enormous cultural identity. This is also valid, let’s say, not with this strength, but for other levels. Now the popular movement uses the internet. The case of the Amazonian indigenous people, they are globalized. So I believe that it is quite easy to establish regional, Latin American and Caribbean instances because they are global. Tienen Global Indigenous Networks. Tienen is present at United Nations. Tienen voice, tienen positions. Another level is the union level. As much as the union movements are very weakened, there are still union instances in Brazil, in Argentina, little fell in Peru, in Colombia, etc. On the other hand, it is the level of progressive governments, who have the São Paulo Forum and the Puebla Group. On television, my teleSUR seems very important to me, it is something that has to be conserved as gold and has to be developed. We should also have a Latin American editorial, with Latin American thinking. That’s about to happen. And we have all the official stuff: UNASUR, CELAC, etc. I believe that there is a series of distinct instances that can be leveraged simultaneously, each on their own terrain, to create a general but multiple movement. there are union instances however in Brazil, in Argentina, the little that falls in Peru, in Colombia, etc. On the other hand, it is the level of progressive governments, who have the São Paulo Forum and the Puebla Group. On television, my teleSUR seems very important to me, it is something that has to be conserved as gold and has to be developed. We should also have a Latin American editorial, with Latin American thinking. That’s about to happen. And we have all the official stuff: UNASUR, CELAC, etc. I believe that there is a series of distinct instances that can be leveraged simultaneously, each on their own terrain, to create a general but multiple movement. there are union instances however in Brazil, in Argentina, the little that falls in Peru, in Colombia, etc. On the other hand, it is the level of progressive governments, who have the São Paulo Forum and the Puebla Group. On television, my teleSUR seems very important to me, it is something that has to be conserved as gold and has to be developed. We should also have a Latin American editorial, with Latin American thinking. That’s about to happen. And we have all the official stuff: UNASUR, CELAC, etc. I believe that there is a series of distinct instances that can be leveraged simultaneously, each on their own terrain, to create a general but multiple movement. On television, my teleSUR seems very important to me, it is something that has to be conserved as gold and has to be developed. We should also have a Latin American editorial, with Latin American thinking. That’s about to happen. And we have all the official stuff: UNASUR, CELAC, etc. I believe that there is a series of distinct instances that can be leveraged simultaneously, each on their own terrain, to create a general but multiple movement. On television, my teleSUR seems very important to me, it is something that has to be conserved as gold and has to be developed. We should also have a Latin American editorial, with Latin American thinking. That’s about to happen. And we have all the official stuff: UNASUR, CELAC, etc. I believe that there is a series of distinct instances that can be leveraged simultaneously, each on their own terrain, to create a general but multiple movement. Now I wanted to ask him, what happens on the other side? With his experience of fighting in the guerrillas of the sixties, seventies, in the heat of the Cuban Revolution, he faced the imperial enemy with certain characterizations and certain configuration. Today, despite the fact that the North American hegemony has been losing space with respect to the advance of China, it continues to put its ferocious claws on Nuestra América y el Caribe. There is now a kind of “war neoliberalism” that oscillates between drug trafficking and a war on drugs with Colombia in its epicenter. I have always thought that the best way to fight the enemy is to know him. El Perú does not have international politics and its izquierdas tampoco la tienen. So we don’t know what happens in Europe, we don’t know what happens in the United States, and we don’t have forgiveness. One has to know what happens in the United States, by obligation, because the Empire is your enemy. So, how do you get to know him? You have to know and also get to work there and make a relationship with the social movements questioning that there are in the United States and that are growing. United States has lost importance, it is a decaying empire. The North American investment has no importance in Latin America and the Caribbean. These claws are now military. Son, I would say, exclusively militaries through the formation and education of the militaries and through the military power that continues in the United States. And not bad, because the United States is only in the economic crisis that we already know, but in a tremendous political crisis. There is also a kind of tie in the United States. There is an emergence of questioning movements at every level. There is a general weakening of the previous Democratic and Republican parties. There is a disengagement of the North American people from professional politics. I believe that it only weakens the personality of what we have come to know as US imperialism. The old imperialism is of no use to you, it is useless for you to repeat that the United States is imperialist and that one is anti-imperialist. What you need to know about the United States and see how you go about isolating those groups that continue to be very dangerous, that are based on US intelligence agencies and US militarism. And, by the way, it is not in the American formal investment, but in the informal networks, which is also another important American penetration, the drug market, in Mexico there is also the arms traffic. Colombia remains a province of the United States, a criminal country where social leaders are systematically signed. It’s supposed to be the first cocaine exporter in the world. 3. Guilherme Monteiro Jr. says: Part 2. Peru How would you characterize the situation of the Peruvian economy, what are we going through and on which there is much interest? In his book ‘Chronic Vieja y Mal Gobierno’ we have suggested that Peru today responds to the years of a first and illusory independence and a process of a failed republic, and that we were divided into mafias and plebes. In Peru there is a need to distinguish between society and the electoral system. The society moves because the dominant groups plunder Peru, especially via the mining explotación (from the oil explotación to the wood explotación). The Peruvian productive apparatus in relation to the outside world is dominated by monopolies. In opposition to this, the Peruvian society moves into resistance, because what these monopoly groups do to carry out their activities inevitably affects the daily and productive life of the Peruvian society. At the moment when someone poisons you with water and you cannot drink water, you realize that your kids are bleeding because they are bleeding from the nose, or because they are suffering from psychological problems, then you resist and protest. There is this resistance within a very passive society in general. In this sense, I use the word plebe, in derogatory terms, as something more or less indefinable. If social movements change, which are in some latent cases and in other effective cases in their resistance and in their protest, but they are always in latency. They are networks that remain. So you have three elements: the looting economic groups, the most or less indifferent society and the networks that move within this indifferent society, which are networks of resistance. but they are always in latency. They are networks that remain. So you have three elements: the looting economic groups, the most or less indifferent society and the networks that move within this indifferent society, which are networks of resistance. but they are always in latency. They are networks that remain. So you have three elements: the looting economic groups, the most or less indifferent society and the networks that move within this indifferent society, which are networks of resistance. A political system is built on this social system that is dominated by oligarchic groups, es decir, by functional groups to the interests of these economic groups, fundamentally banks and companies. They are especially the lawyers and the politicians of the companies. In this system there are, on the one hand, very ultraconservative groups, and on the other hand, what can be called a more or less indefinable left, headed by the most active groups that are divided into: a moderate left that cannot be distinguished from a suerte of Creole socialdemocracy or of a more or less civilized right, the right center; y, a chola izquierda, provincial, very little sophisticated, which is a red izquierda. In its best times, the Peruvian electoral izquierda has not passed the 30% and this was also the case of Castillo. The government of Castillo finds it difficult to govern because it lacks political culture, lacks knowledge of the world and lacks a management, which does not tend to have, of the mechanisms of the State that have managed precisely the others, those that have been electorally defeated . This is the current problem in Peru. But I could not finish this description without deciding that, as a whole, the Peruvian society today is a society of great stature in political terms. Because I believe that Peru has experienced a huge setback as a result of the application of the neoliberal program. We’ve been talking since the 1990s. This means an impoverishment of education, an impoverishment of teacher training. A clear impoverishment and an open corruption of the military sectors. A general corruption of the country, a corruption of the State. And, therefore, whoever wants to manage the State will find itself with a corrupt State, but with a corrupt society too, because when we talk about a corrupt State, we forget that corruption is always from one to two, because there is a corrupted and there is a corruptor. So, that the State is corrupt means that those who manage the State are corrupt. And we have time for Peruvian businessmen to take over the state. We have had entrepreneurs such as ministers and we have had the famous system of the rotating gate, where executives of large companies are today ministers and managers of companies. So we cannot say the word State without saying that this State is a State colonized by companies. A State that has served and serves these interests. So, when you have an intruder stuck in and just like a character, like Pedro Castillo, obviously he won’t be able to handle it, and that’s because he has to handle some 2,500 operators of economic groups that are involved in the main instances of the State. This is the theme for me at this moment. The only way, I insist, And this is what I said five thousand times and Castillo himself said it in his electoral campaign, it’s just that this screen in which Castillo has fallen can be won. Just skip this screen and go to that red that is in popular latency and activate that red. But that’s just what Castillo doesn’t want to do, because he apparently believes that falling well with the right and with the international right can survive. In this sense, the last visit of Luis Almagro, Secretary General of the OAS, in November 2021, has much significance. He could survive, and that’s not the least of my doubts, but he’s going to survive is another Castillo. The Castillo de la electoral campaign will not survive. Just skip this screen and go to that red that is in popular latency and activate that red. But that’s just what Castillo doesn’t want to do, because he apparently believes that falling well with the right and with the international right can survive. In this sense, the last visit of Luis Almagro, Secretary General of the OAS, in November 2021, has much significance. He could survive, and that’s not the least of my doubts, but he’s going to survive is another Castillo. The Castillo de la electoral campaign will not survive. Just skip this screen and go to that red that is in popular latency and activate that red. But that’s just what Castillo doesn’t want to do, because he apparently believes that falling well with the right and with the international right can survive. In this sense, the last visit of Luis Almagro, Secretary General of the OAS, in November 2021, has much significance. He could survive, and that’s not the least of my doubts, but he’s going to survive is another Castillo. The Castillo de la electoral campaign will not survive. General Secretary of the OAS, in November 2021, has much significance. He could survive, and that’s not the least of my doubts, but he’s going to survive is another Castillo. The Castillo de la electoral campaign will not survive. General Secretary of the OAS, in November 2021, has much significance. He could survive, and that’s not the least of my doubts, but he’s going to survive is another Castillo. The Castillo de la electoral campaign will not survive. The popular movement moves within an indifferent mass. Yes, this mass is indifferent because it is mainly concerned with subsistence. I have to live day by day. And there is a small and aggressive right: archaic, cavern, facade. Of course, it’s probably the last breath of what falls to the Peruvian right of way. Peru is a country dominated from the outside. What matters to global power are the minerals and to extract the minerals needed by people. All the rest is left over from the businessmen’s point of view. Peru has a tremendous millenary culture, I continue to insist on my idea that Peru is a cultural power, but it is a political phenomenon. Because politically we are paying the price of 60 years of useless, neoliberal governments that have left us a destroyed, limited country. The level of the Congress, the level of communication media is a very low level. Peru has science, Peru has technique. What was the Ministry of Technology that Castillo proposed in his campaign? Nothing. Peru has extremely valuable people, but these valuable people are systematically separated, on the ground by the right, but also by the left. Well, let’s say that this is a government of izquierdas, but stretching too much la word izquierda. There is an aggressive right and this results in a great mediocrity, Everything that has been destroyed in Peru is very much, in Peru the school has been destroyed, the education has been destroyed, the companies have been destroyed. Only the Minas and the Agroexporters fall. Everything else is destroyed. Because what we call popular networks exist in latency, but they do not have a constant, institutional life. So, in this situation, what is the only one that remains? Second yo, the family, which is also in crisis. However, they still have extended families that work, which in addition cross the borders of Lima and Peru and communicate provinces with capital and abroad. Family networks are formed because they are based on trust. Peru is configured by these networks, which have a mafia character. I don’t give a negative connotation to the mafia, I use the word to explain the logic, the rationality of a social situation. These networks are separate from the liberal state. The liberal state is marked by the difference between private and public property. But the family organization does not separate the private property from the public property and invades the public property. Both poor and rich families invade public property. Rich families invade you in the State and manage it on their behalf, poor families invade you whatever they can in the street, invade you in the plaza, invaden everything. There are no limits. So what we call corruption is finally that. This is the root of the Peruvian State in its current configuration. I believe that the separation of the public from the private in Peru does not exist, it is definitively broken in many ways. And President Castillo is a bad example when he betrays his wife, his nephew, his countrymen, because he trusts them. But he is not doing anything singular. That’s what Alejandro Toledo does (president between 2001 and 2006), and that’s what Alan García does (president 1985-1990 and 2006-2011). With the difference that they were blancos. Bueno, Toledo was cholo. Castillo calls for attention because people demand from Castillo that which has not been demanded from previous governments. But who was Fernando Belaúnde? (president 1963-1968 and 1980-1985) Look at the canty of Belaúnde that I had in the government of Belaúnde that was still in the State. Los Belaunde are a clan. What Aníbal Quijano[3] I called coloniality, in fact, the colonized mentality, which I believe we largely share, of which we cannot only blame the dominant sectors of Peru, since I believe that this colonized mentality encompasses a large part of Peruvian society. It is another of the realities that we refuse to accept. And when we speak of a colonized mentality, we are speaking of a mentality that comes from our dependence on Spain. El Peru has been a country whose ruling classes have been extremely conservative, they have been Hispanists as long as Spain was fascist, but they did not hesitate to be anti-Hispanists during the Spanish Civil War, when Spain was a republic. Therefore, this Hispanic or anti-Hispanic attitude effectively has a sense of class as well. So, now the colonized mentality has to see a lot with a series of circumstances and economic and political activities in Peru. Tiene que ver since quienes te dicen, for example, that we cannot live without the investors. And when we talk about the Peruvian investors, we are not talking about the Peruvian investors, because the first investor in Peru, for example, is the migrants. Because of the Peruvian migrants, those who are abroad, those who are contributing nearly five thousand million dollars a year directly to Peruvian families. These are the investors. Other investors are the small Peruvian entrepreneurs. And without embargo, when we talk about investors, we are talking only about the miners, who are the ones who least contribute to the economy of Peru. And so it can be shown, So, there is where a colonized mentality is manifesting itself. Absolutely. But that’s just an aspect. This extends to many other aspects and has to do with what we have inherited from the colonial mentality, colonial racism, and we are now distinguishing between a white bourgeoisie and a chola bourgeoisie. There is a bourgeoisie, let’s say white or whitened, that wields the power called the white of Peru, against a chola bourgeoisie, which is of a color that is not white. Yes, it may seem a little caricature and unpleasant to say, but it is being produced. And we can do a survey of eso, there is a lot of things in the restaurants, in the operation of las cities. We have the differences in education, in health that are very clear, they are racial and racist differences. In the periodization that was used in the book, it configures as a particular period for the government of Velasco Alvarado (1968-1975)[4] . How to understand this singularity and particularity with respect to previous governments and even what we are having now, from which slogans such as a second agrarian reform have been raised, with an allusion to the first one that corresponds to that period. It was a moment when the stars got together. Thesis of the Latin American dependency with ECLAC and all we know, the Second Vatican Council, the revolutions for civil rights in the United States, all the European discussion that culminates in the university revolutions of 68 and we can follow. Then there was a whole questioning of capitalism that now never happened. All this questioned capitalism in itself and I believed that it had a decisive influence on the Armed Forces. It was an extraordinary moment that took place in Peru alone. In different ways it is produced in Bolivia, in Argentina with the second Perón, in Chile with Allende, in Bolivia with Juan José Torres, in Dominican Republic with Armando Tamayo and Juan Bosch. This is the first attempt at the Nicaraguan revolution. I had been to the Cuban Revolution before. At the end, all this produces, but all the popular peasant struggle of Peru, these are the years of Velasco. But they got tired. But they were clearly an exception in this history of years old. A process that las izquierdas did not understand, there was much anti-militarism. So it was a very little understandable process. surprising. Who could believe that the military would hand over power to the pueblo? Who could believe that the military wanted a revolution? Very few people. Who could believe that the military would hand over power to the pueblo? Who could believe that the military wanted a revolution? Very few people. Who could believe that the military would hand over power to the pueblo? Who could believe that the military wanted a revolution? Very few people. Since the 1930s and since before Mariátegui, there has always been a difficult coexistence in the Peruvian world between an extreme view of reality and a moderate view, to decide something, of reality. And so it remained during the 70’s under Velasco. This gives rise precisely to the attitudes towards Velasco and the crisis after Velasco con the appearance of Sendero Luminoso (founded in 1969). The current thing, lacking interest in this subject and also lacking documentation and the desire to study the history and to open a debate on this subject, has simply preferred to echarle tierra, because it knows that it is at a disadvantage compared to the right, which can take advantage of any admission that Shining Path went from the left to decide, as they are saying now, that the left in its set is terrorist. And part of this subject is also the analysis of the other, what happened in the lands of the adversaries. It is decided, in the terrain of the army itself. Yes, you have to see with Peru that refuses to examine its past as these families hide the crimes of the family under the alfombra, because finally, both the crimes committed by Sendero and the crimes committed by the Army form part of the same country. And yet, the protagonists of this subject, as has been proven, for example, in the famous book by Lucio Galván, oscillated in another place. Es decir, there were senderistas who became soldiers and there were soldiers who became senderistas. There was a penetration of Sendero in the army and a penetration of the intelligence services of the army in the Sendero. So, what size did it have? We do not know this, precisely because we have refused to establish a real discussion on this subject. Because I say, if we are interested, if we are interested in examining the sentimental, psychological, historical, political roots of terrorism in Peru, this applies to Sendero as well as to the Peruvian Armed Forces and the Peruvian Society as a whole. Nor can we ignore that the actions of Sendero were taken advantage of by other sectors of Peruvian society to adjust accounts. Most of the actions of the Túpac Amaru Revolutionary Movement (MRTA), which appear as actions of the MRTA or Sendero, in the future of the MRTA in Sendero. There were groups that adjusted accounts among them and simply asesinaban you and on top of your corpse poned a hoz and a hammer. I do not believe that the izquierda has reneged on the period of the armed struggle, I believe that it has simply been forced to adapt to the new circumstances. There is also a need to recognize that the armed struggle has degenerated. If we had a quick discussion, a quick tour of the guerrilla experience after the death of the Che, we will find ourselves with a very debatable experience of the guerrilla de los Montoneros in Argentina that ends in blood. I don’t want to get into this topic because it’s a very complicated topic that would deserve much more documentation. I just want to decide that an impasse is produced and in that impasse there was apparently another democratic solution for the left than Raúl Alfonsín. Y lo mismo pasó in Uruguay. So, I believe that the political circumstances and situation of Latin America oblige to this recomposition of the izquierda. Yes, of course, it is not, I repeat, without cost. Because in Peru the cost was Sendero. Because what we call an internal armed conflict, which in reality was an internal war, complicated a sector of the left. part 3 thought How do you think we are from where we are in Peru and on the continent, in the cultural battle, in the battle of ideas? This is accentuated in Cuba, where there is a dispute created by sectors of the artistic community against the Cuban Revolution. Son of the basic ideas. One is the expansion of rights, we refer to human rights. If we say that we want a democracy different from the democracy governed by the banks and supervised by the armed forces, we are talking about a democracy in which the liberal idea of ​​citizenship is fulfilled. The rights are not something static, they are dynamic, they are growing, they are being renewed through the years and therefore they are expanding. The political advance in reality is the result of the expansion of rights. This is a first idea and the second idea is that one must not go back. Although it has evidently gone backwards in the world and is going backwards in many cases, as for example in labor rights. In addition, the rights must be seen as collective and on the individual ground. Peru in itself is a cultural power, that is to say, it has a very ancient culture, and this culture has been maintained to a large extent and has also been renewed. You have to see with a huge number of manifestations of collective life, especially. I believe that las izquierdas han hecho bien en linkarse con esto and also identify with the advances of the Peruvian pueblos that are distinct in their cultural manifestations, understand them and on the ground have an elitist idea of ​​culture. The idea that worship is the one that reads books, writes novels, the one that dances, the one that sings, the one that makes music. Not only is this culture, but there are forms of culture that have to do with daily collective life. So I believe that this is a very strong idea, which is less bad than what the izquierda has adopted and understood in recent times. The United States is a country that plays a role as a producer of ideas of a certain type. Through foundations that finance people like Vargas Llosa, a member of the Sociedad Mont Pelerin de neoliberales, they give grants and international awards to writers and intellectuals. They also produce new types of social science. This is part of the cultural struggle. La Revolución Cubana, as you say, has had and has this fortress, but in all this cultural struggle it is natural that there are dissidences and it is difficult for a revolutionary process to handle dissidences. How do you handle them? Because culture is a flowering, as Mao said. Pues que florezcan all the flowers and they are fundamentally. In countries that are besieged, blocked, like Cuba, there are limits to be. If you empiezas questioning the social system in which you live, there you find yourself with the limits that create your own revolution. It is like in our countries, bourgeois, capitalist democracy also has its limits. And all the countries have them, alas, because I’m a good friend of the full freedom of ideas. How do you evaluate the emergence of Vox in Spain and the use of different tools and devices of mass and popular culture to promote this fascist wave that in Europe is feeling perhaps more powerful than in Latin America? The right in Europe and also in Latin America I believe that it has two aspects, a retrospective look at its “greatness” and a miedo al present. This return to “greatness” is a retrograde view. Viktor Orbán of Hungary speaks of the great Magyar empire. La Thatcher was a precursor of these ideas, she wanted to return to the days of grandeur of the British Empire. Trump talks about Gran America which I suppose I never have. The Spanish right habla de la Hispanidad, de la Hispanósfera. And all this has a colonialist vision. The other side is the fear of the stranger. Especially in the case of the Europeans, the fear of the Muslims, the fear of the Muslims, the Islam, the fear of the migrants. Everything is handled, in the case of the United States as well, and also in the case of Spain. Because la España de ultraderecha, if you believe white and evoke your annoyance of lo moro, lo moreno. The new French movement brought about the Renaissance, the Renaissance, the Poles, from imperial Poland, because I had a Polish empire that lasted very little, but it appeals to the fears and the resentment that they have with respect to the Russians. I am studying history to better understand the bases of European and Latin American ultraderecha because they also resort to history. This is about a whole historical debate. I am studying history to better understand the bases of European and Latin American ultraderecha because they also resort to history. This is about a whole historical debate. I am studying history to better understand the bases of European and Latin American ultraderecha because they also resort to history. This is about a whole historical debate. In Venezuela and Bolivia, we have seen that the intellectuals have had a role, it could be decided that from time to time understanding within their borders and their schemes, of the properly popular processes that sell from the academic and intellectual schemes, of what is not it is a revolutionary process. Even in the recent Bolivian case, they end up consciously or unconsciously, voluntary or involuntarily, better said, in destabilizing coup strategies driven by North American imperialism and carried out by the Creole oligarchies. What is your analysis and balance of this list of intellectuals in Latin America? I would say that there is great intellectual poverty on the part of the right. There is a lack of right intellectuals everywhere. Yes, it’s much more dramatic in Peru. You can’t compare a time, like the 50s and 60s, when you had Jorge Basadre, Raúl Porras, a clearly Hispanist, but an intellectual, Víctor Andrés Belaúnde, absolutely reactionary, but he was an intellectual, he was a man who had a very broad cultural training; with the times of now when you can’t find anything in Peru in terms of a conservative intellectuality. I believe that what we have found is a kind of insecurity among intellectuals, a lack of definition. Yo would say motivated by two elements. One, I believe that no intellectual le gusta equivocarse, so there are not many friends of the riesgo and there is a great inseguridad with respect to the evolution of social processes. Es decir, empieza un processo de cambio y creen, fear that this process fails or converts into a dictatorship. And by the way, it only undermines an image that they intend to preserve, which is very dear to intellectuals and also very decisive. Because the intellectual’s relationship with his audience is very expensive for them, so they don’t want to risk it. Yes, you have a very timid view and, in addition, you lose sight of the processes, because in general, the account of the processes is given when they have passed, Second, every intellectual depends on funding. And we all know that the financing networks at this moment in the world, both for intellectual and scientific production, depend on monopoly interests, on world power. So, if you are a man or a woman who has been too critical of the system, you have not been able to invite new seminars to have consultancies with the government. It is even possible that the universities themselves do not hire you, because the stability at this time of the university professor is also in this order, it does not exist. And así como no hay derechos laborales, tamboco hay derechos intellectuales. So, under these conditions I don’t want to risk it. I find myself in these fundamental reasons. But with this, I suppose, I don’t want to have a mechanical view of the subject. There are many people who lawfully, honestly, criticize or have the right to not give an opinion, to wait. I’m not the only ones who demand something that a person is not willing to give. In the Peruvian case, it is indispensable to study what is happening in the social movement. Yes, we don’t have it, we don’t really know, we don’t have research studios that can be trusted. The statistics are very manipulated in Peru, the social studies are very limited and so much of what I say, I include myself in this, they are suppositions, presuppositions. There were no hypotheses. Then you move as if groping, calculating what it could be. I believe that it is a huge need that Peru has. Marx in his third thesis on Feuerbach says that it is essential to educate what is educating in terms of political formation, and it is so linked to what popular movements should educate what is educating. So, how to contemplate this political formation? Maybe the intellectuals that are willing to support a change process like the one we live in Peru can now take on this so that its contribution is effective, efficient and concrete. What happens is that there is a mutual reluctance, a mutual distancing. Eso viene de muy lejos. Because until Mariátegui, and from Mariátegui and Haya De la Torre[5] , intellectual work was separated from political work. That’s why Amauta, the magazine founded by Mariátegui, lasted only 4 years, until 1930 and it’s a feather. On the one hand, intellectuals were fought, and on the other hand, politicians were fought back then. As politicians are concerned with making politics and in the country, only in political terms, there is a rapid risk of political deterioration. And as an intellectual in politics, he is not linked to reality and therefore, his thinking becomes more or less empty. It’s a pity. Ye es un drama, creo yo, para la izquierda, para las izquierdas en el Perú, today. For me, Chomsky is a reference. In economic terms, economists are more liberal, but critics of neoliberalism, like Stiglitz, like Krugman. The work of Ugarteche is a reference. The jobs of professors from some universities, but, unfortunately, are written in economic language and are not accessible to the popular mass. One of the slogans of the movements to defend Pedro Castillo’s vote was the pencil of popular culture. Pencils made by the people themselves, with posters and graphics by different artists, with también music, which extends a little to the limeño izquierdismo. There was popular music from different sides. There were many decades that never before had seen a process so mariateguiano, there, alive, after much time, and in the end, for a time that the culture was not so explicit in the dispute and less so in a dispute containing electoral. How did you live? The production of culture by the popular sectors is quite old in Peru. The graffiti, the serigraphy, the theater groups, music: popular rock, hip hop. All I believe that precedes Castillo. We could even decide that an electoral campaign like the one you describe is the eso product, in reverse. It is this type of popular cultural production that also produces a popular candidacy. Castillo seemed to me to be an interesting phenomenon since the beginning. It has been a new element in the traditional politics of Peru. New, but it also had its previous referents. New, its particular popular meaning with the emerging groups in Peru, the new popular bourgeoisies, the mafias, etc., as part of the historical block. pie notes [1] After 12 years of authoritarian neoliberal governments in the coup against Zelaya in 2009, including a fraud in 2017, Xiomara Castro won in 2021 in some elections in which 68% of voters participated. [2] He was one of the editors of the first Constitution of Peru behind the independence of Spain and a prominent figure in the establishment of the republican government system. [3] Peruvian sociologist (1930 – 2018) developed the concept of «coloniality of power» to describe the power structures resulting from European colonization. His work has influenced decolonial studies and critical theory. [4] Assumes power after the 1968 coup d’état against Fernando Belaúnde. Its populist military government contrasted with other military regimes in the region due to its progressive approach: it nationalized transport, communications and electrical energy, limited the economic influence of the United States in the country and established cooperatives managed by workers in the former exploitations. private farms. [5] Víctor Haya de la Torre (1895 – 1979) was a Peruvian politician, philosopher and writer, founded the political movement Alianza Popular Revolucionaria Americana (APRA), now known as the Peruvian Aprista Party (PAP), the oldest political party in Peru. SOURCE THE TRICONTINENTAL *** at February 20, 2022 No comments: Send by email Post on the blog! share on twitter share on facebook Share with Pinterest Tags : latin america , anti- imperialism , hybrid wars , guerrilla , hector bejar , imperialism , latin american league of irredentists , neoliberalism , peru , tricontinental 4. Guilherme Monteiro Jr. says: Tuesday, February 15, 2022 RUBEN DARIO ANTI-IMPERIALIST * Cecília Costa&Bryan Dávila / Barricada-Nicaragua RUBEN DARIO ANTI-IMPERIALIST “Do you believe that life is fire, that progress is eruption; Where you put the bullet, you put the future. Not. But our America… That trembles from hurricanes and lives on love… lives. And dream. And love, and vibrate; and she is the daughter of the sun. Be careful, there are a thousand puppies loose from the Spanish Lion.” (Fragments of the ode “To Roosevelt”, poem quoted by Commander Daniel Ortega in his historic speech, during his inauguration as President of Nicaragua, on January 10, 1985, in Plaza de la Revolución) Many know Rubén Darío for his Alexandrian verses, for his very sonorous descriptions, cultured references, songs about love, feelings, life and death. Many emphasize in his poetry “the influence of French Parnassianism (formal perfection against the carelessness and excessive sentimentality of romanticism), and the evasion of the society of his time, taking refuge in the ancient, exotic, beautiful and aristocratic, like the Greek myths. . , French gardens and swans”. However, Rubén Darío was also a journalist and diplomat. The “Poet of the Swans” was also a journalist and diplomat and made his political position clear in his writings, “where he defended the inclusion of the most dispossessed in Latin America and attacked the incessant invasive intentions of the North American empire. ” One of the most significant poems of Rubén Darío’s anti-imperialist and revolutionary thought is the ode, which he addressed to US President Franklin Roosevelt (1882-1945), in which “he laid bare the perverse grip of capitalism and interventionism that has always hovered over Latin America “. VIII TO ROOSEVELT It is with the voice of the Bible, or with the verse of Walt Whitman, that it must come to you, Hunter, primitive and modern, simple and complicated, with a little Washington and four Nimrod. You are the United States, you are the future invader of naive America who has indigenous blood, who still prays to Jesus Christ and still speaks Spanish. You are a proud and strong example of your race; you are educated, you are skillful; you oppose Tolstoy. And tame horses, or kill tigers, you are an Alexander-Nebuchadnezzar. (You are an Energy teacher as the madmen say today.) You believe that life is fire, that progress is an eruption, that where you put the bullet, you put the future. Not. The United States is powerful and great. When they shudder there is a deep tremor that runs through the enormous vertebrae of the Andes. If you scream, you will be heard like a lion’s roar. Hugo once said to Grant: The stars are yours. (The Argentine sun barely shines, rising, and the Chilean star rises…) You are rich. You add to the cult of Hercules the cult of Mammon; and lighting the way for easy conquest, Liberty lifts its torch in New York. But our America, which had poets since the old days of Netzahualcoyotl, which kept the footprints of the great Bacchus, which the alphabet of panic once learned; who consulted the stars, who knew Atlantis whose name comes to us echoing in Plato, who from the most remote moments of his life lives on light, fire, perfume, love, the America of the great Moctezuma, of the Inca, the fragrant America of Christopher Columbus, Catholic America, Spanish America, the America in which the noble Guatemoc said: “I am not in a bed of roses”; that America that trembles from hurricanes and lives on love, men with Saxon eyes and barbaric souls, live. And dream. And she loves, and vibrates, and is the daughter of the Sun. Caution. Long live Spanish America! There are a thousand puppies loose from the Spanish Lion. It would be necessary, Roosevelt, to be, by God himself, the terrible marine and the strong hunter, in order to have us in his iron grip. And since you have everything, one thing is missing: God! The quote that appears at the beginning of the text is part of the historic speech that Commander Daniel Ortega gave on the occasion of his inauguration as President, on January 10, 1985. Citing the ode “To Roosevelt” by Rubén Darío, he stated that “the war we are suffering is imposed by the might of the American military power and only definitively defeating this aggression will the United States be able to persuade that this Revolution cannot be defeated” […] ] 35 years later, in this other stage of the revolutionary process, the poem “A Roosevelt”, contained in the work Cantos de vida y esperanza, maintains its validity intact. The international scenario has changed, we are in a very different situation from the 1980s, but imperialist interests have returned with force, with actions that try to undermine the revolutionary processes in our America. This includes the application of sanctions, support for unconstitutional practices, destabilization in several Latin American and Caribbean countries and even support for coups (as in the case of Bolivia). In today’s context, the poem “A Roosevelt” seems prophetic and Rubén Darío thus expresses his revolutionary and anti-imperialist political thought, speaking not only to his contemporaries, but also to each one of us. SOURCE Anti-imperialist Darío – BARRICADE *** Anti-imperialism in Rubén Darío Bryan Davila February 06, 2022 Today we celebrate the 106th anniversary of the passage to immortality of Rubén Darío, the most universal of Nicaraguans, who died in his beloved León, on the night of February 6, 1916. After 15 days of funeral honors, he was buried in the Cathedral of León, where his remains remain to this day, but his work is still valid, accurate, and visionary. Rubén Darío was a creator of poetry, short stories and stories, art criticism, essays. He wrote a single novel, made translations, autobiography pages, but above all he left a great publication as a journalist in several newspapers in different countries of the world, many of which are still unknown, however, we find in them the political and social dimension of his ideology. In this sense, Salomón de la Selva, who knew the poet personally, wrote: “It is surprising, when rereading Darío, to see the extent to which his intellect was attentive to universal concerns, to social, political and economic concerns, seeing everything and foreseeing everything with extraordinary success.” In this reinterpretation that De la Selva warns, there is a Rubén Darío with patriotic, Central American, Latin American and even anti-imperialist dimensions. In 1987, the Ministry of Education of Nicaragua, in the second meeting of the Intergovernmental Committee of the Education Project for Latin America and the Caribbean of UNESCO, highlighted: “With the Revolution, came the rescue and revaluation of the figure of Rubén Darío. visionary poet and writer of political and social projection who summons the empire and denounces the injustice of a system of oppression and exploitation”. In the spirit of this reinterpretation in which Rubén situates the empire, one can cite El Triunfo de Calibán, published in the Buenos Aires newspaper El Tiempo, in 1898. of the United States as an “empire of matter”; «a country of practical and material life, a country of calculation» whose ideal is limited to «the stock market and the factory», to the «cult of the dollar»; a country that seeks “not only influence, but also domination”, which in practice has demonstrated: “excellent cultivators of strength!”, determined to “remake the world, in its image and likeness”, “haters of Latin blood” and ” enemies of all ideality”. This characterization makes us think that only after World War II, the United States participated in 201 of the 248 armed conflicts until 2021, and that the budget for “defense” for the year 2022 is US$ 768 billion. However, they want to remake the world, in their image and likeness, proclaiming themselves defenders of Human Rights and Democracy, a word that by the way is not found anywhere in their Political Constitution, which is why Darío said that the root of imperialism Yankee is found in its constitution.

In 1902, Rubén published in La Nación de Buenos Aires Invasión Anglosajona/Centro América Yanquee, an article in which he argued: “American imperialism is not new, as some believe. It has its causes and deep roots in the constitution and history of this great country. When the Spanish colonies in America were emancipated, the United States gave them its help, of course it recognized them as independent nations, and proclaimed, to defend it from Europe, the famous Monroe Doctrine… through Monroe and Adams, they Europe drew its limits and they called it America for the Americans”.

Rubén, correcting the political corollary that drives the Yankee empire to extend its hegemony over Latin America, warned in his article On the North Side, published in El Heraldo de Costa Rica, in 1892:

On the north side is danger. On the north side is where the hostile eagle nests. Let’s be careful, brothers of America, let’s beware of those blue-eyed men who don’t talk to us except when they’ve got the trap set. The monstrous and Babylonian country does not want us well. If one day, at parties and pomps, he Pan-Americanizes us and feasts on us.

He continues, but this time in his response to a survey on the future of Hispanic-American countries in 1902: “Pan-Americanism is a word invented by the North Americans to flood all the markets of the new continent with their products”, while proposing “A Hispano-Americanism: Commercial Union, Arbitration and Moral Solidarity in Spanish-Speaking Republics”.

Darío is contextually situated in the transition between Hispano-Americanism and Pan-Americanism. Hispanic Americanism is the period between the independence of Latin American nations and the celebration of the First International American Conference of 1889-1890 in Washington, it was a period of efforts to unify the newly independent nations. From the aforementioned Conference, the United States would frustrate these efforts with its thesis of Pan-Americanism, that is, of a single America, to dominate the fragmented and weak economies of Our America. The last such effort was President Bush Jr.’s FTAA proposal, which was dismantled by commanders Fidel Castro and Hugo Chávez with the ALBA proposal.

Rubén Darío, who died at age 49, saw his homeland crumble into a US protectorate, the imposition of the Knox Note on the Zelaya government, the invasion of the Yankee navy in 1912, Zeledón’s anti-imperialist struggle, the signing of the infamous Chamorro-Bryan Treaty, and although he did not live to support and spread the Sandino struggle, in the face of the Yankee investiture in his homeland, he wrote in an epistolary piece to his Argentine friend Manuel Ugarte in September 1910, a few months before Knox’s Note :

“Since Nicaragua will be a North American dependency, I have no desire to be a Yankee, and since the Argentine Republic has been my intellectual homeland for me, and since, when I published my Canto um la Argentina, the press of that dear country asked me to Argentine citizenship, I want, can and must be Argentine… You know how much I loved the Río de la Plata and I know that everyone there would approve of my preference for the Southern Sun over the Northern Stars”.

Rubén Darío, the greatest poet of the Spanish language, of world reach, and as we have seen with a marked anti-imperialist ideology, being the intellectual leader of modernism with abundant and consecrated merits, never received the Nobel Prize for Literature, demonstrating that although we have the power, capacity, we are against the system that doesn’t want to see us well.

This 106th anniversary of his passage to immortality serves to reread and reinterpret the anti-imperialist Darío.

Sources

Political writings by Rubén Darío (2010) Selection, studies and notes by Jorge Eduardo Arellano and Pablo Kraudy Medina. Managua: Central Bank of Nicaragua.

Unknown letters from Rubén Darío (2000) Introduction, Selection and notes by Jorge Eduardo Arellano.

….

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Monday, June 6, 2022
Changes in the balance of forces in Latin America and the Caribbean: Impact for Cuba * Rogelio Sierra Diaz . Cuba
Changes in the balance of forces in Latin America and the Caribbean:

Impact for Cuba
Rogelio Sierra Diaz. Cuba

SUMMARY

In the 1980s and 1990s, changes in the correlation of forces in Latin America and the Caribbean were characterized by the struggle of popular movements against neoliberalism and the gradual occupation by progressive forces of spaces in local governments and national legislatures, as well as national governments in a dozen countries in the region. This situation lasted until the end of the first decade of the 2000s, when the regional context began to favor the interests of more conservative and oligarchic sectors. In a few years, the loss of the capacity for popular mobilization, the lack of adequate strategy, means and methods to defeat destabilization, the unconventional war unleashed against progressive governments, electoral setbacks and “new type” coups,

INTRODUCTION

The changes that occurred in the correlation of regional strength. For this, it is explained:

This article analyzes the political scenario that the role played by the United States has characterized Latin America and the Caribbean and the confrontation with the forces and movements left in the continent in the last decade, as well as the impact that the regional context represents for Cuban foreign policy. At the same time, it mentions the adjustments that Cuban foreign policy had to make to defend its national positions and interests, without renouncing its essence.

To analyze this scenario, it is prudent to first address concepts that allow us to better understand the policy approaches that are addressed, so it would be important to define what is meant by foreign policy.

There are a set of foreign policy constraints. Each state has its own and this differs from other states, and may even be divergent. Although from a leftist perspective, or for Marxism, the ultimate determining factor of a State having a foreign policy or another is the mode of production, the nature of the ruling class and its interests, we can appreciate in the international context States of the same economic system -social with very different foreign policies. This is explained by the fact that there is a set of factors that play a fundamental role in determining this, interacting dialectically with the mode of production and the interests of the ruling class.

It is important to highlight for our analysis, among other factors, the geographic position, the international political system, the interaction between States, the dynamics and structure of the international system and the power of the State and the international correlation of forces (Rodriguez, 2017).

Let us, then, address the concept of foreign policy provided by Dr. Leyde E. Rodríguez Hernández, in his book “A Century of Theories of International Relations”, in which it is understood that this is the “strategy or planned program of the activity carried out by those who make the decisions of a State against other States or international entities , aiming to achieve specific objectives defined according to national interests” or, still, it can be said that it is “the activity of a State in its relations with other States at the international level, aiming at the achievement of external objectives that determine the interests of the class “dominant in its specific historical moment” (Rodríguez, 2017).

Another category that we must manage for a better understanding of this text is the correlation of forces, which is understood as the “reciprocity relationship in which the forces of the States are found, and which allows establishing the international hierarchy of the States with the greatest power. , the middle powers and the less important states” (Rodríguez, 2017).

In applying these categories to the analysis of the problems that concern us, it should be noted that Latin America and the Caribbean has been a region that, with the exception of Cuba after 1959 and with very rare exceptions after the year 2000, for more than a century it is under the domination and control of the United States, which has used several mechanisms to guarantee its hegemonic interests, among which, in the first place, it has been its economic power, generating an economic, commercial and technological dependence.

This domination was politically accentuated with the emergence of the so-called Inter-American System, which had the Organization of American States (OAS) as the main instrument to seek political support from its members for their interests and political maneuvers against the exercise of full sovereignty or self-determination of the peoples. from the continent. This allowed it to have support for its military aggressions or served for the expulsion of a member state like Cuba in 1961, for having a different political system from the rest of the region.

This system of domination became broader and stronger after the Second World War and reformed until today, in which the power of the use of media and social networks combine to bring about regime changes in the nations of the region and, in addition, to twist the course and outcome of electoral processes in their favor, as well as the application of legal instruments against progressive political and social leaders as part of the strategy to pursue politics and criminalize social protest.

Political scenario that characterizes Latin America and the Caribbean

In the last decade and progressively, a relative isolation was imposed in relation to the countries where progressive and leftist projects were developed, submitted to multiple economic-commercial, political-diplomatic, media and communicational instruments, in correspondence with the application of what called Unconventional Warfare or Fourth Generation Warfare.

Legal instruments were applied against progressive and left-wing political and social leaders in the region, as part of the strategy to prosecute politics and criminalize social protest.

There was an advance and consolidation of right-wing forces in governments and in different areas of the continent, with increasing alignment with the foreign policy of the United States. The region, despite progressively accumulating greater strength, was not able to change the political sign of governments.

This situation was reflected in the actions of regional and multilateral organizations, facilitated diplomatic harassment and the establishment of interventionist and interventionist initiatives against progressive governments (such as Venezuela and Nicaragua) and reduced support for Cuba, as countries like Brazil and Colombia separated themselves from the region’s unanimous support against the US blockade.

The Bolivarian Revolution in Venezuela is seriously threatened. The persistence of destabilizing actions by internal and external actors, actions of foreign intervention, sieges of all kinds, international sanctions, subversion and unconventional warfare, as well as the errors inherent in the management of public policies, have prevented the implementation of
productive transformation strategies needed to reverse the crisis. The political process was impacted by a scenario of economic implosion in the country.

There remained a high fragmentation in the left forces in the region, with expression in the parties, political and social movements, which are recognized as progressive and left. This manifested itself in its weak ability to mobilize and define common goals and strategies against the offensive of the right and the national oligarchies.

There continued to be weaknesses in the articulation and unity of social movements and citizens in the face of the conservative offensive. The sectoral demands did not transcend the condition of resistance and did not become a true strategy of political struggle. Their mobilizations were associated with vengeful and redistributive demands. Although the use of social networks and information and communication technologies (ICTs) in the activism of these progressive and left-wing movements has increased, it has been insufficient.

The São Paulo Forum continued to be a space for the convergence of progressive and leftist forces and its role, a reflection of its critical situation on the continent. Efforts were made to transform it into a platform of unity in political action and popular mobilization. Other spaces such as the World Social Forum and the Permanent Conference of Political Parties of Latin America and the Caribbean (Copppal) have acted with serious limitations to transcend and influence the political transformation needs of the countries in the region and have had little influence on political events.

Efforts have been made to revitalize the Inter-American System, particularly the Organization of American States (OAS). An attempt was made to test the application of the Inter-American Democratic Charter in the system and priorities focused on
defense, under a double standard, of the pillars of democracy, respect for human rights, integral development and multidimensional security. The correlation of forces within the OAS favored the interests of the United States and the conservative governments in the region. Within it, there was no counterweight capable of stopping the actions and declarations aimed at isolating and delegitimizing governments with different political proposals.

The condemnation of Venezuela and the application of unilateral coercive measures became a political articulator of the regional right. When it was not possible to reach a consensus within the OAS, ad hoc spaces such as the so-called Lima Group were used to achieve their objectives. This group, which has gained less international recognition than intended, is the only one that emerged in the continent’s political history focused on attacking one of its nations (Venezuela). Under his actions, a consensus building entity was formed against all those manifestations considered progressive. It represented the most extreme sectors of the right and followed the script dictated by the United States until it recently disappeared as a result of the change in the political motivations of the governments that integrated it into a new regional context.

The margins of political agreement in the Caribbean Community (CARICOM) continued to narrow and important contradictions persisted around the Single Market and the Economy (CSNE), an expression of the weakening of the Caribbean integration project. His initiatives in the Latin American environment were not sufficiently appreciated by the Latino group and, for the most part, they did not prosper.

The Association of Caribbean States (ACS) kept a low profile as a space for cooperation and agreement, and it reflected political changes on the continent. Mexico and Colombia carried out greater political activism within the Association.

The Bolivarian Alliance for the Peoples of Our America-Treaty of Commerce of the Peoples (ALBA-TCP) was closely linked to three factors: the evolution of the political and economic crisis in Venezuela; the political scenario resulting from electoral processes in member countries; and the effectiveness of subregional sectoral initiatives developed by the United States around urgent issues for the Caribbean.

The Pacific Alliance has consolidated itself as a right-wing project around which countries and associative groups such as MERCOSUR gravitate. More than favoring regional integration, it has promoted its ties with the Asia-Pacific countries with which it maintains strong economic ties.

On the other hand, there is also a scenario of oligopolistic concentration of the media in the region; In the great media transnationals, the economic ties between financial capital, the media and politicians were reinforced, creating an almost indissoluble fabric between the economic and political interests of national and transnational oligarchies, fostering an ever deeper process of corporatization of politics, in which “ democratic procedures for dialogue and decision-making are no longer relevant, as they are replaced by the will of interest groups with more power and strength” (Trejos, 2015).

In a society where these corporations prevail over citizens, the power interests of economic-business, media, transnational and political groups break with the constitutional legality that sustains the State and impose business force as a social norm. All this results in groups of power that appropriate the public apparatus to serve themselves and not to serve, with which the space for authoritarianism grows. This is a reflection of what happens between the transnational, regional and national oligopolies of Latin American oligarchies.

The influence of the so-called “post-truth”, which is not exclusively a problem of perception, but an authoritarian political strategy based on the promotion of ignorance through lies spread throughout Latin America. The systematic lies, disseminated by the networks of neoconservatives and ultraliberals, have been operating with great capacity in the emotions and minds of the middle class; in particular, it especially influenced the elections in Chile (2014), Argentina (2015), the referendums in Bolivia (2016), Ecuador (2018), the permanence of Michel Temer in the presidency of Brazil after the coup. ‘état in Dilma Rousseff and in the subsequent victory of Jair Bolsonaro.

If this sinister policy is combined with what, according to the Ecuadorian marketing consultant Durán Barba (2017), expresses: “The informed electorate (…) is no more than 10% in Latin America”, we can understand that in a hypertechnical world, right-wing governments in the region are increasingly supported by digital communication teams linked to them and specialized in “building reality on the networks”. (…)

As of 2018, new political changes begin to take place in Latin America, with the coming to power of progressive and nationalist leaders, which suggests a change in the correlation of forces. Social mobilization as a reaction to the advance of the right, for just over a decade, grew and changed the social fabric and political bias of several governments. The most expressive cases of these recent transformations are those of Mexico, Argentina, Bolivia and Peru.

These changes determined to put an end to the thesis of the so-called end of the progressive cycle and gave rise to the beginning of a new one, in which the correlation of forces changes favorably for progressive governments, which even with difficulties, such as those derived from the poor economic results and the impact of Covid-19, are more successful than others of an essentially right-wing nature, such as those in Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Lacalle in Uruguay and Mario Abdo in Paraguay.

Although one cannot immediately affirm a return to the cycle of the left, there is no doubt that the regional orientation tends in that direction. The end of the Lima Group with the departure of Mexico, Argentina and Peru, the consolidation of the government of Nicolás Maduro in Venezuela, the Mexican efforts to unfreeze the actions of the Community of Latin American and Caribbean States (CELAC), are indicators that favor left governments.

The environment imposed on countries where progressive and leftist projects are supported, subjected to multiple economic and commercial, political and ideological, diplomatic and media instruments, which characterize Fourth Generation Warfare or Unconventional Warfare, is gradually giving way in favor of an environment favorable to the forces of the left.

The departure from power of President Donald Trump, the arrival of a democratic period with President Joseph Biden, who seeks a more positive agenda for the Latin American and Caribbean region on issues such as immigration, family remittances, trade and support against COVID-19. 19, -although it reflects a political inertia in relation to its predecessor-, it constitutes a favorable premise for Latin American and Caribbean governments that, even when they prefer to maintain a healthy relationship with the United States, the United States maintains more progressive positions in politics , favor integration efforts in the region and support the realization of a positive agenda with the United States, which puts at a disadvantage the more conservative governments such as those of Sebastián Piñera in Chile, that of Iván Duque in Colombia or that of Lenin Moreno and Guillermo Lasso,now in Ecuador.

The diplomatic persecution of right-wing forces that prevailed in recent years in multilateral and regional organizations and which favored aggressiveness against the Bolivarian Revolution, or the siege of the Sandinista government of Daniel Ortega in Nicaragua,
to cite just two of the most notable examples, it is gradually giving way, or similar efforts are diluted or face enough resistance or opposition that they fail to thrive in regional spaces like the OAS, even with the support it offers. nameless Luis Almapro and the presence of representatives of the United States.

Attempts to revitalize the Inter-American System and the OAS face a serious obstacle in the processes that oppose it and in the demands of a different organization that protects the regional interests and positions of Mexico, Argentina or several countries. the caribbean.

The activism of Grupo Puebla emerged, an entity that favors public policies to support the most popular sectors, defends the causes of progressive governments such as those of Venezuela and Cuba, and left-wing leaders unfairly persecuted through political maneuvers. Silva, Rafael Correa, Dilma Rousseff and opposed the policies of former President Donald Trump.

However, there remains a high level of fragility and fragmentation in the regional left, expressed, among other factors, in the greater radicalism and concessions of the political parties of this tendency and in the differences between political and social movements. This considerably reduces its political reach, its mobilizing capacity to face the still solid presence and power of the most reactionary tendencies, which still maintain significant vitality.

It is very risky to try to reveal whether the political scenario will be more or less favorable for the left in the region. The realization of this exercise is made impossible by the heterogeneity and plurality of the political tendencies that compose it, as well as by the fact that each country has its particularity and multiple and dissimilar factors affect them.

However, if one intends to make a prediction about the perspectives of political change in the Latin American and Caribbean region, it would be necessary to express that after the victory of Pedro Castillo in Peru, the movements favorable to the left that emerge from the electoral results in In Chile and Honduras, in the year 2022, the presidential elections represent a great unknown, but the negative results shown so far in the administration by President Iván Duque in Colombia, or Jair Bolsonaro in Brazil, also point to a political change in these countries.

The arrival of governments of new leftist or progressive forces that change the political map of the region to the left should not be seen directly related to the certain possibility of returning to the paths of integration and cooperation that they followed in 2000.

The ability of this “new left” to resume and advance these purposes is threatened by multiple elements. These are governments that have faced severe health crises in the last two years as a priority of their management in the face of the advance of the Covid-19 epidemic, whose impact has been negative in almost all cases as it has generated destabilization and disquiet with a possible effect on future elections. This could be the case of Mexico and Argentina.

There was a deep economic recession, GDP contraction in 2020 and even if there is growth in 2021, pre-pandemic levels will not recover. Your domestic schedules are pressing challenges.

Unlike at the beginning of the century, the regional political map is characterized by a heterogeneity between governments that oscillate between the left and the right, which reduces the possibilities of agreeing agendas and consensus, as well as the achievement of common goals.

The new leftist governments would face a scenario of institutional fragmentation, deepened by the previous rise of the right, which dismantled some of the successful experiences of integration and concentration such as UNASUR, CELAC and, to a certain extent, ALBA-TCP.

In the case of the Caribbean, CARICON’s margins of political agreement continue to shrink. The impact caused by Covid-19 and the disastrous effects of the hurricanes to which they were exposed, led us to postpone differences and focus on efforts to overcome common challenges. The active role of some Caribbean nations within the framework of the OAS expresses a clearer position of support for the causes of Venezuela and Nicaragua, while confirming their unanimous support for Cuba’s fight against the blockade and a high appreciation and solidarity with the island.

The United States in Confrontation with Leftist Forces, Movements, and Governments in Latin America and the Caribbean

It can be said that the United States has been the main and most influential actor in the configuration of the correlation of forces in Latin America, a mission in which it has counted as
pillars of hegemonism for transnational corporations and think tanks.

In the US, libertarianism gained strength (Boaz, 2015) with the Trump administration. This supposedly extreme right-wing libertarian movement is financed by US transnationals and develops its work through foundations, institutes, NGOs, among which the Atlas Economic Research Foundation, or Red Atlas, stands out, which bases its strategy on the deliberate manipulation of disinformation to the majority.

Through ultra-neoliberal and neoconservative NGOs and think tanks, funded by the National Endowment for Democracy (NED), the US Agency for International Development (USAID); George Soros, the Koch brothers and others “build” youth leaders and students through workshops, courses and fellowships to lead new “citizen movements” that demand “Democratic Governance”, “Freedom of Expression”, “Respect for Human Rights” and other alleged claims used to manipulate public opinion.

In line with this strategy, the ATLAS network and its associated think tanks in the Latin American region and around the world constitute an extension of US foreign policy.

There are several public entities that behave as operators of US foreign policy; Among them stand out in addition to the ATLAS network, the Panamericana Foundation for Development (PADF), Freedom House, the USAID, the NED, among different actors that distribute resources, finance and participate in the defense of American imperial interests in the world. The range of influences ranges from foundations, NGOs and think-tanks related to the supposed defense of democratic governance, the empowerment of civil society and changes in the judiciary.

The main affiliates in the region are: 12 entities in Argentina; 11 in Chile; 8 in Peru; 5 in Mexico and Costa Rica; 4 in Uruguay, Venezuela, Bolivia and Guatemala; S in Brazil; 2 in Dominican Republic, Ecuador and El Salvador and 1 in Colombia, Panama, Bahamas, Jamaica and Honduras.

Another foundation with a presence in the region is the Open Society, a “philanthropic” institution that trains academics, but above all finances NGOs that serve the interests of its founder, the speculator George Soros (Visión, 2016). A vast network of NGOs, funded by the Open Society, has been deployed in recent decades on the continent, not only to impose narratives that serve local oligarchies and the interests of transnational corporations in which Soros is also an investor, but even to influence the laws that operate in the judicial structures of representative democracies. The Open Society consigns the so-called financial turbocapitalism, a term coined by Pentagon adviser Edward Luttwak in 1996, as a dogma of faith.

The objective was to “strengthen an open global society”, and for that it has its main organization International Crisis Group, a think tank recognized for its reports on extreme situations and chaos in war zones, and Human Vigilancia de los derechos.

The NGOs they finance through their foundation would be the political and legal pillars to apply a certain “market fundamentalism”, as Soros himself calls it. Democracy without a protectionist State would be an image to create “the laws and institutions necessary for the coexistence of the multiplicity of individuals and the multiplicity of communities and could lead to a global society”, defending the proposal of supranational organizations or organizations in charge of legislating and apply justice.

With their rhetoric, they intend to oppose the “ethics” of the “bad state” to the “good citizenship”, in the supposed defense of representative democracy, whose main objectives seem to be the promotion of democracy, two human rights and the collaboration with initiatives that develop new forms of participation; Now, in reality, we defend a society that includes unscrupulous individuals, staunch advocates of more markets, manipulating thousands of NGOs around the world.

Open Society has a common project for Latin America and the Caribbean, with a single office in Brazil responsible for coordinating the implementation of its NGOs throughout the region. The objective is the neoliberalization of this area with the significant participation of Soros: a society open to the pockets of world finance capital. It is not in vain that the “Venezuelan” Moisés Naím, a globalized fascist, who proclaims the “end of power” as a euphemism to name the globalist insertion throughout the planet, is part of the international guideline. In Venezuela, the most mediated non-governmental organization is the Venezuelan Education-Action Program, better known by the acronym Provea. In 2016 alone, the foundation allocated around US$34 million to partner projects in Latin America. In Brazil, since 2015, Soros has further expanded its long-standing financial and business presence in the country. In December 2014, for example, with the devaluation of Petrobras shares in the financial market, Soros invested in a large purchase of shares in the oil company (Altamiro, 2014), while one of his “philanthropic” financing in Brazil is directed to market entities. , to fight corruption! The same conflict of interest occurs with Soros’ support for the media conglomerate, as he also has investments in this area in Brazil, through the Sunrise and On Telecom groups (De Sa, 2017). With the coup in Brazil, some articles appeared in the media about foreign funders of right-wing movements, such as Movimento Brasil Livre and Vem pra Rua, among others, who led street protests against the government. by Dilma Rousseff. It so happens that, in recent years, this external funding is not restricted to right-wing movements, nor to entities without explicit political purposes. A significant part of NGOs, media, entities and researchers identified with the left in Brazil has been receiving large sums of financial contributions of this nature and, in particular, from the Open Society. The Free Brazil Movement, as well as the “Come to the streets” funded by ATLAS and Open Society, took up the impeachment banner with the street protests during the Dilma Rousseff government; Funded NGOs such as Students for Freedom, Francisco Marroquín University and Millennium Institute also participated. This network or fabric of interests between transnationals, the Department of State, NED, USAID, think tanks, foundations, communication and Internet oligopolies and right-wing political parties is gaining more and more strength in the region and participates in the so-called “regime change” and processes electoral campaigns, through the dissemination of ideas, training of political operators, mobilization of young people, congresses, scholarships, seminars and other modalities, as part of the soft power exercised by the US government. continued by the Trump administration, with the brand of a combination of hard and soft power, depending on the country and the circumstances that demand it. These data only confirm the attention that the United States has been paying and continues to pay to the development of events in Latin America and the Caribbean and how it effectively acts through unconventional methods against leftist governments. It can be pointed out as a victory of its foreign policy that, at the end of Barack Obama’s term, leftist or progressive governments such as Honduras, Paraguay, Argentina, Brazil have fallen and that the USA regains an important position in the influence that it exerted in the past in the region. With the end of the Donald Trump administration at the helm of the White House, which resumed the big stick policy, the United States’ foreign action was carried out under different methods or bases without renouncing the aforementioned: strong hand and sanctions against Venezuela, retreat and iron reinforcement of the blockade in its relations with Cuba, rigidity with Mexico and Central America, harassment and pressure against Nicaragua and it can even be concluded that in its offensive against the countries of the region a very limited use made of the so-called policies of “ soft power”. Despite the priority that other international conflicts and interests have maintained for the United States, it continued to develop its policies, mechanisms and instruments to maintain its claim to preserve Latin America and the Caribbean as its backyard. Impact on Cuban foreign policy The described regional context has considerably reduced the scope for action that Cuban foreign policy enjoyed until a few years ago in the area. The island had to make adjustments in its relationship with various countries without sacrificing its essence, without renouncing its traditional principles or defending Venezuela’s Bolivarian Revolution, which is equivalent to defending the dignity and sovereignty of peoples. The arrival in the US government of Donald Trump and his aggressive policy towards progressive and left-wing countries, basically against Venezuela, Nicaragua and Cuba, offered an adverse scenario for the better performance of Cuban foreign policy. Since the rise of Trump, the region has only shown, with very few exceptions, defensive reactions on issues related to immigration policy, trade and the threat of intervention in Venezuela. However, the willingness to collaborate more closely with the US in all areas of public safety has increased considerably. This predisposition distanced a large group of countries on the continent from exchanges and relationships with Cuba. Whenever this could be avoided, positions were chosen that did not contradict or annoy such a powerful partner, and a new rapprochement with the island was postponed or renounced. This context did not only have repercussions in the political-diplomatic sphere. It also had a strong impact on other areas or sectors of exchange, such as economic and trade relations and foreign investment interests. The fierce enforcement of the economic, commercial and financial blockade; The abandonment of the more flexible practices applied in the last period of the Obama administration and the hardening of political discourse and its extraterritorial effect had a discouraging effect on traditional partners and inhibited new investors from taking an interest in business in our country. this, combined with a complex international context, characterized by crises such as energy, environmental and food, among others, and by the predominance of an unfair international economic order with its enormous impact on the performance of the economy. It cannot be ignored that the US blockade increased restrictions and attacks on Cuba’s foreign economic activity, nor how the effect of the sanctions limited the possibilities of this economy to fulfill its international financial commitments, while the pressure from creditors to demand compliance with such increases or the willingness to grant facilities is drastically reduced. The situation of Cuba’s main ally, Venezuela, subjected to intense political, diplomatic and economic harassment and great hostility, which put it at risk of suffering aggression from a military point of view in the face of the US government’s declaration as a threat to its National security; as well as the enormous effort that the Bolivarian government makes to face this scenario, conditions and limits its international action and, even without abandoning its proven solidarity with Cuba, it also limited its support to the island. One of the clearest expressions in this sense is the instability in the supply of fuel, which leads to disturbances in the functioning of the limited Cuban economy. This situation represented a serious challenge for Cuba, which had to look for other sources of stable fuel supply, an adjustment that is not easily possible in the international market. In addition to the fuel reserves available in the national economy, it constituted an enormous strain on the functioning of the country. At the same time, defending the Bolivarian process is a priority for Cuban foreign policy, as it is not just a matter of defending that sister nation, but of defending faithfully and consistently, at the same time, the principles enshrined in international law and the Charter of United Nations, which are pillars of Cuban foreign policy, which are preserved to this day and which constitute an instrument for the defense of our nation and other peoples of the Third World and which served to stop the advance and imperialist intervention in the region. SOURCE INTERNATIONAL POLITICS Magazine. | Volume IV No. 2 from April to June 2022 International Politics Magazine.cuba Changes in the balance of forces in Latin America and the Caribbean Irte. Impact for Cuba. license Rogelio Sierra Diaz in International Political Relations. Rector of the Higher Institute of International Studies “Raúl Roa García”, Havana. [email protected] RECEIVED: FEBRUARY 5, 2022 APPROVED: MARCH 2, 2022 at June 06, 2022 No comments: Send by email Post on the blog! share on twitter share on facebook Share with Pinterest Tags: latin america , cuba , geopolitics , Impact for Cuba , Changes in the balance of forces in Latin America and the Caribbean , Rogelio Sierra Diaz 5. Guilherme Monteiro Jr. says: Friday, February 4, 2022 The parallel governments plan stamped made in usa * La iguana THE PLAN OF PARALLEL GOVERNMENTS WITH STAMP MADE IN USA Honduras faced a new institutional crisis caused by the struggle that was generated by the presidency of the legislature of this Central American nation, a fact that reached its apex after the Congress was divided in two, where each one claims to be “legitimate”. This new episode of institutional duality comes after a convulsive week in this nation following the breaking of a pact by the supporters of the newly elected president Xiomara Castro , who decided to ignore the commitment to hand over the presidency of parliament to Luis Redondo , a political leader belonging to one of the coalition parties that brought the former first lady to power, whose husband, Manuel Zelaya, was overthrown in a coup d’état with the support of the United States in July 2009. COLOMBIA 20 were the parliamentarians who, together with the votes of parliamentarians allied to the party of outgoing president Juan Orlando Hernández, decided to discard the commitments and swear in Jorge Cálix as president of the legislature, a fact that President Castro described as a “betrayal”. ”. After the first session that ended with punches and screams of “traitors”, it culminated in the election of Cálix which, as stipulated in the Honduran Constitution, had to be ratified in a second session that would take place last Tuesday, January 25th. This process, which was characterized as a requirement of little media importance, since it meant only a formal stage for the first election, became the apex of the institutional crisis due to the fact that two inaugurations were held; one held at the parliamentary seat where Luis Redondo was elected, who is recognized by the Chief Executive, and another held at a golf club in the Honduran capital where, in a virtual session via Zoom, Jorge Cálix proclaimed himself with the support of sympathizers allied with the former president. Juan Orlando Hernandez. Institutional duality, a destabilizing gringa recipe? On January 23, 2019, a phenomenon unknown to western democracies emerged in Venezuela when, in a square in eastern Caracas, then deputy Juan Guaidó proclaimed himself “interim president”, a fact that was immediately supported by the US government of Venezuela. . Trump and some countries in the European Union and also in Latin America. This event, which marked an institutional crisis in the structure of the Venezuelan State, was warned by other nations as a “dangerous precedent” for democracies and their institutions in the region, a warning that has materialized as it has become a practice already carried out in some countries of the Latin America and Eurasia, which are seen by Washington as “opponents” to its interests. Venezuela, Bolivia, Belarus and now Honduras are some of the countries where the phenomenon of self-proclamations has been carried out with the support of the United States, in what John Bolton revealed as a strategy to overthrow “regimes” that the rulers of the American nation consider as ” dangerous allies” of foreign powers such as China and Russia, who are seen by the White House as “enemies”. Guaido in Venezuela In Venezuela, the self-proclamation of Guaidó and the recognition of more than 60 countries served to endorse the blockade of the Republic’s assets abroad, using as a justification for this action, the request made by the self-styled “interim president”. This made it impossible for Venezuela to access funds deposited in European and North American banks, as well as the confiscation of companies such as Citgo and Monomeros. In addition, it also served to generate a financial and commercial blockade that prevents the country from accessing food, medicine and products abroad, as well as the impossibility of marketing oil, a fact that generated the loss of 99% of revenue. the country. In addition to this blockade and financial persecution, the figure of Guaidó served to justify a coup attempt on April 30, 2019 and a mercenary incursion on May 3, 2020, both events defeated despite public support from the United States. Currently, the self-styled “interim president” has only the support of the United States and a few allies who, unlike the European Union, which recognized the recognition of Guaidó as a “mistake”, continue to bet on a figure that all lights have failed . Áñez in Bolivia As part of what Venezuela has described as the “imperial attack” against progressive governments on the continent, on November 12, 2019, a coup d’état took place in Bolivia that had the endorsement of the State Department and the facilitation of the Secretary General of Organization of American States that, without evidence, qualified the reelection of Evo Morales as a fraud. It was on that night that the figure of Jeanine Áñez emerged, an opponent of the Morales government who, before some legislators, proclaimed herself president of Bolivia, receiving the approval of the United States, Europe and the Bolivian military high command, being the head of the armed forces , General William Kaliman who puts on him the presidential sash. Áñez’s de facto government perished as a result of the October 2020 elections, where Morales supporters with Luis Arce as their presidential candidate defeated figures identified with the coup and close to the self-proclaimed “interim president”. Guaidó phenomenon crosses the continent Svetlana Tijanovskaya is the name of the opponent of the Government of the President of Belarus , Aleksandr Lukashenko, who tried to be promoted to apply the formula of institutional duality in this European nation. “We are trying to convince the world community that opponent Svetlana Tijanovskaya should be recognized despite everything . Possibly, the situation in Venezuela, when dual power was created, will develop in Belarus in a different scenario, but this precedent is set,” said former Belarusian presidential candidate Valeri Tsepkalo. To make this new venture a reality, the Belarusian opposition formed a coordination council to request recognition of Tijanovskaya as the winner of the presidential elections of August 9, 2020, although the candidate only obtained 9.9% of the votes. BRAZIL This attempt to implement the Guaidó plan in Belarus did not have the necessary support, as the European Union and the United States limited themselves to denying Lukashenko recognition and imposing sanctions on the nation, ending this dream of Tijanovskaya and the Belarusian opposition. without being born. . The three experiences of the dual power plan promoted by the White House with Donald Trump at its head, were marked by failure in the countries where they were applied, as attested by the arrest to which Jeanine Áñez is subjected, Tijanovskaya’s self-exile and self-imprisonment. to which Juan Guaidó was subjected, who limits himself to issuing statements from a small space located in a residential area in eastern Caracas, where he lives awaiting his fate, after having attacked the Constitution and having promoted the destabilization of the country, even through of weapons. SOURCE Guaidó phenomenon crosses the continent: The plan of parallel governments with seal Made in USA | the iguana TV *** at February 04, 2022 No comments: Send by email Post on the blog! share on twitter share on facebook Share with Pinterest Tags : puppet governments , imperialism , North American intervention , La iguana , The plan of parallel governments with stamp made in usa , parallel power Wednesday, April 27, 2022 Colombia: NATO nuclear ally and US geopolitical gendarme * Rolando Prudencio Briancon /Lawyer/Bolivia Colombia: NATO’s nuclear ally and US geopolitical gendarme What does NATO have to do with South America? Yes, this organization whose presence is, in any case, located in the countries that are in the North Atlantic sphere, as its name implies. SEA OF NICARAGUA . And I don’t think this reasoning is strange to anyone, because it is so basic, so elementary that it costs nothing to understand the inexplicable relationship that NATO has as an “ally” -as Joe Biden defines it- with Colombia in South America. And this small but big detail does not go unnoticed, because wherever the topic is addressed, the analysis of the northern oceanographic area is the responsibility of NATO, so it has nothing to do with this southern part of the planet. That’s why Colombian senator Iván Cepeda went deeper into the real reason for Colombia’s inexplicable incorporation, ordering President Iván Duque to explain whether Colombia will stockpile US nuclear or biological weapons. “As a right of petition, yesterday I formally asked President Duque to inform whether he has committed with Colombia to stockpile nuclear or biological weapons of the United States,” Senator Iván Cepeda, from the Polo Democrático party, said on Twitter on Thursday. . . This came after Colombian President Iván Duque claimed that his US counterpart Joe Biden had announced his intention to designate Colombia as a “non-member strategic ally” of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO).” . in return, in an interview with the newspaper El Tiempo, Duque said on March 10 that the Western military bloc would allow Colombia to gain access to US weapons and military capabilities or the US country’s strategic reserves on its territory to face threats such as drug trafficking. Likewise, he stressed that his country “can store equipment for the United States on its territory that can serve in any risky situation.” . the fight against drug trafficking, which led Senator Cepeda to ask the Colombian president to clarify the obligations acquired r Colombia with the designation of a strategic NATO ally, and inquired about what measures the Government of Duque has planned to ensure that the deployment of equipment Americans in Colombian territory does not become a threat to the country and its sovereignty, in the face of possible US military action, amid the crisis in Ukraine, says a press release from his Polish Democratic party, released on Thursday. The text of the Polo Democrático explained in this regard that the designation would allow Colombia to participate in the cooperative projects of the United States Department of Defense and gives authority so that “Colombia can store US military elements that are part of its war reserve”. But what is contradictory is that on March 10, Biden reported that he is trying to determine Bogotá as a “strategic ally”; something that contradicts the “non-formal”, because to give “non-normal”, the strategic would be superfluous; or in all cases it ratifies the creeping condition in which it has transformed Colombia before Washington, as a Mercenary State, which under the pretext of maintaining “the security of the region” will now store nuclear weapons. It is not in vain that Colombia has been constantly attacking Venezuela, based on paramilitary bands of armed mercenaries. But it is not just Colombia that must be alert to this American strategy of stricter control over this bishop, who is now also an ally of NATO; If not, it is the whole of Latin America that must take a stand against turning Colombia into a nuclear ally, because of the very risk that this decision represents, that the Colombian oligarchy obedient to NATO will jeopardize the entire region and transform Colombia into a “nuclear bonfire” Latin America is a land of peace! NATO out of Latin America! PS With quotes and analysis from Russia Today. Rolando Prudencio Briancon / Lawyer/Bolivia at April 27, 2022 6 comments: Send by email Post on the blog! share on twitter share on facebook Share with Pinterest Tags: latin america , colombia , Colombia NATO nuclear ally and US geopolitical gendarme , imperialism , american intervention , Rolando Prudencio Briancon , usa 6. Guilherme Monteiro Jr. says: Sunday, October 10, 2021 North American Misery * Strategic Culture Foundation / USA NORTH AMERICAN MISERY Want to change? With 60 Million Americans Starving, America Needs to Make Peace, Not War October 1, 2021 Image caption: The number of people below the poverty line hits a record in the US The United States cannot afford to maintain a war economy. This hypermilitarized economy is inciting dangerous tensions between the nuclear powers as well as eroding the very material foundations of American society. Food hunger in the United States has reached shocking levels, with new figures showing that some 60 million Americans are in need of charitable help. That’s almost 20 percent of the total population. The rise in food poverty in the US has been exacerbated by the Covid-19 pandemic, as millions of workers are laid off. At the other extreme, a handful of billionaires have never had so good with their aggregate wealth estimated to have increased by nearly$2 trillion from during the pandemic.

Meanwhile, the national debt continues to rise, exceeding $28 trillion, which is far more than the entire economic output of the United States. Over the past century, the US federal debt has been estimated to have risen from 16% of GDP in 1929, at the time of the Wall Street crash and the Great Depression, to the current level of 130%. This week, as Congress amended a “continuing resolution” to avert a government shutdown, Treasury Secretary Janet Yellen warned that the country is in danger of a “catastrophic default” on its mounting debt. This would be the first time the US would default on its debts, with far-reaching repercussions for its domestic economy as well as the global economy. In short, the United States is living far beyond its means and has been doing so for decades. The once economic powerhouse of the world is no longer the virile specimen it once was. America is more like a burned-out, out-of-shape ex-boxer who spends his days slumped on a high stool begging for drink after drink — and the bill with no way to pay. While Americans remain deeply divided over bipartisan politics, polls nonetheless show that there is a lot of common ground between Republican and Democratic voters about the need for massive investment in infrastructure. There is also a common consensus that it would be appropriate to raise taxes on the super-rich in order to finance much-needed national reform. It is commonly recognized that the United States has chronically neglected its human and physical infrastructure. The Biden administration is currently trying to pass a combined$4.5 trillion bill for infrastructure spending in Congress. The bill may not pass due to objections from Republican lawmakers as well as some Democrats. But the vast sum of investment involved is a measure of the historic deterioration and abandonment of American society. For example, an estimated 45,000 bridges are in poor condition and in need of renovation.

There is no doubt that the dire economic difficulties facing the US economy have been caused by excessive militarism over many decades. Since 2001, the so-called “wars on terrorism”, including in Afghanistan and Iraq, have added an estimated $8 trillion to the national debt – nearly 30%. When the Cold War with the Soviet Union ended 30 years ago, there was a lot of talk among policymakers about an anticipated “peace dividend”. This proved to be illusory. Why? Three decades later, the United States continues to allocate record budgets for military spending – currently around$750 billion a year. That’s more than the next 10 highest military spending nations combined. That’s more than 10 times what Russia allocates for its armed forces. The US is spending more dollars on the military than during the height of the Cold War. However, the Cold War should have ended.

It is significant and revealing that Washington in recent years has worked so hard to provoke tensions with Russia and China to the point that, regrettably, a new Cold War is emerging.

The US reasoning for adverse relations is based on dubious claims made by Washington.

Russia and China are accused of allegedly interfering in elections, undermining Western democracy, threatening regional security, and so on.

This reasoning is then used to justify the disorderly militarism of the US economy and its own threatening conduct towards Russia and China.

The Biden administration is sending more warships to the South China Sea and increasing the supply of lethal weapons to a radically anti-Russian regime in Ukraine, compared to Trump’s predecessor in the White House.

Washington’s adversarial attitude is contradicted by the reality of Moscow and Beijing, which repeatedly call for multilateralism and cooperation.

Such cooperation is viable and productive, as demonstrated by the successful negotiations in Geneva this week between the US and Russia on expanding nuclear weapons control. Those talks followed the summit between Presidents Biden and Putin in June.

Now, why can’t these mutual talks and participation be comprehensively implemented by the US, Russia and China, as well as other powers, on other global security issues?

The end result is that the United States cannot afford to maintain a war economy. This hypermilitarized economy is inciting dangerous tensions between the nuclear powers as well as eroding the very material foundations of American society. It is neither desirable nor sustainable.

The question is how will the US overcome its dystopian, dysfunctional economy?

Arguably, the government apparatus in Washington is part of the problem, not the solution.

The political impasse of futile and petty infighting of culture war, the vicious control of the military-industrial complex lobbyists and the bipartisan contamination of Cold War fanaticism towards Russia and China are some of the reasons that evidence the irreformable nature of Class dominant in America.

Unfortunately, the United States has the potential to be one of the most developed nations in the world. But the potential will only be unlocked when you start looking for peaceful relations with the rest of the world, instead of conflict and war.

This new political paradigm depends on a mass mobilization of American citizens demanding their democratic rights for a dignified and decent society, where millions of people starving amid the obscene wealth of a billionaire are seen for the abomination that it is.

SOURCES
STRATEGIC CULTURE FOUNDATION
Want to change? With 60 Million Americans Starving, America Needs to Make Peace, Not War – Strategic Culture
….
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Saturday, June 11, 2022
PRISON INDUSTRY * Nicole Mitchell Ribeiro da Silva / Osvaldo leon – FRT
PRISON INDUSTRY

In the United States, prisons are a gigantic capitalist business: those who exploit prison labor accumulate surplus value at stratospheric levels. This is one of the reasons for the colossal American prison system.

In Tennessee they passed a law criminalizing the homeless. Penalties have been toughened against 2020 anti-racist camps. With this new law, camping on public roads will be classified as a serious crime, punishable by 6 years in prison and loss of voting rights.

The law, which takes effect on July 1, will also make it a crime to camp along highways, under bridges, on overpasses or inside overpasses.

In the United States, there are millions of people and families forced to live badly on the streets, in tents, faced with the impossibility of finding affordable housing in a system in which housing is a commodity and not an inalienable right. Capital feeds fascism.

SOURCES
t.me/capitalismoesbarbarie
https://cutt.ly/pJIyKJu
OSVALDO LEON/VE

US Prison Work: “It’s Not a Justice System, It’s a Business”

Nicole Mitchell Ribeiro da Silva*1

summary

1. Introduction. 2. Historical Origins of Penitentiary Work. 3. Institutionalized Racism: Connection between Prison and Slavery. 4. The Privatization of Prisons.

5. It’s Not a Justice System, It’s a Business. 6. Conclusions. References.

Summary

In the United States of America, a new form of slavery appears, duly authorized by the legal system, involving those who are serving time in an industrial prison complex, since a large part of the private prison system exploits inmates as if they were slaves. Apparently, American slavery was never abolished, it just moved to the modern prison system, fueling, mainly, the mass incarceration of black citizens, as racism is institutionalized and reflected in the selectivity of the American prison system. In Brazil, projects are advancing on the privatization of prisons. Thus, it seems feasible, useful and even necessary to discuss the topic.

Abstract

In the United States, a new form of slavery exists, authorized by the legal system, for those serving time in an industrial penitentiary complex, since much of the private prison system exploits detainees as if they were slaves. American slavery, it seems, has never been abolished; it has only changed to the modern prison system, ultimately fueling mainly the mass incarceration of black citizens, since racism is institutionalized and reflected in the selectivity of the US prison system. In Brazil, projects are being advanced for the privatization of prisons. Thus, it seems viable, useful and even necessary to discuss the topic.

Keywords: Modern slavery. American prison system. Prison-industrial complex. Industrial prison complex. Privatization of the prison system. Institutionalized racism. 13th Amendment.

* Postgraduate degree in Public and Private Law from the Higher Institute of the Public Ministry (Amperj).

Servant of the Public Ministry of the State of Rio de Janeiro.

Keywords: Modern slavery. US prison system. Prison-industrial complex. Industrial penitentiary complex. Privatization of the penitentiary system. Institutionalized racism. 13th Amendment.

1. Introduction

It is used to think that the outcome of the Civil War represented, in the United States, the end of slavery. That’s because the 13th Amendment to the Constitution, passed in January 1865, outlawed slavery, freeing millions of black slaves. The same amendment, however, reserved slavery as a punishment for crime. It can be said, therefore, that the detainees came to be considered property of the State.

As a result, several organizations dedicated to the protection of human rights have condemned what can be called a “new form of inhuman exploitation of work”. Today, a population of up to 2 million prisoners, mostly black and poor, legally provide services to large industrial corporations in exchange for paltry values.

The text of the 13th Amendment reads:

section 1

There shall be, in the United States or anywhere subject to its jurisdiction, neither slavery nor forced labor, except as a punishment for a crime for which the defendant has been duly convicted.

Section 2

Congress shall have the power to enforce this article by means of the necessary laws.

From reading the amendment, it does not seem too much to conclude that American slavery was not abolished, it was just transferred to the modern prison system, in which economic interests encourage mass incarceration, notably of blacks. The fundamental relationship between punishment and economic interests is translated into the terms “industrial penitentiary complex” or “prison-industrial complex”. These are expressions that denote the overlapping and converging interests of government and industry in mass incarceration. This system uses surveillance, policing and imprisonment as solutions to economic, social and political problems.

Now, the word prison is not difficult to understand: it is a place where freedom, movement and access to basically everything are restricted, in general, as punishment for committing a crime. But for those who have already been incarcerated, being in prison is much more than that. Prisons, for the most part, are places where dignity, privacy and control are handed over to guards, correctional officers and administrators, and where isolation and boredom can take away sanity.

For in the United States, a country where more than two million people are detained, these prisons are also big business.1

2. Historical Origins of Penitentiary Work

Prison work in the United States has its roots in slavery. After the Civil War of 1861-1865, a system of contracting inmates was introduced to continue the tradition of slavery. Freed slaves were accused of petty crimes or, simply, of not fulfilling their commitments and, once incarcerated, they were hired to harvest cotton, work in mines and build railroads.

Historically, prisons have been used for a variety of purposes. The most common was to incarcerate criminals. But the prisons also served to hold political dissidents, the mentally ill, prisoners of war and even people who didn’t pay their debts. In the centuries In the 18th and 19th centuries, people who could not pay their debts were often imprisoned or forced to perform forced labor. Time spent in prison or working was an alternative way to pay off debts.

In this context, penitentiary work was installed, especially for blacks, for the benefit of the industry.

3. Institutionalized Racism: Connection between Prison and Slavery

The racism that permeates life in American society is reflected in the selectivity of its prison system. There are many similarities between the industrial prison complexes of the United States and the slavery systems of that country, and it is not difficult to see that the American prison population is, to an incredibly disproportionate degree, African American.

Already in the century In the 18th century, freed black individuals began to be arrested for petty crimes, such as vagrancy, or any other banal reason and without posing a danger to society. Then came the idea of ​​putting prisoners to work for the state. As previously mentioned, according to the US Constitution, the former slave and now detainee can and must be subjected to forced labor.

Black-skinned people of African descent make up 13% of the American population, but are six times more likely to be incarcerated than lighter-skinned people. Blacks and Hispanics make up 58% of the prison population, which means a disproportionate number of black people forced to work (many of whom have committed non-violent drug-related crimes).2

1 The prison population in the US was 2,145,100 in 2016, according to a publication by the World Prison Brief (Institute for Criminal Policy Research). Available at: .
2 These and other data can be obtained from: .

Abolitionist movements understand the phenomenon of mass incarceration in North America as a class injustice, perpetrated against the working classes and driven by racism, given the evident selectivity of the prison system.

Jeffrey Mark Goldberg’s documentary,3 entitled “Angola for Life: Rehabilitation and Reform Inside the Louisiana State Penitentiary”, shows images of prison work on a plantation in the southern United States. And, as stated in the documentary, slavery and racial oppression persist.

4. The Privatization of Prisons

With the privatization of the prison system, companies manage the prisons, which they do, naturally, with the intention of making a profit. Large companies, through agreements, are hired by the government as contractors to design, build and manage prisons. In consideration, the government pays the company an amount per individual arrested. Thus, the more detainees there are, the more money companies receive.

The growth of prison privatization began in the 1980s and reached its peak in the 1990s. In 2000, as this system – the punishment industry –

— became one of America’s leading employers, and as private security corporations traded profits with human freedom, the analogies between slavery and prison grew.

The entire American penitentiary industrial complex is thus profit-oriented. In addition to the gain from private prisons according to the number of inmates held by them, many companies also make profits from prison labor, which could certainly be considered slave labor, as some inmates receive a few cents per hour of work. .

The logical conclusion is that the private employment of prisoners for work promotes incentives to incarcerate people. The figures show that the United States arrests more people than any other country: half a million more than China, which has a population five times as large. The United States thus holds 25% of the world’s prison population, but only 5% of the inhabitants of the globe. American prisons depend on the income they produce, and corporations that profit from this system encourage the imposition of longer sentences in order to expand their workforce.

The prison labor system takes advantage of an extremely vulnerable workforce that is unable to defend itself, form a union, fight for their workers’ rights or seek legal protection to combat potential labor abuses.

Prisoners are prohibited from unionizing or fighting for better wages and decent working conditions, making them the ideal group to serve as a hand.

3 Jeffrey Mark Goldberg is an American journalist and editor-in-chief of The Atlantic magazine.

of cheap work. Despite working effectively, they are not considered employed by the American justice system, not having access to minimum labor rights, which is especially advantageous for companies, which do not have to pay any benefit, fair consideration or protection. And if detainees refuse to work, they will be placed in solitary confinement and may receive other punishments, all with the legitimate backing of the criminal justice system. In addition, despite earning little or nothing for their work, inmates also have deductions and fees that come out of their meager earnings. Up to eighty percent of prisoners’ salaries are earmarked for taxes and deductions.

Private prisons also receive a guaranteed amount of money for each prisoner regardless of what it costs to keep each one. In them, inmates can have their sentences reduced for good behavior, but for any small infraction, they get thirty days added, which means more days in prison, more days of work and more profits for the prison industry.

5. It’s Not a Justice System, It’s a Business

In this system, incarcerated individuals are rightfully treated as government property. If any detainee refuses to be rented or transferred as property, he will suffer consequences that violate fundamental rights, similar to ancient slavery. Meanwhile, private corporations, in agreement with the US government, which exploit criminal labor to produce goods and services, profit millions of dollars a year.

The industrial prison complex is thus concerned with profiting from inmates, even though it labels this system a “job training program”. However, detainees are taught a skill set not as a means of reform, but rather for the purpose of exploitation for maximum profit.

Even as the US crime rate dropped, the country’s prison population rose. In 1983 and 1984, two private correction companies formed one after the other. Between 1990 and 2009, the number of prisoners working as slaves in private prisons increased surprisingly.

This is one of the fastest growing businesses in the United States and its investors are on Wall Street. The profits are so good that there is a new business growing: the importation of inmates with long sentences, that is, the worst criminals are disputed by private corporations, which exploit their cheap labor, all legally.

6. Conclusions

Slavery and mass imprisonment have a long historical relationship in the United States. That country’s penitentiary system can be described as a totalizing institution, which represents modern systems of domination and social control, apparently resocializing ex-criminals through work.

The network that links prisons, investment companies, police, courts and the bail/fine system is called the prison-industrial complex. The name is similar to the military-industrial complex, a term used to characterize the interconnected banks, military and oil industries, contractors, corporate lobbyists and professional soldiers who benefit from war and repression.

Nearly all American prisons, whether federal, state, county, and county government, allow large corporations to generate high profits. Prison bonds provide a lucrative return for large capitalist investors, and inmates are traded from state to state on the basis of a lucrative payment arrangement.

Large US multinationals enjoy some of the lowest labor rates in the world and resell finished goods, weapons for example, to the US government at the highest profit rates. Major corporations that benefit from inmate labor in private prisons include household names such as Motorola, Compaq, Honeywell, Microsoft, Revlon, Chevron, TWA, Victoria’s Secret and Eddie Bauer.

In the North American industrial penitentiary complex, there is no care with the resocialization of prisoners or with justice. In this system, the basic humanity of individuals is violated as was done in slavery in the past, but in a different way, more veiled and legitimized by the 13th Amendment.

In Brazil, there are projects providing for the privatization of prisons. It is therefore useful and timely to discuss the topic. Research and debates on this matter can help us to move in the right direction, valuing, above all, human rights and dignity.

References

CORREA, Alessandra. Why the US decided to stop using private prisons. Available at: . Accessed on: 23 Feb. 2017.
DUVERNAY, Ava. 13th. 2016 documentary directed by Ava DuVernay and written by DuVernay and Spencer Averick. (Netflix). Available at: .
GILMORE, Kim. Slavery and Prison – Understanding the Connections. Available in:
. Accessed on: 23 Feb. 2017.
LUSENHOP, Jessica. The controversial experience of prisons in the USA that charge for the stay of prisoners. Available at: . Accessed on: 23 Feb. 2017.
MORENO, Gisele Pompilio. 13th: from slave to criminal in an amendment. Available at: . Accessed on: 28 Feb. 2017.
STARR, Terrell Jermaine. US prison population: a new slavery? Available at: . Accessed on: 23 Feb. 2017.
50FORFREEDOM. Modern slavery: myths and facts. Available in:
. Accessed on: 23 Feb. 2017

MORE PRISON INDUSTRY
Prison Industry: Slavery in Modern Capitalism, Part 1 – USA. | Invisible Quilombo

***
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Thursday, September 3, 2020
UNCLE SAM PREPARE THE BOAT * FRT / BR
UNCLE SAM PREPARES THE BOAT

The hybrid war against Venezuela is intensifying as the US presidential campaign heats up. The Trump administration and its Venezuelan and international allies set the stage for a surprise in October, a possible attack by the United States or one of its proxies destined to drive President Trump’s re-election. The attacks on Venezuela come from multiple dimensions, including overt military pressure, economic pressure, covert operations and disinformation campaigns. These are all elements of a hybrid war that has sought to overthrow the government of President Nicolás Maduro in recent years, and each element has seen new developments in recent weeks, just as Venezuela is battling a surge in COVID-19 cases.
https://mronline.org/2020/09/03/the-stage-is-set-for-a-venezuela-october-surprise/

The stage is set for surprise in Venezuela in October
Posted on September 03, 2020 by Leonardo Flores

Financialization , Imperialism , Inequality , Strategy United States , Venezuela Newswire
Originally Posted: Venezuelanalysis (September 1, 2020)

The hybrid war against Venezuela is intensifying as the US presidential campaign heats up. The Trump administration and its Venezuelan and international allies set the stage for a surprise in October, a possible attack by the United States or one of its proxies destined to drive President Trump’s re-election. The attacks on Venezuela come from multiple dimensions, including overt military pressure, economic pressure, covert operations and disinformation campaigns. These are all elements of a hybrid war that has sought to overthrow the government of President Nicolás Maduro in recent years, and each element has seen new developments in recent weeks, just as Venezuela is battling a surge in COVID-19 cases.

open military pressure

The US naval deployment to Venezuela’s maritime border is about to begin its fifth month of operations in the area. Even the few Democrats in Congress willing to criticize Trump’s policy in Venezuela have said nothing about this development, perhaps because it is entirely normal for the United States to threaten war with a country and then dock its navy outside. The Democrats’ silence is regrettable, as this could easily have been used as an example of Pentagon waste. Deploying a massive “anti-narcotics” operation in the Caribbean, when 84% of US cocaine transits the Pacific, could be an easy fruit in the debate to cut military spending.

In Colombia, President Iván Duque met with national security adviser Robert O’Brien and US Southern Command chief Craig Faller on August 18, where they announced the Colombia Growth Initiative, a billion-dollar plan that O’Brien says he is “focused on rural development, infrastructure expansion, security and the rule of law”, although the announcement contained few details. Two days after visiting US officials, Duque baselessly accused Venezuela of trying to acquire medium- and long-range missiles from Iran. Both Iran and Venezuela have denied the allegations.

On August 27, a Colombian court authorized a US military unit to restart its “advisory mission” after previously suspending such cooperation due to a constitutional challenge regarding the deployment of foreign troops to Colombian soil. This unit, a Special Forces Assistance Brigade, was designed to “build a professional military force”. It is important to note that in his tell-all book, former national security adviser John Bolton claims to have learned in February 2019 that “Colombia’s troops were simply not ready for a conventional conflict with Maduro’s armed forces.”

Venezuela’s southern neighbor Brazil is also involved in the climb. The Brazilian Air Force is carrying out military exercises between August 17 and September 4. The exercises, which have been reported as training for unconventional combat against insurgent or paramilitary forces, include Black Hawk helicopters and fighter jets.

Brazil and Colombia cooperate closely in military matters with the United States. At a July event in Miami, President Trump was introduced to Brigadier General Juan Carlos Correa of ​​Colombia and Major General David of Brazil by Admiral Faller, who said the men “work for [him].” Former Brazilian President Lula da Silva expressed alarm that his country’s armed forces “may be used for actions that are incompatible with the constitutional principles of non-intervention and self-determination of peoples.”

economic pressure

On the economic front, the United States seized two fuel tanks purchased by Venezuela on August 14. This brazen act of piracy did not attract much attention from the mainstream media, but it is part of a strategy to suffocate the Venezuelan economy, which is facing a shortage of gasoline due to the difficulty of importing chemical additives and replacement parts needed by refineries. Now, the Trump administration is considering ending a sanctions waiver for crude oil exchanges that oil companies Reliance, Repsoil and Eni have been carrying out with Venezuela. Diesel sanctions would have widespread impacts on Venezuela’s agriculture, transport, health and energy industries. Trucks used to transport food and buses that transport people rely on diesel fuel. Hospitals across the country rely on backup diesel generators to withstand irregular electricity supplies. In western Venezuela, diesel is commonly used in local electricity generation plants.

The diesel exemption is scheduled to end in early November, and the Trump administration has told companies to end these exchanges, drawing criticism from prominent members of Venezuela’s opposition, including economist Francisco Rodríguez, who characterized it as a “clearly electoral measure.” ” that “It will cost lives.” Sanctions are becoming one of the main drivers of division within the opposition, as more and more opposition figures begin to criticize them for failing to lead to regime change and for punishing ordinary Venezuelans.

Covert operations and criminal disorder

While we may never know the extent of US involvement in the August 2018 assassination attempt on President Maduro, the March 2019 cyberattack on Venezuela’s power grid, or the attempted incursion by two former Green Berets and other mercenaries in May 2020, it would be false to think that US intelligence agencies and special forces are idle. In Venezuela, there is growing concern that several crimes in recent weeks are part of a plot to sow chaos.

There is no way to confirm this theory, but it is not far-fetched. Military analyst Frank G. Hoffman asserts that hybrid warfare can “incorporate a variety of different modes of warfare, including conventional capabilities, tactics and irregular formations, terrorist acts including indiscriminate violence and coercion, and criminal disorder [emphasis added].” An example of this occurred during the May raid weekend, when gang violence erupted in Petare, Venezuela’s largest favela. Later, one of the captured mercenaries claimed that the Drug Enforcement Agency had “paid for the shooting” to act as a smokescreen for the incursion.

Of current concern is a series of crimes that began on August 8 with the disappearance of an iconic revolutionary leader. This was followed by the August 20 death of a well-known left-wing artist under mysterious circumstances and the August 21 police killing of two left-wing communion workers. Authorities continue to investigate all three cases; in the latter, eight police officers and a prosecutor were indicted for the murder and attempted cover-up. Attorney General Tarek Saab called the nine accused persons “infiltrators” who had joined the police force to become involved in the crime. Regardless of whether or not they are linked to a conspiracy to generate criminal disorder, these events are certainly causing psychological damage to the Venezuelan people.

In addition to these crimes, there have been recurring violent clashes between the police and well-armed criminal groups. On August 25, a gang equipped with AR-15, AK-103 and FN-MAG machine guns ambushed a police weapons depot. Above, the photo on the left allegedly shows one of the gang’s founders holding a bazooka during the confrontation. Attacks on barracks or weapons depots linked to coup plans have occurred several times since 2017, resulting in the theft of rifles, heavy weapons, grenades and other explosives that end up in the hands of criminals.

Social media shutdowns

Tech giants appear to be joining the Trump administration’s maximum pressure campaign. In March, just as the coronavirus pandemic was starting in Venezuela, Twitter suspended 40 accounts of employees, state institutions, journalists and influencers, including those of the Ministry of Health and Vice President Delcy Rodríguez, responsible for the COVID-19 response. 19 . Most, but not all, of these accounts were recovered, but Twitter gave no explanation for its actions.

On August 19, Twitter restricted the account of Venezuela Analysis, one of the most important English-language news sites about the country. As The Grayzone’s Ben Norton notes, these are accounts that “conflict with Washington’s pro-war narrative.” His suspensions represent an escalation in the media dimension of hybrid warfare. On August 21, Google blocked or deleted three YouTube and Gmail accounts belonging to the Venezuelan state television channel VTV, preventing Venezuelans from accessing the live news and 68,000 videos that VTV had uploaded since 2011.

Disinformation and COVID Campaigns -19

The timing of these shutdowns is curious, coming just as a major disinformation campaign about Venezuela’s COVID-19 response is underway. The New York Times and other media published stories about the plight of returning Venezuelan migrants and the alleged extreme measures taken by the Venezuelan government to combat the pandemic.

What is missing from these articles is the fact that Venezuela has received 130,000 migrants who have returned since the beginning of the pandemic. Venezuela may be the only country in the world that is welcoming large numbers of people during the pandemic as most countries have closed their borders and coming home has been difficult for people across the world. Of those Venezuelans who returned, 90,000 entered through official channels, where they are immediately tested for COVID-19. Most are then sent to a Comprehensive Social Assistance Point (PASI) to comply with quarantine protocols. In PASIs, migrants receive food, medical care and personal hygiene products while they wait 2 to 3 weeks to ensure they are not infected with the coronavirus (positive tests can prolong their stay).

The other 40,000 migrants returned to the country via unofficial routes, bypassing health and immigration controls. In late May, Venezuela began to experience rapid growth in COVID-19 cases after controlling the pandemic for two months. Much of this growth was attributed to migrants who did not heed health warnings; at one point, 80% of Venezuela’s new cases were imported from abroad. In mid-June, the numbers changed and community broadcasts increased rapidly.

There are good reasons for migrants to avoid official entry points, including the appalling conditions on the Colombian side of the border and the long waits to enter, given the limit on the number of people who can cross the border daily. However, many of the migrants were victims of fake news. Telesur’s Madelein García interviewed a returning Venezuelan who was told in Colombia that Venezuelans were injecting COVID-19 into migrants because doctors were being paid for case numbers, as well as lies about migrants not being fed and being locked in cages in PASIs.

Although there are reports on social media about the poor conditions of some PASIs, they seem to be the exception rather than the rule. A report by the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs pointed to differences between the more than 200 PASIs, with universities and hotels having better infrastructure than primary schools and gymnasiums, some of which require “greater support to strengthen their ability to provide Services.” The United Nations and the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) have visited the PASIs and are contributing aid to migrants temporarily quarantined. The government and local officials routinely inspect the PASIs, and Venezuelan media reported their .

The traditional media narrative about COVID-19 and Venezuela’s migrants is being used to present the country as in need of humanitarian intervention. Indeed, the Trump administration and think tanks like the Center for Strategic and International Studies, which published a report titled “Venezuela: Pandemic and Foreign Intervention in a Collapsing Narcostado,” have been trying to turn Venezuela’s COVID-19 response into one. regional security issue. The Atlantic Council, considered the NATO think tank in Washington, held an event on August 13 with Admiral Faller in which he declared that the Maduro government is an urgent threat to democracy, economic stability and the COVID-19 response. .

However, as can be seen from the graphic above, it is ridiculous to claim that Venezuela is a COVID-19 threat. The country is doing significantly better than its neighbors in controlling the spread of the disease and the number of victims. Venezuela had 358 total deaths from COVID-19, a rate of 13 deaths per million inhabitants (Argentina is the second lowest in South America with 180 deaths per million). After an increase in the number of cases from July to mid-August, the curve of new cases appears to be flattening, although it is still too early to tell. Venezuela was able to weather the storm thanks to its political choices and timely help from Cuba, China, Russia, the European Union, ICRC and UN agencies.

Of course, military action against Venezuela would impede, if not destroy, its ability to deal with the pandemic, which would lead to increased infections in Brazil, Colombia and other nations if there is a wave of war refugees. Still, those concerns seem secondary to Venezuela’s hawks, who see a second Trump administration or a Biden administration as less likely to bring about regime change than a pre-election strike.

According to sources who spoke to La Política Online, Senator Marco Rubio has been advising the Trump administration that military action against Venezuela “would secure the Florida Electoral College votes in November.” It should be noted that these claims have not been independently verified and Senator Rubio has not commented on them. However, President Trump’s aggressive policy in Venezuela is predicated on Florida’s victory and many of the events detailed above have been set in motion to give the president the military option he has been threatening since August 2017. The stage is set for a disastrous one. surprise in October, especially if Trump’s chances of re-election seem slim.

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Sunday, May 1, 2022
1st of May International Workers’ Day * Revolutionary Workers’ Front/FRT
1st of May International Workers’ Day

Karl Marx called for unity: “Proletarians of all countries, unite”, although many poor people were not proletarians. Even broader, Lenin also called on peasants and colonized peoples to fight together under the leadership of the proletariat.

The date of the celebration was chosen as a tribute to the martyrs of Chicago when the 1st. In May 1886 they started a strike, in a capitalist country whose working mass suffered from unemployment and other calamities associated with economic crises, inseparable from the system. Their rights were not recognized and the unions were seen by the bourgeoisie as if they were terrorist organizations inimical to the people of the United States.

The capitalists later resorted to their best weapons: division and economism to dismantle the revolutionary struggle. The union movement was divided and union demands, for many in the midst of prevailing poverty, were the main objective, more than changing society.

The United States has become the capitalist country with the widest income gap between rich and poor. In the shadow of its hegemony, Latin America became, in turn, the Third World region, where the inequalities between rich and poor were deeper. The rich enjoyed living standards comparable to those of the bourgeoisie in the developed countries of Europe. The notion of Fatherland had disappeared in the richest strata of the population.

The clash between the great power of the North and the Cuban Revolution was inevitable. The heroic resistance of the people of our small country has been underestimated.

Today they are ready to forgive us if we resign ourselves to returning to the fold as slaves who, after knowing freedom, accept again the whip and the yoke.

Today the planet is divided between economic crises, pandemics, climate change, dangers of war and other simultaneous problems. The political task becomes more complex and there are still those who have the illusion that peoples can be managed like puppets.

The final word on the future evolution of the current US government cannot yet be said. There are new elements, both objective and subjective. We study and carefully observe each of its steps. We are not arsonists as some imagine, but we are also not fools who are easily deceived by those who believe that the only important thing in the world are the laws of the market and the capitalist system of production. We all have a duty to fight for peace; There is no other alternative. Never, however, should the adversary have the illusion that Cuba will surrender.

We hope that every 1st of May thousands of men and women from all corners of the planet will share with us the International Workers’ Day, which we have celebrated for 50 years. Not in vain, long before January 1, 1959, we had proclaimed that our Revolution would be the Revolution of the humble, by the humble and for the humble. Our country’s successes in the spheres of education, health, science, culture and other fields, and especially the strength and unity of the people, are demonstrating this, despite the relentless blockade.

Fidel Castro Ruz

April 30, 2009

CUBA

MAY 1: WORK CLASS DAY
Daniel Fernandez Abella / Spain

Every year, the working class celebrates the 1st of May, workers’ day that symbolizes all the achievements conquered by the working class during more than two centuries of struggles, strikes and repression.

The importance of the First of May in the working class consists, therefore, in the public manifestation of the international producing social class, with the same problems and which implicitly brings the seed of a classless society, a different conception of life from that in which money and big business, which implies an organization of human life focused on the satisfaction of its needs and not on the search for maximum profit.

The workers’ struggles managed to eliminate child labor in factories, fields and mines, unions and socialist political parties were created that demanded improvements in the working, salary and social conditions of the working class.

The role of the strike

The strike has as one of its objectives to cause damage to the profits obtained by the employer to force him to accept a series of workers’ demands, but not only. The strike serves for the working class to visualize its exploited class situation, realize its power and facilitate its organizational capacity. For all these reasons, accentuating the class struggle is what the strike is for or should be for.

A general strike supposes the stoppage of each of the productive sectors. However, not the entire working class participates directly in these sectors. Some workers remain unemployed to prevent the price of labor hired by employers from rising. Others are undergoing training to ensure qualified or specialized labor. Others are already retired. Others work in service-related sectors. These activities reproduce the capitalist system, because although they are not producers, they contribute to keeping the production and exploitation process running.

“The strike is a right won based on the effort, struggle and blood of workers, the bosses have always opposed it”,

The bosses rejected from the beginning that workers could associate. The formation of unions and a good part of the struggles in the form of strikes aimed at the right of association, which was conquered, with great difficulty, throughout the 19th century and in the first half of the 20th century, not without some twists and turns. and turns. .

The workers’ achievements were the prohibition of child labor, the right to maternity leave, workers’ compensation in the event of a work accident and the reduction of the working day to 8 hours a day.

The role of unions

The concentration of large numbers of workers in factories and working-class neighborhoods facilitated the mobilization of the proletariat and the creation of organizations to defend their rights.

Workers’ associations were formed very early; indeed, some were transformations of the old guilds to the new industrial situation, but all organizations were prohibited, as they were considered contrary to freedom of enterprise and contract. In England, the Combination Acts of 1799 and 1800 were passed, which explicitly prohibited workers’ organizations. In France, the famous Le Chapelier Law was passed in 1789, with the name of its author, which established the end of guilds and the freedom to exercise any job or trade and the freedom of enterprise. It also prohibited the creation of organizations or associations of entrepreneurs, artisans or workers.

In the rest of Europe and the United States, the process of creating unions was later. National unions emerged in the second half of the 19th century: in Germany there would be the General Association of German Workers of 1863, in the United States the AFL (American Federation of Labor) was created in 1886, and in 1895 the CGT (Confédération Générale du travail) was created. French.

In the late 19th century, the strength of trade unionism is evident, as evidenced by its struggle for the eight-hour day and the celebration of protests in large May Day demonstrations.

WORKERS’ ACHIEVEMENTS: “Rights are not begged, they are conquered”

Proletarian internationalism is one of the fundamental principles of the ideology of international solidarity of proletarians and workers around the world. Workers’ struggles are interconnected and victories in one part of the world become global. These are some of the rights conquered:
Universal suffrage: One of the most important contributions of workers’ parties was the extension of suffrage, transforming liberal states into liberal democratic states.
Elimination of child labor
Right to maternity and paternity leave
right to rest
paid annual vacation
Right to pension at the time of retirement
Right to collect unemployment if we lose our job
8 day shift
collective agreements
Political participation: Creation of unions and workers’ parties (socialists, communists)
Approval of laws that guarantee safety in factories.
The conquest of workers’ rights is the result of the struggle of labor and union organizations, which in contemporary times have sought to build a less unfair world in which the dignity of people and workers is recognized and protected.

These rights are recognized by the 1948 Declaration of Human Rights, in its article number 23, which summarizes them in four sections:

WORKERS’ RIGHTS

Human Right #23

Workers’ rights
Everyone has the right to work, to free choice of employment, to just and satisfactory conditions of work and to protection against unemployment.
Everyone is entitled, without any discrimination, to equal pay for equal work.
Every person who works has the right to just and satisfactory remuneration, which guarantees him and his family an existence worthy of human dignity, which will be supplemented, if necessary, by any other means of social protection.
Every person has the right to form trade unions and join trade unions for the defense of their interests.

THE STORY OF MAY 1

Chicago was the second largest city in the United States in the late 19th century. Thousands of unemployed farmers arrived by train from the west and southeast each year, creating the first humble villages that would house hundreds of thousands of workers. In addition, these urban centers welcomed emigrants from all over the world throughout the 19th century.

One of the basic demands of the workers was the 8-hour day. Making the maxim valid: “eight hours of work, eight hours of sleep and eight hours of home”. In this context, several movements took place, in 1829 a movement was formed to petition the New York legislature for the eight-hour day. Previously, there was a law that prohibited working more than 18 hours, except in cases of necessity. If there was no such need, any railroad company employee who forced a driver or fireman to work 18 hours a day was required to pay a fine of \$25.

The American Federation of Labor had resolved that, as of May 1, 1886, the legal length of the working day should be eight hours, going on strike if this demand was not met, and recommending that all unions attempting to enact laws to that effect in their jurisdictions. This resolution aroused the interest of organizations, which saw the possibility of obtaining a greater number of jobs with the eight-hour day, reducing unemployment.

Despite the United States government’s promise to meet workers’ demands, many states did not implement the workday reduction, causing 200,000 workers to go on strike on May 1, 1886, while another 200,000 achieved this achievement with the simple threat. of unemployment. This action was underestimated by the press, which carried out a campaign of discredit and defamation of the workers, calling them “unpatriotic”, lazy and criminal.

THE MARTYRS OF CHICAGO

In Chicago, clashes between scabs and strikers led to the intervention of the police, whose intervention killed six workers and injured a few others.

The editor of the Arbeiter Zeitung Fischer hurried to his paper where he wrote a proclamation that ended up calling a protest for the next day, the fourth, at four o’clock in the afternoon in Haymarket Square. This proclamation was:

Workers: the class war has begun. Yesterday, in front of the McCormik factory, workers were shot. Your blood calls for revenge! Who can doubt it, since the jackals that rule us are hungry for active blood? But workers are not a flock of sheep. Let’s respond to white terror with red terror! Death is preferable to misery. If the workers are shot, we will respond in such a way that the bosses will remember for a long time. It is necessity that makes us scream: To arms! Yesterday, the women and children of the poor wept for their husbands and fathers who had been shot, while in the palaces of the rich they filled glasses with expensive wine and drank to the health of the bandits of the order… Dry yourselves! your tears, those who suffer! Courage, slaves! Raise!

More than 20,000 people gathered in Haymarket Square and were repressed by 180 uniformed police officers. An explosive device exploded among the police, causing one death and several injuries. Police opened fire on the crowd killing and injuring an unknown number of workers.

A state of siege and a curfew were enacted, detaining hundreds of workers who were beaten and tortured, accused of murdering the policeman.

On June 21, 1886, proceedings began against 31 persons responsible, which later remained at 8. There were many irregularities in the trial, violating all procedural rules in form and substance, so much so that it came to be qualified as a farce trial. The courts were found guilty. Three of them were sentenced to prison and five to the gallows. Samuel Fielden, 39 years old, English, Methodist pastor and textile worker, sentenced to life imprisonment.
Oscar Neebe, American, 36 years old, salesman, sentenced to 15 years of hard labor.
Michael Schwab, German, 33 years old, typographer, sentenced to life in prison.
On November 11, 1887, the execution by hanging of: Georg Engel, German, 50 years old, typographer.
Adolf Fischer, German, 30 years old, journalist.
Albert Parsons, American, 39 years old, journalist, husband of Mexican Lucy González Parsons, although it was proven that he was not present at the scene, he turned himself in to be with his companions and was also tried.
August Vincent Theodore Spies, German, 31 years old, journalist.
Louis Lingg, German, 22 years old, carpenter committed suicide in his cell to avoid being executed.

LABOUR DAY
THE DESMEMORY,

Eduardo Galeano

..Chicago is full of factories. There are factories right in the center of the city, around the tallest building in the world. Chicago is full of factories, Chicago is full of workers.

Arriving in the Heymarket district, I ask my friends to show me the place where those workers were hanged in 1886, which the whole world hails every May Day.

It has to be this way, they tell me. But nobody knows.

No statues were erected in memory of the Chicago martyrs in the city of Chicago. No statues, no monoliths, no bronze plaques, nothing.

The first of May is the only truly universal day for all humanity, the only day on which all histories and all geographies, all languages ​​and religions and cultures of the world coincide; but in the United States, the first of May is an ordinary day.

On that day, people work normally, and no one, or almost no one, remembers that the rights of the working class did not come from the ear of a goat, nor from the hand of God or the boss.

After my futile exploration of Heymarket, my friends take me to the best bookstore in town. And there, out of pure curiosity, out of pure chance, I discover an old poster that is as if waiting for me, tucked away among so many other movies and music posters.

The poster reproduces a proverb from Africa:

“Until the lions have their own historians, hunting stories will continue to glorify the hunter.”

May 1st – Labor Day

More than ninety million customers visit Wal-Mart stores every week. Its more than 900,000 employees are banned from joining any union. When someone comes up with the idea, he becomes just another unemployed person. The successful company openly denies one of the human rights proclaimed by the United Nations: freedom of association. Wal-Mart founder Sam Walton received the Medal of Freedom in 1992, one of the highest honors in the United States.

One in four American adults and nine in ten children swallow plastic foods that make them fat at McDonald’s. McDonald’s employees are as disposable as the food they serve: they are chopped by the same machine. Nor do they have the right to unionize.

In Malaysia, where unions still exist and operate, Intel, Motorola, Texas Instruments and Hewlett Packard managed to avoid this nuisance. The Malaysian government declared the electronics union free.

Nor did the 190 workers who were burned to death in Thailand in 1993 in the locked shed where they made the Sesame Street dolls Bart Simpson and The Muppets have any chance of joining a union.

In their election campaigns in 2000, candidates Bush and Gore agreed on the need to continue imposing the American model of labor relations on the world. “Our style of work”, as both called it, is the one that sets the pace of globalization that advances with seven-league boots and penetrates to the most remote corners of the planet.

The technology, which abolished distance, now allows a Nike employee in Indonesia to work 100,000 years to earn what a Nike executive in the United States earns in a year.

It is a continuation of the colonial era, on a scale never before known. The world’s poor continue to fulfill their traditional function: they provide cheap weapons and cheap products, although now they produce dolls, sports shoes, computers or high-tech instruments, in addition to producing, as before, rubber, rice, coffee, sugar and other cursed things. by the world market.

Since 1919, 183 international agreements have been signed that regulate labor relations around the world. According to the International Labor Organization, of these 183 agreements, France has ratified 115, Norway 106, Germany 76 and the United States… fourteen. The country leading the globalization process obeys only its own orders. Thus, it guarantees sufficient impunity for its large corporations, launched into the hunt for cheap labor and the conquest of territories that dirty industries can contaminate at will. Paradoxically, this country that recognizes no law other than the illegal labor law is the one that now says there will be no choice but to include “social clauses” and “environmental protection” in free trade agreements.

What would reality be without the publicity that masks it?

These clauses are mere taxes that vice pays to virtue under the guise of public relations, but the mere mention of workers’ rights makes the most ardent advocates of starvation wages, rubber hours, and free layoffs stand on end. Since Ernesto Zedillo left the presidency of Mexico, he joined the boards of Union Pacific Corporation and the Procter & Gamble consortium, which operates in 140 countries. In addition, he heads a United Nations commission and publishes his thoughts in Forbes magazine: in technocratic language, he is outraged by “the imposition of homogeneous labor standards in new trade agreements”. Translated, this means: let’s forget once and for all the international legislation that still protects workers. The retired president is paid to preach slavery. But General Electric’s CEO is more direct: “To compete, you have to squeeze the lemons.” And it is not necessary to clarify that he does not work like a lemon in the reality show of the world of our time.

Faced with complaints and protests, companies wash their hands: I didn’t go. In postmodern industry, work is no longer concentrated. It is like that everywhere, and not just in private activity. Contractors make three-quarters of Toyota’s cars. Of every five Volkswagen workers in Brazil, only one is an employee of the company. Of the 81 Petrobras workers killed in work accidents at the end of the 20th century, 66 were working for contractors that do not meet safety standards. Through 300 contracting companies, China produces half of all Barbie dolls for girls in the world. In China there are unions, but they obey a state that, in the name of socialism, deals with the discipline of the workforce: “We fight worker unrest and social instability,

Economic power is more monopolized than ever, but countries and people compete in what they can: see who offers more for less, see who works twice as hard for half. On the side of the road are the remains of conquests uprooted by so many years of pain and struggle.

The maquiladora factories in Mexico, Central America and the Caribbean, which for some reason are called “sweat shops”, are growing at a much faster rate than the industry as a whole. Eight out of ten new jobs in Argentina are “in black”, without any legal protection. Nine out of ten new jobs across Latin America are in the “informal sector,” a euphemism for saying that workers are left to the mercy of God. Will job stability and other workers’ rights soon be a topic for archaeologists? No more than memories of an extinct species?

In the inverted world, freedom oppresses: freedom from money requires workers trapped in the prison of fear, which is the biggest prison of all prisons. The god of the market threatens and punishes; and any worker, anywhere, knows this well. Fear of unemployment, which is used by employers to reduce their labor costs and increase productivity, is now the most universal source of anxiety. Who is safe from the panic of being thrown into the long lines of job applicants? Who is not afraid of becoming an “internal obstacle”, to use the words of the Coca-Cola president, who explained the layoff of thousands of workers by saying that “we have eliminated internal obstacles”?

And as a series of questions, the last one: in the face of the globalization of money, which divides the world into tamers and tamers, will it be possible to internationalize the struggle for the dignity of work? What a challenge.
Eduardo Galeano / Uruguay

my may

To all

who took to the streets

From a tired machine-body,

To all

who beg holiday

At the back that the earth wears out –

First of May!

My world, in springs,

Melts the snow with jay sun.

I’m a worker –

This is my May!

I am a peasant – This is my month.